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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View Entire Issue (April 1, 1900)
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THE SUNDAY OHEGONIAN. PORTLAND. API
MORAL ASPECTS OF SOUTH AFRICAN WAR
By the Right Honorable W. E. H. LECKY. P.CMP, Aullior of a "History of Euro
pean Morals," "History of Rationalism In Europe." "History of England in
the Eighteenth Century." "Democracy and Liberty." Etc, Etc
"Written for the
There can, I think, be little doubt -what
course -would have been adopted by an
Intelligent military despotism had It exist
ed during: the last few years In the place
of England In South Africa, It would
have peremptorily forbidden the arming;
-which was going on in the Transvaal, and
If Its protests had been neglected It would
-have long: since enforced It by arms.
are statesmen who are of opinion
, land ought to have adopted such
, but I do not think that It would
a feasible one. It would have
Justification In the language
Conventions. It could only have
lon conjectural evidence, which
fully have been denied or mln-
It would at once have exposed us
Kharge of pursuing as a govern-
ffalnst the Transvaal the policy of
It would have profoundly alien
ated Dutch opinion In the Cape, and It
-would have excited a not less serious di
vision at home. It would not have been
a mere party division, but a division In
cluding much that Is best and most solid
In those classes who care little for party.
In this country it Is above all things
necessary for a government to carry pub
lic opinion with it Jn a war. The over--whelmlng
preponderance of opinion in
support of the necessity of the present
-war would not have been attained if Its
Immediate cause had not been a Boer
ultimatum, which It was manifestly im
possible for any self-respecting govern
ment to have accepted, followed by an
invasion of British territory, which It was
the manifest duty of every British Gov
ernment to repeL
For my own part, I am convinced that
the war had on the English side for some
time become inevitable, and could not
have been greatly postponed. It was im
possible that a British Government could
permanently Ignore the state of subjection
and inferiority to which a great body of
British subjects at Johannesburg had
been reduced. The grievances of the Ult
landers have, no doubt, been greatly ex
aggerated. Their position was not like
that of the Armenians under Turkish rule.
They went to the Transvaal to make
money, and they did make It. The capi
talists accumulated enormous fortunes.
The industrial classes obtained probably
a higher rate of wages than in any other
country, and Johannesburg was a great
center of luxury and pleasure. But the
government was a detestable one. A long
series of progressive disqualifications had
deprived the English population of every
vestige of political power and subjected
them to numerous and Irritating disabil
ities. The Transvaal remained the only
part of South Africa where one white race
-Was held in a position of Inferiority to
another. Considering the distinct prom
ise of equality that was made when Eng
land conferred a limited independence on
the Transvaal; considering the position of
England in South Africa, and the perfect
equality granted to Dutch subjects, in
our own colonies, it was impossible that
the British Government could acquiesce
In this state of things, and once they
formally took up the grievances of the
Ultlanders, l "in became evident from
government at Pre-
solutlon was ex-
Inly two policies for
Fnment to pursue.
rented, a President
. the Orange Free State.
o government at the
, In that case It is
ry that the Inde
ral would not have
been in the smallest danger. Or they
might have governed in a spirit of habit
ual alienation, which would inevitably
lead to a pol'cy of hostility. To throw
themselves in every disputable point Into
opposition to England, to seek incessantly
alliances against her, and to turn the
Transvaal Into a great military arsenal.
was the policy which for several years
they manifestly pursued.
The dislike and distrust of England by
the Transvaal Boers was no recent feel
ing, though it was intensified" by several
tacts in our own generation. It was a
deep traditional popular sentiment, which
may be clearly traced as far back as the
great trek. Neither the grant of a quali
fied Independence after Majuba nor the
Btill larger extension of self-government
which, without any pressure, was granted
to the Transvaal by Lord Derby, in the
convention of 1SS1, in any degree mitigated
It. When, most unfortunately, the great
gold mines were discovered within Its
border in 16S6, the conditions of the prob
lem were wholly changed. The Transvaal
at once became a wealthy and powerful
state. The rude and Ignorant farmers
who then formed the bulk of its popula
tion had neither the tastes nor the ca
pacities that would enable them to de
velop Its wealth, and they gladly made
concessions and Issued Invitations to the
"Ultlanders. A great population, whicn
was mainly English, collected on the
Band, built a large and stately city.
raised the country to vast wealth, and
paid nearly the whole of its taxation. A
Oargo portion of this new population were
permanently established In the land. But
the Boer Government was Incapable of
giving them tolerable administration, and
firmly resolved to give them no political
power and no real local self-government.
Disqualification after disqualification ut
terly unknown when England conceded
self-government to "the Inhabitants of
the Transvaal" was introduced. Laws
raising the qualification for citizenship
from two to 14 years' residence; sur
rounding It with a number of vexatious
and arbitrary conditions; Interfering with
the press, with public meetings, and with
the right of residence, and reducing the
law courts to utter servitude by giving
a simple resolution of the small Dutch
"Volksraad all the force of law, clearly
showed the policy of the government, and
thero were abuses In administration
which were probably even more irritating
than the abuses in legislation.
