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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 13, 1914)
THE MORXIXG OREGOXIAN. TUESDAY, OCTOBER 13, 1914.
WAR'S REAL LESSON
If All Were Unready as Britain,
Germany Would Have Won
V. in Month, Says Critic.
MASS ATTACK DEFENDED
'Policy That Human I4fe Is Cheap
est War Material, Followed by
Grant, Is Striking Feature
of Teuton Method.
glum and Russia, had been as poorly
prepared as Logland, Germany would
have won the war In a month.
' LONDON. Sept. 22. (Correspondence
of the Associated Press.) Speaking of
the battle of lions, an English soldier,
who was one of the few survivors of
his company, said to an American in
the field hospital at Amiens:
"We thought the Germans were 40
years behind the times; they are 40
years ahead." According to an Amer
ican military expert, there is a solid
basis of truth in Tommy Atkins' state
ment. The Germans apparently knew
what they were about, he thinks, when
they refused to generalize too much
from the Philippine, Boer and Russo
Open Order Fighting Weak.
The outstanding facts so far notice
able are the terrific effect of siege ar
tillery in the field, the weakness of
open order fighting when a vast num
ber of men are available, the compara
tive failure of aeronautics as pictured
in popular imagination, and the im
mense advantage of thorough prelimin
ary training and preparedness.
When the Germans have been unable
to get their great weapons into action,
French field artillery has proved supe
rior because of allowing for more rapid
movement than the German of the same
caliber. In rapid action the French
have had decidedly the advantage in
this respect. At any rate, the Euro
pean war has caused experts somewhat
to revise their opinion as to the value
of artillery, which had been consider
ably less effective in other recent wars.
Artillery has now regained its old pres
tige. It settled the battle of Mons
without any doubt.
To come to infantry, on which the
ultimate decision in all wars rests, the
German fighting init appears to be in
ferior to the English or French. He
fires without aiming, and does not
make a sufficient use of cover. What
tiie German infantryman lacks individ
ually is atoned for by the perfect disci
pline under which he and his fellows
act. American tradition trusts a great
deal to the individual, a relic of fron
tier fighting. The German theory con
Eiders it less important that commands
should be sacrificed through a mistake
in their disposition than that they
should take it on themselves to over
ride the orders of a superior.
Much has been said by newspaper
critics on the subject of close order
fighting. America learned open order,
as well as the art of taking the best
advantage of cover, from the Indians.
In the Civil War the skirmish line grew
of more and more importance until it
became the battle order in the last
phase of the struggle. In the Spanish
War the space intervals became greater
in the Philippine fighting than in the
earlier Cuban. The tendency in South
-Africa also was to scatter. Russia
abandoned the old solid formation In
Manchuria. The result was that Eng
lish critics scoffed at the closely packed
infantry advances in the German ma
neuvers of previous years.
Open order, all critics admit, is an
Immense advantage when fire can be
concentrated on an equal number of
enemy in close order. When the battle
line is of enormous extent the ..side
which utilizes its advantage of num
bers by thickening its line, as the Ger
mans do. can deliever a much heavier
fire than the thin line. Thi5 advan
tage is improved when the side of su
perior numbers refuses to be checked.
German theory considers human life
its cheapest war material. General
Grant followed the same policy, figur
ing that he could afford to lose two or
three men if it cost the enemy one.
Well-Placed Rifle Fire Tells.
Much criticism, even ridicule, has de
veloped upon the German method of
volley firing, with the rifle butt placed
to the hip. This is condemned because
it does not permit of any accuracy in
fire. On the other hand, even the
American army has abandoned the idea
of having a force of crack shots and
now merely aims at a good general
average. Too much has perhaps been
made of the precision of the modern
rifles. Each rifle developes eccentrici
ties from day to day, and In battle
there is no way to ascertain the errors
or to get an accurate range, especially
in a damp country, where the bullets
raise no dust.