In the long run this could have but one
result. The Transvaal Government was
not only different from, but profoundly
hostile to. the whole colonial system of
England. English -colonies are essentially
Industrial and pacific They rely for their
security upon the largest possible exten
sion of representation and self-govern
ment, and the military element in them s
reduced to the smallest dimensions. It
has long been the policy of the home gov
ernment to withdraw all regular troops
from them and to intrust their Internal
protection to colonial militias. In Africa,
native wars and the presence of a great
native population retarded this policy, but
still it was very nearly attained, and it
was the object at which Colonial Secre
taries had constantly aimed. But of late
years there had grown up on our frontiers
a powerful military state, animated by a
directly opposite policy. The Transvaal
had been turned into a gigantic and most
formidable arrenal. The political disqual
ification of the English race was the very
corner-stone of its policy. It raised an
annual revenue greatly in excess of what
was required for Its internal government
from unrepresented Englishmen, to whom
the prosperity of the state was mainly
due. and it employed that revenue in ac
cumulating a great armament which could
only be intended, for use against England-.
The events of the last months have
shown that it had become incomparably
the most powerful state in South Africa.
and that if w) had been engaged in a
serious European war the English colo
nies would have been at Its mercy. The
affairs of this state were largely directed
by ambltlouB foreigners, and its govern
ing race regarded the English with pro
found suspicion and dislike. On every
Question that arose between the two coan-
New York Times.
tries this distrust was shown, and more
than once, even before the Jameson raid,
the policy of the Transvaal had brought
the two powers to the verge of war.
The effect of this on the Dutch popula
tion In the British colonies was very se
rious. For my own part, I do not believe
there was any wide conspiracy against
England among the Cape Dutch. Being
placed in a position of complete equality
with the English, they had absolutely no
grievance; unlike the Transvaal Boers,
they belonged to the same typo and level
of civilization as ourselves; they had the
same Industrial and pacific character;
they understood excellently the conditions
of constitutional government, and I believe
the majority of them were perfectly loyal
to the British Empire. When the troubles
became acute, a Dutch ministry was In
power, and the Prime Minister, Mr.
Schrelner, representing the Dutch major
ity In Parliament and In the constituen
cies, found himself in one of the most
difficult positions that can be conceived.
I believe that be has acted the part of a
very honorable man. It Is, it is true, a
mqst anomalous thing, that the Prime
Minister of a British colony should have
proclaimed his determination to preserve
It neutral when a great war against the
British Empire was raging on Its border,
and up to a very recent period he refused
to stop military munitions from passing
to the Orange Free State. But In this he
was at least acting on the strict letter of
the law. His situation was so exceptional
that the largest allowance should be made,
and he deserves great credit for his at
tempts to maintain the peace and restrain
his own people from Insurrection. Com
munity of race and of language, and the
ties of blood springing from numerous In
termarriages, bound the Colonial Dutch
closely to the two republics, and there
has unquestionably been, of late years, an
active and not unsuccessful propagandlsm
directed to a Dutch ascendency throughout
South Africa. In most countries, in the
present generation, a spirit of separate
nationality, and especially of nationality
based on race and language, has Seen
strengthening, and ambitious politicians
and newspaper writers have been stimu
lating the distinctly Dutch element at the
Cape. It is evident how formidable this
element was encouraged by the unrest of
the Transvaal, by Its rapidly growing mil
itary power, by the humiliating spectacle
of the abortive efforts of England to ob
tain the common rights of her own people.
Another fact also enormously added to the
danger. The surrender after Majuba was
made, I believe, through perfectly honest
motives, but it has proved a great calamity
to the world. Following as it did the most
distinct official assurances that England
would never surrender the Transvaal or
abandon the English who had settled there,
it shook through the length and breadth
of South Africa nil confidence In English
strength and resolution, and It has been
one of the clearest and most undoubted
causes of the present war.
I am far from contending that our con
duct in other respects was Impeccable.
There are several pages In the history of
the early Engl'sh dealings In the Trans
vaal which are by no means to our credit.
A mining population like that which had
Its center in Johannesburg Is never of the
most desirable order, and In the present
generation, financial speculation has mixed
far too much, both In England and In
Africa, with South African politics. Party
spirit runs violently In the Cape, and If
there wis a Dutch party aiming at com
plete ascendency, there was also. an Eng
lish party which wps violent, arrogant
and unscrupulous. The raid, though It
was undoubtedly preceded by gross mls
govcrnment, was both a great folly and a
great crime. Our government had nothing
to nay to it, and the men who took part
in it were tr'ed and punched, but a sec
tion of the British public, shamefully mis
led by a very important nart of the British
pre.-, adopted an attitude toward It which
added largely and most naturally to the
deep distrust of England which prevailed
In the Transvaal. I da not think that the
government can be Justly blamed for not
having prosecuted Mr. Rhodes. Though It
is undoubtedly true that he prepared nnd
contemplated a raid, the actual expedition
was undertaken not only without his as
sent, but even without his knowledge; his
complicity In the early stages could only
be established by his own frank and vol
untary statements before a Parliamentary
Inquiry, and It Li quite certain that on
such grounds no English Jury would have
convicted him. He had rendered great
services to the empire In the past, and
there was much that was fascinating In
his genius and his daring. But he had
dene things In connection with the- raid
which should have prevented a portion of
London society from making him a hero,
or an English minister from publicly ac
quitting him of all dishonorable conduct
Such language was at once made use of by
thp enemies of England in South Africa,
and It had the wore! effect upon the Boers.
I do not think, however, that these
things made the wnr. An Incurable an
tagonism of sentiment, typo and Ideals had
grown up, and the situation I have de
scribed lnevltatly led to a collision. Mee
Isolated Incidents, mere technical ques
tions, have played too large a part In the
discussions on this subject, nnd It can be
best Judged by looking on Its broad feat
ures. In England no responsible politic
ian desired the war. and almost to the
last moment very few believed in it. There
was not. I believe, the smallest desire
among the ministers to annex the Trans
vaal, but there was a determination to
put an end to the bad government at Jo
hannesburg and to the constant unrest
which It produced, and to secure for the
English-speaking population the same kind
of privileges which were enjoyed by the
Dutch In our own colonies. When, after
the raid, the High Commissioner exhorted
the Ultlanders to disarm, he promised In
the name of the British Government.' to
endeavor to obtain a redress of their griev-
mrcra. uui, insieaa or redress, those
grievances In the most essential respects
had been steadily aggravated. A more
patient policy might for a time have post
poned the crisis, but it could scarcely have
averted It, and there Is much force In
the contention of Sir Alfred Mllner that
the evil was a growing one. and that the
raiiure of the government to carry their
point was undermining all the remaining
confidence which the surrender after Ma
juba had left.
v,,ShSria!.n i!a" been stacked in
England with a vindictive party virulence
which no other man of our ti ,--
perienced. while in the Continental press
..., -"" ": duping into a mythol
ogical being of infinite wickedness and
power, cajoling, betravinc- or vuri. -
about him. I do not think that during the
long course of these negotiations he has
been always Judicious, but I am convinced
that he has sincerely labored for no..
and that In its broad lines his policy has
been Just and moderate. As early as 1S9S.
in a speech which has constantly been
quoted against him. he insisted in the
strongest terms on the evils that must
necessarily follow a war In the Trans
vaal, especially if that war did not carry
with it the Dutch opinion in the Cape. In
my own belief, the best solution of the
South African question that has ever been
t proposed was the conversion of Johannesburg-
Into a distinct municipality, giving
the Ultlander population sn unarmed po
lice, the power of spending in the manner
they desired the school rates which thiy
paid, and of regulating their other local
affairs. There was a time when such an
arrangement would have been accepted by
the Ultlanders without any Intervention
In the general executive or even any vne
In the Volksraad. This was the policy on
which Mr. Chamberlain specially and re
peatedly insisted, and it would have put
an end to nine-tenths of the grievances
that were really felt. But it was absoluto-
ly rejected at Pretoria. After this, the
franchise question ma placed In the fore-
front, chiefly because the Government be
lieved that by this means the Ultlanden
would be able to secure their rights with
out any further Intervention from Eng
land. The British Government was per
fectly prepared to acquiesce In an ar
rangement which would have strictly lim
ited the TJltlander representation to a
fourth, or even a fifth, part of the Volks
raad, and they were ready at the same
time to give the fullest and most formal
guarantee of the Independence of the
Transvaal. If this had been accepted
frankly and unreservedly the war would
never have taken place. Whatever con
troversy there may be about the possi
bility of English statesmanship averting
It, there can at least be no doubt that the
statesmen of the Transvaal could have
done so by giving only a small portion of
the rights which the Dutch possessed In
the British Colonies, and with full security
of Boer supremacy In the executive and in
But the proposals of England were either
evaded or disdainfully rejected. The ab
surd demand after the raid for an enor
mous compensation on the ground of
"moral and Intellectual damages" showed
clearly the spirit that animated the pre
dominant party. The concession of a
seven vears' franchise that was at last
made was surrounded with conditions that
would have probably reduced it to a nul
lity. The very reasonable request that
English representatives in the Volksraad
might use their own language was per
emptorily rejected, and at last negotia
tions were cut off by an ultimatum of as
tontshlng arrogance and by the invasion
That there have been great miscalcula
tions In the war cannot be reasonably de
nied. The. strong belief In England that
the crisis would ultimately be averted;
the anxiety not to push on military prep
arations to a point that might destroy all
chance of peace; the skepticism of soldiers
about the possibility of an Irregular force
encountering disciplined armies; the per
suasion that the Orange Free State, which
had no possible ground of quarrel with
England, would not risk Its Independence
by rushing Into the war, combined with a
great underestimate of the strength and
numbers that could be brought Into the
field against us. What force the Boer
generals have actually commnnded. cannot
as yet be accurately known, but It can
scarcely be less than CO.OOO men. Such a
force of most brave and tenacious men,
armed with the very beit weapons that
military service can furnish, trained from
early childhood to be admirable horsemen
and shots, and led with consummate skill,
was far more powerful than nny we could.
In the first weeks of the war. put Into
action, and it -was able to give the earlier
stages a direction most fatal to England.
The Inequality between the British Empire
and the two Dutch Republics was no
doubt enormous, but the war had to be
carried on 7000 miles from our shores, and
in a vast mountainous country, where
the difficulties of communication and
transport were almost Insuperable, and
where the peculiar character of Boer
fighting could be displayed to the best ad
vantage! Intelligent opinion In England Is
not, I think, at all disposed to underrate
the admirable skill and courage with
which the two republics availed them
selves of these advantages. But, though
the war has brought to England disap
pointment and humiliation, it has also
brought with it some consolation. It has
at least -shown that the British soldier
has lost none of his old fighting qualities;
that the country nt large retains In dis
aster Its old character of resolution, self
sacrifice and coolness of Judgment, nnd
also that a unity of spirit to which Mr.