Yet a well-placed rifle fire does tell,
and this is the only thing that saved
the British forces from annihilation at
Mons. The old Boer . trick of naming
a certain number of sharpshooters to
fire at will in an endeavor to pick off
officers while the remainder sent in
volleys proved a disastrous surprise to
the Germans. The old saying that It
takes a ton of lead to kill a man Is
still true. It is estimated there is one
hit in every 2500 shots, as accuracy of
instrument is overcome by the greater
distance of fire.
Cavalry Factor Undetermined.
It is still too early to learn the part
cavalry is now playing. American Army
officers are divided into two schools
on the subject of cavalry, those who
believe cavalry should play Its historic
part in battle and those who regard
cavalry as effective only in scouting,
in acting as mounted infantry when it
is necessary to rush men to a weak
- point, there to dismount and advance
on foot, and, lastly, in following up a
rout. Artillery fire and barbed wire
. entanglements have so far caused a
Freat slaughter of horses. The United
State War College had enough faith In
cavalry, however, to plan a division of
it at the time intervention in Mexico
- Machine guns figure largely in the
reports, but they are still believed to
be of real advantage only in sweeping
'-streets and open roads, since their fire
is scattered and they have a tendency
"" to jamb. They appear to do their
'" greatest damage in pot-shooting.
Real Lesson I Preparedness.
Popular imagination is greatly stirred
by reports of airships. But- these are
; not feared by soldiers, except in cases
v-where they are able to signal to the
"Jr enemy the range to their artillery.
. Even in scouting they fly several miles
; high, so high as to be unable to detect
, ' anything more than the movements of
large masses of men. providing the at
.. mospheric conditions are favorable.
1'epluyed troops would be hard to dis-
.' tinguish. The amount of explosives
the machines are able to carry is, in
the military phrase, contemptible.
The real lesson the war so far
teaches, finds the critic, is the immense
.-"advantage of military preparation.
.-'Germany overlooked nothing. Her
forces were lessoned and provisioning
and transport perfect. If France, Bel-
BOHEMIAX TROOP'S ARE LOYAL
Austro-Hungarian General Denies
Papers' Reports of Mutiny.
THE HAGUE, Sept. 22. (Correspond
ence of Associated Press.) Major-General
von Hoefer, acting chief of the
Austro-Hungarian general staff, in an
interview which has appeared here,
"In several foreign papers the asser
tion has been made that some of our
troops, from one nationality or another,
had not met expectations. An English
source Vtihich is identified with the dis
semination of the most foolish sort of
canards asserted there had been a.
mutiny in the Bohemian regiments.
"Falsehoods such as these must be
given attention. They are intended to
spread among those who are not fa
miliar with conditions in this monarchy
the impression that today, unlike in
former times, our soldiers' oath 'to fight
every enemy' has lost its meaning. In
this fight, which has been forced upon
us, our men have fought with the deter
mination to outao one another m
bravery, be this on the Russo-Gallcian
frontier or the Balkan theaters of war.
Germans, Magyars. South and North
Slavs, Italians and Roumanians fought
with the same heroism and in .the same
spirit of loyalty to the supreme com
mander and their country. Our troops
have never failed to take difficult posi
tions or engage a numerically superior
enemy with the greatest courage."
VIENNA FIGHTS CHOLERA
TWENTY-SEVEN CASES REPORTED
. IX AUSTRIA OCTOBER. 8.
Emperor's Troops Without Winter
Clothes and Food So Scarce
That Horseflesh Is Eaten.
PARIS. Oct. 12. A Havas agency dis
patch from Vienna says that 27 cases
of cholera were reported in Austria on
VENICE, via Faris. Oct. 12. Cholera
is spreading rapidly to the remotest
district of Austria. A case has been
discovered at Feldkirch, in the Prov
ince of Vorarlberg, near the Swiss
frontier. The Austrian troops in Ga
licia are being vaccinated against the
The cold weather has caught the
Austrian soldiers In Galicia unprepared
and the authorities are making most
urgent appeals to the public to con
tribute warm clothing. '
Owing'to the increase in the price of
flour, the Vienna Bakers' Association
announced that its members will make
only big loaves of the so-called war
bread and that they will sell only for
cash. The consumption of horseflesh
in Vienna is rapidly increasing. As
many as 200 of the animals have been
brought Into the market in one day.