Chamberlain has very largely contributed
has grown up between our colonies and
ourselves, which Is the best omen for the
future. Whatever may have been In other
respects the shortcomings of our W ar or
flce. It has at least been no small achieve
ment to have organized In so short a
time and transported to so sreat a dis
tance an army not lesw than 1K0.000 men.
It is probable that before these lines
come into arlnt the ispects of this most
deplorable war will have greatly changed,
end It is at all events much too soon to
attempt to forecast its Issue. The deter
mination of the country to carry it to
a decisive victory is unquestionable, and
the Government has declared that its
two ends are the equality of the white
races in South Africa, and a substantial
security that no renewal of a war like
the present can occur. Beyond this, it
seems to me at present most unwise to go,
and the final pacification of the Transvaal
is a task which must tax the highest re
sources of statesmanship. On the whnle.
the most intelligent English politicians
believe that It may be nccompllihed. They
have great faith In political freedom and
good administration. They believe that
when the Dutch population In the Trans
vaal find that they are left perfectly un
molested on their farms, that they have
the fullest political equality with the
English, and that they are governed far
better, more wisely, and more- honestly
than In the past, the Hl-fecllng between
tho two races will speedily settle down.
They think that the present war will have
taught them to respect each other, and
that a progressive and enlightened govern
ment will ultimately prove a stronger
thing than one which was In extreme
opposition to all the best tendencies of
tho time. They hope to establish under
the British flag a large system of local
autonomy and create some form of feder
ation like that of Canada or Australia.
The future alone can show whether these
hopes are too sanguine. We are dealing
with one of the strongest and most stub
born races In the world the descendants
of the old Dutch race.of the Eighty Tears'
War, strengthened by a largo Infusion of
French Huguenots. They are passionately
devoted to their independence, marked
out by a very distinctive type from the
English around them, and fortified by
the form of religion which beyond all
others Indurates the character and the
will. Nowhere else In the world does tho
stern Covenanter spirit of the seventeenth
century so fully survive.
It Is Idle to think of coercing perman
ently a peoplo of this kind, scattered over
a vast territory many hundreds 'of miles
from Cape Town. The two races In South
Africa must for all future time live to
gether, and some harmonlqus modus Viv
endi must be discovered, if the prosper
ity of South Africa Is to be revived. In
my opinion. It Is altogether premature
to discuss in detail the nature of this
settlement on which the future off the
continent must depend.
W. E. H. LECKY.
Note. Mr. Lccky. the foremost writer
of critical nnd dispassionate history, ap
proaches this particular subject with more
than average disposition to do full Justice
to both sides. Through his wife, a Dutch
lady of conspicuous talent, he has access
to the pro-Boer point of view; and ho is
also one of the few leading British states
men who have known personally -Paul
Kruger and other Transvaal leaders. Ed
If you have a frarrant flower
In your heart's own garden Kiomi
For your friend, and some bright hour
Mean to make It all her own.
Do not wait; the lllled coHn
Sees no wreath: dear heart! learn how,
love's best bloaaoms may be given
Better silence by the caket.
Funeral eulogy unsaid.
Than the living lips that ask it
Lick the words that's merited.
Death reads no bltuary.
Hears no requiem; learn how
Pralss to speak pre-mortuary;
Speak It now.
Better coffin plain and nowerlexi
Holding one whoce life was filled
Full of fragrance. Gifts are powerless
When the beating- heart la lUlled.
Kiss belated, love post-mortem.
Cannot saooth the furrowed brow:
Garlands throw no backward perfume;
Wreathe tbem now.
Xo Necessity, Then.
"No." she said, "I wouldn't marry you
If your pockets were lined with gold."
"In which event," he replied. "I
wouldn't bo proposing." Philadelphia
IN THE CHURCHES TODAi
TOPIC AT FIIIST COXGIIEGATIOXAL,
"TUB UNIQUE SAVIOR."
Or. Blackburn Will Preach on "The
Ministry of Reconciliation"
Church Directory and Xerrs.
The morning. topic at the First Congre
gational Church will be "The Gospel of
the Unique Savior." Tho evening subject
will be "On Making Excuses." The mu
sical programme follows :
Morning Organ prelude. "Andante Gra
zloso" (W. Porter); anthem. "Onward,
Christian Soldiers" (Schnecke); response.
"The Lord's Prayer": offertory (contralto
solo and quartet), "Lo, It Is I" (Faure
Shelley); postlude (Binck).
Evening Organ prelude, "Romance"
Shelley): anthem (baritone solo and quar
tet), "Savior, When Night Involves the
Skies" (Shelley): offertory (duet for so
prano and tenor), "Peace to This Sacred
Dwelling" (Smith): postlude (choir),
"Roman March" (Clark). W. A. Mont
gomery, director; Ralph W. Hoyt, organ
ist. First Baptist Church.