The Ministry of Commerce has issued
an order that all letters going to places
abroad, without exception, must be left
open. This includes letters containing
valuables. The entire foreign post has
been put under military supervision.
Special instructions have been given to
Austrian officials on the Italian fron
tier to prevent the bringing in of Ital
ian newspapers. Persons attempting
to smuggle papers across will be se
Hungarian officials who returned to
Marmaros Sziget after the Russians de
parted from that town found, it is said,
that the invaders had done no damage
to the place. The Russian General for
bade the inhabitants to give the sol
diers Intoxicants, permitting his men
to receive only food and cigars.
NORTH OF VISTULA
Teutons Claim Gains in Galicia
and Pryzemysl Is Relieved.
Towns Are Recaptured.
HUNGARY REACHED BY FOE
NEW KING ON THRONE
FERDINAND OF- ROCJtAMA SU
CEEDS CHARLES, HIS UNCLE.
Russian Dispatch Intimates That
t Ruler Will Not Oppose Allies,
Like His Predecessor.
LONDON, Oct. 12. King Ferdinand
of Roumania, in the presence of the
members of the royal family, the dip
lomatic corps and other notables, took
the oath of office yesterday in succes
sion' to his uncle, King Charles, ac
cording to a dispatch from Bucharest,
by way of Am'sterdam, to the Central
News Agencyr King Charles died at
his country seat in Sinaia Saturday.
The new king announced the inten
tion of directing his laborers to the
development of the state.
ROME, via Paris, Oct. 12. The Idea
Nazionale published an inquiry made
at the Balkan Legation concerning the
attitude of Roumania after the death
of King Charles. M. Mikailovitch
Servian Minister to Rome, like all
others from the Balkan states, ex
presses the opinion that the death of
King Charles will not produce any
great change in Roumanian politics.
as the differences between the King
and his people were more exaggerated
than real and that Roumania wishes
to continue the policy which she
adopted in the second Balkan war, and
which enabled her to increase her ter
ritory without serious danger.
A change in the attitude of Rou
mania, according to diplomats from
the Balkan states, is not expected to
occur immediately, but a change may
be expected, they intimate, if the bat
tle of Cracow has decisive results.
PETROGRAD, Oct. 12, via London-
An official statement given out today
expressed the belief that the death
Saturday of King Charles of Roumania
removes an obstacle to turning of
Roumania to the cause of the Allies,
to which end recent Russian diplo
matic efforts were unavailing. It was
said further that the sympathies of the
Roumanian people, who in the past
have shown that they were opposed
to the championing of Prussia by ;he
late King, will now assert themselves.
Consequently, according to Russian
authorities, Roumania will cease to
menace Russia by furnishing provi
sions and transporting troops for Ger-i
Petrograd Announces Withdrawal Is
Only to Take Up Strategical Po
sition to Meet Advance of
LONDON, Oct 12. An Amsterdam
dispatch to the Reuter Telegram Com
pany says a telegram from Vienna as
serts that the Russians in Galicia and
north of the Vistula are pursued by
Austro-German troops. Many towns are
again under Austrian administration.
The message adds tne Russians did not
behave so badly as the authorities had
. PETROGRAD, Oct. 12. The follow
ing official statement was issued to
night by the chief of the general staff:
"On October 11 fighting began on
the left bank of the Vistula in the
direction of Ivangorod and Warsaw.
There is no change at other points
on our front.
Russians React Hungary.
T'etach'nents of Russian cavalrv
having passed through the Carpathian
Mountains. have emerged into the
plains of Hungary."
LONDON. Oct. 12. A Central News
dispatch from Rome says that a mes
sage to the Messagero from Petrograd
says the Russians abandoned the siege
of Przemysl in order to put themselves
in a strategical .position to meet the
BERLIN, Oct. 12 (By wireless to Say
ville, L. I.) The following information
nas been given out in Berlin for pub
"Reports received here from Vienna
set forth that the Russian siege of the
Przemysl fortress has been abandoned.