At the First Baptist Church. Rev. Alex
ander Blackburn, D. D., the pastor, will
preach at 10:30. on "The Ministry of Rec
onciliation." Communion and reception of
members will be held at 7:30 P. M. The
subject will be, "Some Bible Fools." Sun
day School at noon, J. G. Malone, super
intendent, Toung People's meeting at 6:30.
Subject. "Always Ready": leader. J. H.
Mendenhall. Music Professor W. M.
Wllder. organist and director:
Morning Preludlum, "Larghetto Canta
blle" (Wallace); hymn anthem, "The Mate
Chorus"; offertolre, andantlno In B-nat
(White); song, chorus; postludlum, "Pro
cessional March" (Batiste).
Evening Preludlum, "Largo From
Xexes" (Handel): hymn, anthem, male
chorus; offertolre, "A Dream of Heaven"
(Meyer); song, chorus; postludlum (Ley
bach). Tho revival meetings held during the
past two weeks have been of such In
terest that they will continue during the
week to come. The preaching will be by
the pastor, and Professor Wilder will con
duct the music
Grace Methodist Church.
At Grace Methodist Episcopal Church
Rev. Hugh D. Atchison, the pastor, will
preach In the morning on "The Demand
of the Religious Instinct Show Us the
Father," and at 7:30 on "The Blessing on
the Pure In Heart." Sunday School at
11:15, with JJlble classes for adults, one
for young men led by the pastor. Ep
worth League prayer meeting, at 6:30.
The following musical programme will be
rendered by the choir, under the direction
of Miss Blanche Sorenson. with Mrs. E.
M- Bergen as organist:
Morning "Quartet" (Haydn); anthem
(soprano solo and tenor and alto duet),
"How Gentle God's Commands" (Gabriel):
offertory, "Chant du Paysan" (Rendans):
soprano solo, "Bethlehem" (Coombs).
Miss Ella Hoberg; organ, "Abbey March"
Evening Organ, "Romance" (Shelley);
anthem, "Praise the Lord" (Gabriel): of
fertory. "Cantilane Nuptials" (Arm
strong); organ. "Marche aux Flambeaux."
Sunnysldo Methodist Church will con
clude the week of special services today.
Rev. R, R. Dunlap will preach at 11
o'clock, and the pastor will preach In the
evening. The Sabbath School will con
vene at 10 o'clock. C. A. Gatzka, super
intendent. The Epworth League devo
tional service at 6:30 will be conducted by
the president, W. R. Insley, and his sub
ject will be Illustrated with a large draw
ing, 10 feet square. Special music will be
furnished, as follows:
Morning Prelude. "Charity" (S. Glov
er); anthem. "Wake the Song" (McPhall);
offertory. "Traumerel" (Schumann); solo.
Professor C A. Walker; postlude (Wag
ner). Evening Prelude in D (Hatton); an
them. " 'Twas In tho Watches of the
Night" (Nelson): offertory. "Andante"'
(Thomas); postlude. "March" (Battman).
Professor C. A. Walker, leader; 1L D.
This week Is full at the Unitarian
Church. Monday afternoon and evening
Mr. and Mrs. Lord will receive their
friends as usual. Tuesday evening the
literary branch of the Toung People's
Fraternity meets; subject, "George Mere
dith's Life." On Wednesday afternoon at
2:30 the Women's Auxiliary will hold
Its monthly meeting. Mr. Lord will give
an address upon "Birds." The public Is
cordially Invited to this meeting. At 4
o'clock the confirmation class meets; sub
ject, "Jesus the Prophet." Thursday
evening at 7:45 the midweek Lenten serv
ice will be given; subject, "A Lesson
From the Life and Lips of Jesus 'Fear
Not. Little Flock.'" Friday evening at
7:30 the special organization having
charge of the benevolent work of the
church will meet In the chapel. Music for
Anthem, "I Will Call Upon Thee"
(Buck); gloria (E. Howe); offertory. "O
Lord. My God" (Roeckel); "Nunc Dlmlt
First Christian Church.
At the First Christian Church Rev. J.
F. Ghormley will take for his morning
theme. "The Royal Priesthood," and In
tho evening he will deliver his first lec
ture on "The Law of Psychic Phenom
ena." His theme will be "The Soul; Its
Whence and Whither." New members
will bo received Into the fellowship of
the church at both services. Special mu
sical programmes have been arranged for
both morning and evening, by W. F.
Werschkul, musical director, and Mrs.
Ella Jones, organist.
Tho Ladles' Aid Society gave their
monthly social tea at the residence of
Mrs. O. H. Smith. 610 Market street, Tues
day evening. A large number were pres
ent. It was a very enjoyable evening of
recitation and song and refreshments.
The building fund was increased by sev
The young people of the First Christian
Church will have charge of the social at
the Y. M. C. A.. April 20. In the evening.
They will render a literary and musical
The series of sermons to be presented
on Sunday evenings by the pastor. Rev.
J. F. Ghormley, on "The Law of Psychic
Phenomena," will be of a high order, and
no doubt will attract large audiences. The
first In the series will be given this even
ing, and tho specific topic will be, "Tho
Soul: Its Whence and Whither."
The chorus under W. F. Werschkul is
doing efficient work. Work on the Easter
music Is well under way, and this year
the programme will be exceptionally fine.
Rev. G. A. Blair will occupy his pulpit.
First Cumberland Presbyterian Church.