Austrian troops have defeated Russian
divisions near Lancut. They also rout
ed one division of Cossacks east of
LONDON. Oct. 12. A dispatch to
Renter's Telegram Company from Ber
lin, via Amsterdam, reports the follow
ing statement issued last night by the
German General Staff:.
"In the eastern theater we repulsed
in tne nortn all attacks or the First
and Tenth Russian armies on October
9 and 10. The Russian outflanking ef
forts by way of Schirwindt (East Prus
sia) equally were repulsed and the Rus
sians lost 1000 prisoners.
Advance Guards at Vistula.
"In South Poland the advance guards
of our armies have reached the Vis
tula. Near Grojec, south of Warsaw
we captured 2000 men of the Second
Siberian Army Corps.
"The Russian official communications
about a great Russian victory at Au
gustowo and Suwalki (Russian Po
land) are invented. The fact that no
official Russian communication has
been published about the tremendous
defeats at Tanneberg and Insterberg
(beth in East Prussia) vouches a lack
of reliable official information."
Prxemysl Is Relieved.
Another dispatch from Amsterdam to
Reuter s Telegram Company says:
"A telegram from Vienna says it is
officially announced that the Austrian
rapid advance has relieved Przemysl,
Galicia, of the Russians. The Austrians
have entered the fortress at all points
and where the Russians attempted re
sistance they were beaten. The Rus
sians fled in the direction of the River
San, attempting to cross at Siniava
and Lehayisk, where a great number
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FALMOUTH NAVAL PORT
WATERING PLACE BECOMES BUSY
ough campaign of preparation is evi
dently made with a view of meeting
emergencies which might arise were
the English fleet to meet unexpected
Leases on buildings taken for army
use have been made for a period of
three years in Falmouth.
SCOUTS TERRIFY SEDAN
GERMAN GENERAL STAFF TELLS OF
DARING OF COUNT WEDEL.
Llentenant and 12 Men Penetrate Vil
lage Occupied by French Stragglers
and frightened People Flee.
Filipinos Indorse Harrison.
WASHINGTON, Oct. 12. A cable
gram from Manila was read in the
House today by Manuel Queson, com
missioner from the islands, during the
debate on the pending Philippine bill,
saying that more than 50.000 Filipinos
of every walk of life, and irrespective
of politics, marched yesterday to Mal
canan palace to celebrate the first an
nivarary of the arrival of Governor
General Harrison. Mr. Harrison was
presented with an album containing
a resolution asking President Wilson to
retain him as Governor-General until
the Philippine policy if the Adminis
tration is carried out.
Washington Supreme Court Meets.
WASHINGTON.' Oct. 12. The Su
preme Court convened today, accord
ing to law, for its year's work, with
652 cases ready for consideration, or
nearly 85 less than last year. Every
member of the tribunal was in the city.
In the lat Ave years Pern hes produced
l9.&48A'iO wounds of cotton. The United
States last year bought $l,2i.5CS worth of
BERLIN, Sept. 23. (Correspondence
of the Associated Press.) The second
of the extended reports issued by the
general staff over phases of the Euro
pean war describes a scouting expedi
tion of First Lieutenant Count Wedel,
who, at the head of his regiment of
Uhlans, rode out on August 25 from
Bouillon toward Sedan, charged with
discovering whether the latter place
was occupied by the enemy. Count
Wedel's regiment was at the van of
an army division whose number is not
given. The account says:
"According to credible reports,
French troops had already marched
through Sedan and crossed the Maas.
Notwithstanding the fact that German
troops, and more especially advance
groups of patrols, had been fired upon
frequently by remnants of the French
troops and also from the windows of
houses. Count Wedel, accompanied only
by two Uhlans, rode on toward Sedan.
At the entrance of the fty he encoun
tered a patrolling party of 10 men of
his own regiment, whom he ordered to
join him. With these 12 men Count
Wedel rode at a brisk trot throughout
the crooked streets of Sedan, the men
uttering repeated cheers and every
where throwing the inhabitants into -a
panic of fear. With cries of "The
Lancers! The Uhlans!" the citizens
fled to their houses and barred win
dows and doors behind them.