Morning subject, "Food for Christians."
After a short sermon the sacrament of
the Lord's Supper will be administered.
Evening subject, "Story of the Shuna
mltl's Son." Miss Bella Sharp will recite
in connection with this service. There
will be good music.
Rev. N. Shupp, of Salem, will occupy
the pulpit of the Memorial Evangelical
Church this evening. The former pastor.
.R. D. Streyfeller. has gone East, and his
pulpit will be permanently filled by Rev.
A. J. Smith, who has been appointed by
the Indiana conference. He Is expected to
arrive In Portland by next Sunday.
A. SI. E, Zlon.
Services at the A. M. E. Zlon Church
will be Interesting. Rev. Erring Swan
will occupy the pulpit at both services.
The theme In the morning will be, "A
Pardonable God," and In the evening the
subject will be. "Salvation."
At the MlssCssippl-Avenue Congregation
al Church the pastor. Rev. G. A. Taggart.
I, will preach la the morning- on, "Winning
The Best Goods Least Money
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One hundred different styles of Iron and Brass
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COME AND SEE OUR
Souls': In tho evening, "Wash and Be
Clean." Special revival services have been
held during the past two weeks, nnd will
continue Indefinitely. The Sunday even
ing service will be especially evangelistic
In nature. Special music will be rendered
In connection with the evening service.
St. David's Church.
The Rev. George B. Van "Waters will
preach at the 11 o'clock service on, "Pun
ishment for Sin." At the evening service
his topic will be, "Compassion." Services
at St. David's Church this week as fol
lows: Monday. Tuesday. Thursday and
Saturdny at 4 P. M., and on "Wednesday
and Friday at 7:20 P. M.
At the Unitarian Church this morning,
the minister. Rev. William R. Lord, will
officiate and preach. Confirmation class
at 1230: subject, "The Bible and Bibles."
At the Young People's Fraternity at 7
o'clock the subject will be, "The Average
The First Spiritualist Society will meet
at the Ablngton building at 11 o'clock
conference, lyceum 12:15, evening service
7:13. Colonel Reld will lecture.
Dr. Kellogg will preach morning and
evening at the Taylor-Street M. E
Church. On Sunday morning. In connec
tion with the morning sermon the sacra
ment of the Lord'a Supper will be ad
ministered. In the evening a sermon sult
nblo to everybody will be preached. An
old-fashioned love-feast will be held Sun
day morning at 9:30. On Tuesday even
ing the cantata. "Queen Esther," will be
given In this church.
Rev. Ray Palmr will preach at the Sec
ond Baptist Church at 11 o'clock on,
"Christ Standing In Our Stead." In the
evening his theme will be, "The Sinner"!
Attorney m the Court of Final Appeal."
Services will be held at 11 A. M. and
8 P. M. at the Home ot Truth, 3 Thir
teenth street. Demonstration meeting.
Tuesday, at 3 P. M., the class commenc
ing April 9.
Rev. O. Olsen, delegate from Norway
to the general conference of the 31. E.
Church, which will meet In Chicago next
month, will preach In the First Norwe
gian and Danish M. E. Church, Thir
teenth nnd Davis streets, at 11 A. M. and
7:30 P. M., and In the Second Norwegian
and Danish Church. Russell and Flint
streets, at 3 P. M. He will deliver a free
lecture In First Church Saturday even
ing. March 31, on "Has Christ Been Mis
taken in His Second Coming?"
Services will be held at 7:30 o'clock at
Gospel Hall, 23S Sixth street
The usual corporate communion of the
Brotherhood of St. Andrew will take place
this morning at St. Mark's Church.
Mrs. Kate Bufflngton Davis, of Minne
apolis, will lecture tonight at S o'clock In
the Unitarian Chapel, upon "Life After
Death." Mrs. Davis having devoted many
years to tho study of theosophy. Is well
qualified to speak on tnts subject- Tho
lecture is under the auspices of tho local
branch. Mount Hood Theosophlcal Socie
ty. No admission fee will be charged.
Appointed Anlntnnt Rector.
Rev. C H. Lake, of St. Stephen's
Church, Baker City, has nccepted a call
to be assistant minister of Trinity Church.
Second Rev. Ray Palmer, pas
tor. Preaching at 1030 and 7:30; Sunday
School, 12; Junior, Union. 330; Young
people. 6:30; prayer, Thursday, 7:30;
Christian culture class, Thursday, 8:30.
Calvary Rev. Ebcn M. Bliss, pastor.
Services. 10:30 and 7:30; Sunday school,
11:15: B. Y. P. U., C:30; prayer, Thursday,
Grace (Montavllla) Rev. N. S. Holl
croft, pastor. Services, 7:30 P. M.; Sunday
school, 10; prayer, Thursday. 8.
Park Place (University Park) Rev. N.
S. Hollcroft. pastor. Services, 11; Sunday
school. 10; Junior meeting, 3.
Immanuel Rev. Stanton C. Lapman.
pastor. Preaching, 10:30 and 7:30: Sunday
school, 11:45; Young People's meeting. 630.
Third Sunday school at 10, George E.
Jamison, superintendent; preaching at 3
by Rev. N. S. Holecroft, of the Grace
Rodney-Avenue Rev. A. D. Skaggs, pas
tor. Services. 11 and 7:30; Sunday school.
9:43: Junior Y. P. S. C E.. 3; Y. P. &
C E.. 6:30; prayer. Thursday. 730.
First Rev. J. F. Ghormley. pastor.
Services. 10:13 and 7:43; Sunday school.
12:15; T. P. S. C. E.. 630.
Woodlawn (Madrona) Rev. A. D.
Skaggs, pastor. Services, 3 P. M.
First Church of Christ (Scientist). 317
Dekum building Services at 11 A. M. and
730 P. M. Subject of sermon, "Matter";
children's Sunday school, 12; Wednesday
meeting, 8 P. M.
Portland Church of Christ (Scientist).
Auditorium Services. 11 and S: subject,
"Are Sin, Disease and Death Real?": Sun
day school, 12; Sunday and Wednesday
evening meetings, 8.
German Rev. John Koch, pastor. Serv
ices. 1030 and 7:30: Sunday school, 9:30;
Y. P. S. C E., Tuesday, 730; prayer,
Sunnyslde Rev. J. J. Staub, pastor
Services. 11 and 7:30: Sunday school. 10;
Young People's Society. 6:30; prayer,
Hassalo-Strcet Rev. R; W. Fartjuhar.
pastor. Services, 10:30 and 730; Sunday
school. 12; Y. P. S. C E., 6:30; prayer,
Mlsslsslppl-A venue Rev. George A. Tag.
gart, pastor. Services, 11 and 7:30; Sun
FIRST STREET 4-STORY RED BLOCK
JENNING & SONS
day school. 10: Juniors, 3; Y. P. S. C. E,
630; prayer. Thursday.- 7:30.
First Park and Madison streets. Rev.
Arthur W. Ackerman, pastor. Services.
10:30 A. M. and 7:30 P. M-: Sunday School,
12:15 P. M.; Y. P. S. a F. 6:15 P. M.
St. Stephen's Chapel Rev. Thomas Nell
Wilson, clergyman In charge. Morning
prayer and sermon, 11; evening services,
730: Sunday school, 9:45; holy communion,
after morning service on first Sunday In
Church of the Good Shepherd Services
at 11 by Rev. E. T. Simpson.
Trinity Rev. Dr. A. A. Morrison, rec
tor. Sunday school, 930; litany and Holy
Communion, 11; evening prayer and ser
St. Da"ld's Rev. George B. Van j
Waters, rector. Holy communion, 7;
Sunday school. 9:45; morning prayer and
sermon, 11; evening prayer and sermon, .
St, Mark's Rev. John E. Simpson, rec
tor. Holy communion. 7:35; Sunday school,
10; morning prayer, litany and sermon, 11;
evening prayer, 7:30.
St. Matthew's Rev. J. W. Weatherdon.
clergyman In charge. Holy communion.
S: Sunday School, 9:45; morning service
and sermon, 11; evening service. 7:30.
St, Andrew's Sermon, 3:15, by Dr. Judd.
Emanuel (German) rlev. E. D. Horn
schuch, pastor. Services. 11 and 730;
Sunday school. 10: prayer, Wednesday,
7:30; Y. P. A.. Friday. 7:30.
First (German) Rev. F. T. Harder, pas.
tor. Services. 11 nnd 7:30: Sunday school.
9:30; Y. P. A 6:43; revival services all the
week at 730 P. M.
Memorial Rev. R. D. Streyfeller. pas
tor. Sunday services. 11 and 7:30: Sunday
school. 10; Y. P. A.. 6:30; Junior Y. P. A
3; prayer meeting. Wednesday. 7:30; young
people's prayer. Thursday. 730.
East Yamhill Mission Rev. Peter Din
ner, pastor. Services. 11 and 7:30: Sunday
school 10; K. L. C. E., 6:30; prayer,
Thursday, 7:30; Junior League, Saturday,
First United Rev. C. T. Hurd. pastor.
Services. 11 nnd 730; Sunday school, 10,
K. L. C E-. 630; prayer. Thursday. 7:30.
Second Rev. H. A. Deck, pastor. Serv
ices. 11 and 7:30; Sunday school, 10; Key
stone League. 6:30; prayer, Wednesday,
Friends, East Thirty-fourth and Salmon
streets Rev. A. M. Bray, pastor. Serv
ices. 10:45 and 730; Sunday school. 12; Y.
P. S. C E., 6:30; prayer. Wednesday, 7:30.
German Trinity, Alblna Rev. Theodore
Fleckensteln. pastor. Preaching. 10:30 and
730; Sunday school. 330.
Immanuel (Swedish) Rev. John W.
Skans. pastor. Preaching at 10:30 and 8.
St, Paul's Evangelical (German) Rev. j
August Krause, pastor. Preaching, 10:30 j
and 7:30; Sunday school, 930; Bible study. f
x nursuay. i ;u.
Zion's (German) Services. 10 and 730;
Sunday school. 930; Christian day school,
Monday to Friday.
St. James's (English) Rev. Charles S.
Rahn. pastor. Services. 11 and 7:30; Sun
day school. 12:15.
Second German Rev. Charles Prleslng.
pastor. Services. 10:13 and 7:30: Sunday
school, 9:30; prayer, Thursday, 7:30.