"Straggling soldiers, who happened
to be in the streets, threw their guns
away and joined in the flight. Count
Wedel fired with his revolver at
number of persons who still retained
their guns, and these hastily threw
their weapons away. At one street
corner the Count suddenly encoun
tered a detachment of some 30. French
infantrymen, who opened a rapid fire
on the patrol. One non-commissioned
officer fell, both he and his horse
struck by several bullets. Sergeant
Jenssen, who regularly rode beside
Count Wedel and who had character
ized himself by great fearlessness, gave
the patrol, which was some 30 paces In
the rear, the signal to halt, and the
little group retired at a sharp gallop,
under a steady fire from the houses.
"After his daring ride Count Wedel
was able to report to his commander
that Sedan was free of the enemy, with
the exception of a few stragglers.
"The Count was not Bred at by resi
dents of- Sedan. His sudden appear
ance with the dreaded Uhlans caused
such panicky fear that all the inhabi
tants simply fled wildly and none of
them thought of reaching for his shot
gun, a thing which the inhabitants un
fortunately otherwise frequently ana
Arrival of Prise Ships Gives Aspect of
Shipping Activity While Recruits
Make Trenches on Bills.
FALMOUTH, England, Sept. 25.
(Correspondence of the Associated
Press.) Those who have known Fal
mouth, ordinarily a peaceful Cornish
watering-place, would not know it
now. It has suddenly been trans
formed into a military and naval cen
ter, with some suggestion of a ship
ping port of great importance. The
recruits who have made it their ren
dezvous may be seen daily busily en
gaged In digging trenches in the high
cliffs which overhang the beaches, so
as to be ready for any enemy which
might land there. In the evening those
beaches are alive with hundreds of sol
diers having & dip in the surf after a
hard. day's work at digging or march
ing along the roads which lead from
the sea into the town.
The commercial aspect is heightened
daily by some new arrival of prize
ships, which may be seen coming under
escort of a British war vessel.
Even at night it is impossible for an
unfriendly ship to escape detection off
Falmouth, for the flashlights in the
ancient Pendennis and St. Mawes cas
tles, which command the Falmouth
promontory and harbor, reach many
miles to sea. The work of the patrol
boats has been so effective, in fact,
that the land-locked harbor and the
peaceful river which connects Fal
mouth with Truro and other famous
villages of Cornwall are almost filled
with ship prizes, or vessels under ex
amination Most of the German tramp
steamers and sailing craft in the North
Atlantic have been disposed of now,
but the activities of the warships con-,
tinue in the examination of neutral
ships carrying possible contraband to
Dutch ports. Cargoes of petrol, wheat,
coffee and other foodstuffs are fre
quently held at Falmouth until it is
made clear that their ultimate desti
nation is not Germany.
Great Britain is gradually making it
plain that she will not have Scandi
navian and Dutch ports supply Ger
many with food supplies under a neu
tral flag. Neither is she Willing to
have German airships and war motors
supplied with fuel slipped past Eng
lish ships through the cleverness of
neutral merchants who have taken
large contracts to sell supplies to Ger
The quiet life of the farmers, whose
tiny fields dot the hills overlooking
thn bav. has been rudely disturbed by
th soldiery here. Sheep and cattle
have been replaced largely by signal
men, constantly practicing with flags
and other devices. Many of the stone
fences and clumps oi trees on nign
nnint.q which command roads have been
utilized as breastworks and reinforced
hv baw of sand.
The recruits nere numucr auuui
10.000. Many of the youngsters are
without uniforms. Some drill in white
duck overalls, but many more in the
inevitable green and gray suits of the
English civilian. The woolen stocking
cap is a favorite headgear.
While many ot tne impion
fications have doubtless . Deen con
structed mainly with a view to giving
the recruits a taste of defensive tac
tics, the earthworks and wire entan
glements are invariably placed where
they wouia ao most goou n my eiicmj
were to attempt an invasian here. Lord
Kitchener is far-signtea ana nis tnor-
German Officer Dupes Foe
Thinking Him Ally.
Posing as Englishman, Count
Hchwerin Obtains Horse From
French and Dashes Off Amid Fusillade.
Oct. 12' (by wireless to
L. I.) There has been
given out here a story relating how
Count Schwerin, a German officer who
speaks English fluently, was success
ful in obtaining information from the
enemy which resulted In the winning of
a battle by the Germas.
While reconnoitering beyond the
French lines, Count Schwerin was dis
covered by a French officer. He met
the predicament by posing as an Eng
lish officer who had lost his way. To
the Frenchmen he directed questions
as to how to reach the English lines.
He explained that he had lost his way
and became soaked in a heavy rain.
He changed his clothes for those of a
dead Prussian officer, he said, and was
now fearful about returning to the
English lines, believing he had a good
chance of being shot as a German.
The French officer hesitated. He
remembered that the French already
had shot several English officers, mis
taking them for soldiers whom they
resembled. Count Schwerin offered to
take, the Frenchmen back and show
them his discarded uniform. He evi
dently convinced the officer, for he
took the count to his mess and the
Frenchmen entertained him at dinner.
After dinner a horse was given the
count and a French force was detailed
to escort him back to the English lines.
Once mounted. Count Schwerin drove
spurs into his horse and made a dash
for liberty. He was followed by a
storm of revolver bullets. Fortunately
his horse stumbled and the bullets sped
over his head. He succeeded in regain
ing the German lines with certain mili
tary Information of value.
BELGIAN PAPERS FOUND
GERMANS SCENT BRITISH AGREE
MENT WITH BUFFER STATE.
Plans for Landing; Troops and Their
Provision Revealed, Teutons r,
by Documents Found.
BERLIN, Oct. 12. (By wireless to
Sayvllle, L. I.) The German general
headquarters has given out the following:
"German military authorities, search
ing the archives of the Belgian Gen
eral Start at Brussels, discovered a
portfolio inscribed: 'English interven
tion In Belgium, which contains some
One of these is a report to the Bel
gian Minister of War dated April 10,
J 906, which gives the result or detailed
negotiations between the chief of the
Belgian General Stan and the British
military attache at Brussels. Lieutenant-Colonel
Bernardiston. The plan
KAISER HAS SHAMROCK
Four Leaved Sprig Carried by Ger
man Emperor As Mascot.
COPENHAGEN, Oct. 12. German
newspapers lust received here say the
Kaiser carries as a mascot' a sprig of
four-leaved shamrock . pressed and
It was given to his grandfather in
1870 by a little daughter of a court
official named Schneider. When Em
peror William L returned victorious
after the war he restored the sprig to
the doner, saying it had brought him
luck and given his army victory.
Miss Schneider subsequently gave the
sprig to her godchild. Countess Donna,
who recently presented it to the Kai
ser and expressed the hope that it
would bring him the same luck it
brought his grandfather.
The Kaiser carries the shamrock
constantly In his pocketbook.
IS of English origin and was sanctioned
by Lieutenant-General Sir James M.
Grierson. chief of the British General
Staff. It sets forth the strength and
formation and designates landing plans
for an expeditionary force of 100,000
" ' "Continuing it gives the details of a
plan for the Belgian General Staff to
transport, feed and find quarters for
their men in Belgium, and provides for
Belgian interpreters. The landing
places designated are Dunkirk, Calais
"Lieutenant-Colonel Bernardiston is
quoted as having remarked that for the
present Holland could not be relied on.
Another official communication de
clares chat the British government,
after trie destruction of the German
navy, would send supplies and provis
ions by way of Antwerp. There is also
a suggestion from the English attache
that a Belgian system of espionage
should he organized in the Prussian
'"A second document Is a map show
ing the strategical positions of the
French army and demonstrating the
existence of a Franco-Belgian ftgree
, ment. and a third is a report from
Baron Greindl, the Belgian Minister at
Berlin, to the Belgian Foreign Office,
dated December 23, 1911."
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