Taylor-Street (Flrst)-Rev. H. W. Kel-
The WEAR AND
liver (2), pains in stomach or disordered digestion (3), fluttering
of heart (4), pale, wan face (5), hollow, bleary eyes (6), head
aches or dizziness (7), coated tongue (8)? Are you weak, ner
vous, melancholy, gloomy, is your sleep disturbed? Do you lack
confidence in yourself? These are all weak-nerve symptoms
that Hudyan cures.
Hudyan's effect is unlike that of any other remedy. Hudyan
makes one hearty, robust, strong.
.r-r ui irtVAN From your druggist. DOc a package, six packages for 12.50.
UCI nUUlrtll If your druggist does not keep It. send direct to the HUD
YAN REMEDY CO.. corner Stockton, Ellis and Market streets, San Francisco, CaL
Consult Hudyan Doctors About Your Case Free of Charge. .Write.
Ilvf 111! Ulna r BnflH Bn BaV a 18
II J B lyl 1 1 tjk jj LI H a I ID oJSi
a Trial Treatment. Freo of Charge, of the most remarkable remedy ever discovered. Con
talnsOreat Vital Principle, heretofore nnknown. Refractory CasolIdOcn
tisl correjprradenco invited from all, especially rbyslciaus. ST. JAMtS EOUETi, U81
BEOADWAY, MEW YOBE. -
Iogg. D. D.. pastor. Services, 1030 and
730; Sunday school. 12:13; Epworth
league and prayer meeting, 630; Subord
nate League. 3.
Centenary Rev. L E. Rockwell, pastor.
Services. 10:30 and 730; Sunday school, 12;
Epworth League, 6:30; prayer, Thursday.
Central Rev. W. T. Kerr, pastor. Serv
ices. 10:45 and 7:30; Sunday school, 12:15;
Epworth League. 6:30; prayer, Thursday.
Mount Tabor Rev. A.- S. Mulllran. pas
tor. Services. 11 and 7:30; Epworth
League, 630; Junior Epworth League, 3;
prayer, Thursday. 7:30. '
Sunnyslde Rev. S. A. Starr, pastor.
Services, 11 nnd 7:30: Sunday school. 10;
general class. 12:15; Epworth League, 6:30;
prayer. Thursday. 7:30.
Trinity Rev. A. L. Hawley. pastor.
Sen-Ices, 10:45 and 7:30: Sunday school,
9:40; Epworth League, 6:30; prayer. Thurs
Shlloh Mission Rev. J. H. Allen. su
perintendent. Services. 10:30 and 7:30.
Mlzpah Rev. W. T. Wardle. pastor.
Services, 11 nnd 8: Sunday school, 9:43;
Y. P. S. C. E.. 7; Junior Y. P. S. C. E..
3:30; prayer. Thursday. 8.
Third Rev. Robert McLean, pastor.
Services. 10:30 and 7:30; Sunday school. 12;
Boys Brigade, 5:30; young people's meet
ing. 630; prayer. Thursday. 7:43.
Cumberland Rev. G. A. Blair, pastor.
Services. 10:30 and 7:30; Sunday school. 12;
Junior Y. P. S. a E.. 3:30: Y. P. S. C. E..
6:30; prayer. Thursday. 7:30.
Grand-Avenue (United) Rev. John Hen
ry Gibson. D. D.. pastor. Services. 11 and
730; Sunday school. 10; Y. P. S. C. E-.
6:30; prayer. Thursday. 7:43.
Calvary Rev. W. S. Gilbert, pastor.
Mrs. Mann, soprano soloist and director
of chorus: Miss Fisher, organist. Serv
ices, 11 and 7:30.
St. Mary's Cathedral Most Rev. Arch
bishop Christie, pastor. Services, mass
and sermon. 6. 8 and 1030: mass for chil
dren, 9; Sunday school. 9:30; vesptrs and
sermon. 7:30; questions answered at even
ing services; week days, mass, 6:30 and 8.
First Rev. W. R. Lord, minister; Rev.
T. L. Eliot. D. D.. minister emeritus,
worship, 11: Sunday school and confir
mation class, 1230; Young People's Fra
First Rev. H. H. Hoyt. minister. Serv
ices. 11 and 7:30: Y. P. C. U.. 6:30.
Dr. Thirdly How did you enjoy my ser
mon this morning, deacon?
Deacon Jones I enjoyed a portion of
It very much. Indeed.
Dr. Thirdly What portion of it did you
Deacon Jonee The part where you said:
"And now. brethren, one word more and
I have flnlshcd." Chicago News.
"And now," said the minister, "we will
sing "Old Hundred." "
Just as the announcement was made a
brother In the "amen corner" commenced
singing "The Ninety and Nine."
"Hold on there, brother." said the minis
ter; "you ain't In tho store now there's no
one cent off on these good3." Atlanta
Results in "debility," "exhaustion." Not only
exhaustion of the body, but exhaustion of
the mind as well.
The nerve-cells of the body arc robbed
of their vital forces (their life); therefore
all the organs of the body suffer from lack
of nerve control, and the blood vessels that
supply these organs are not in proper tone.
Hudyan corrects the evil. Hudyan pro
vides the nerve force that is lacking. Do
you suffer with pains in limbs (1), torpid
Eaay Homo Csro.
We will send anyone
ivh fivAtKusnHiff nehlt
. "y.Stf - .