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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 13, 1904)
THE MORNING OREGONIAtf, TUESDAY! DECEMBER 13, 1904.
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PORTLAND, TUESDAY, DEC. 13, 1004.
THE POSTOFFICE AND SOCIALISM.
In The Oregonian of yesterdav the
report of the Postofflce Department
was headed "A Big: Deficit" The defi
cit was $4,060,044.73. It is a considerable
sum, but not enormous. Never, but in
one year, has the Postal Department
paid expenses. Often in former years.
when its business "was not one-half, nor
even one-fourth, what it is now, it fell
behind as much, or more.
Postal service for the benefit of the
people is the one branch of the public
service which can be directed, with ad
vantage by the General Government.
in the interest of all. It is different
In every -way from the railway service,
or the telegraph service, or the tele
phone service: it Is different from man
ufacturing or other nmrtnrHv Inriuctrv
which socialists insist that Government
shall undertake. It is not a productive
Industry. It is distributive only. Gov
ernment hires the mails carried, and it
collects from those -who send matter
through the mailB. The service nearly
pays its -way, and may be made to do
so completely; since from an exnendl-
ture of $138,784,487.97 a deficit is found
of but 54,560,044.73.
Since it is not a productive indus
try,, since it requires no capital, govern
ment nas no investment In it, beyond
the trifle necessary for Its postal sta
tions and mail "bags. It owns no rail
roads or other means of transport. It
simpiy nires the -work done. This ser
vice furnishes no precedent, therefore,
and no parallel, for those -who -would
nave the Government go into railroad
ing and ironrriaklng and shoemaklnir.
The work of the postofflce therefore
is not the work of socialism. It affords
no analogy for the demands that so
cialism makes. It doesn't follow at all
that because government can rn
thing of this kind, which
investment ot capital, which produces
"nothing at all, but only keeps -up the
circulation of intelligence, or provides
a. facility for the circulation of written
or printed matter among the people
through agencies which capital has es
tablished and maintains, could there.
fore take control of the vast productive
inausiries or the country, which re
quire immense capital and immense in
bor, with best intelligence dominating
over all, to make them successful. The
postomce furnishes no argument -who t
ever for the claims of socialism hnt
the strongest of arguments against
mem. .Between making plows, supply
ing the capital for the undertaking nn
performing the heavy labor in It, and
carrying letters, which reoulres nn ran
ltal at all and scarcely any labor
certainly none of a severe kind there
Is no correspondence. The things are
uriequal, and', not commensurate or
comparable. .Nor will the srood iudir
ment and -common sense of the country
ne aeceived by any attempt, however
persistent, to force an analojrv. Gov
ernment operates the postofflce and
supports the public schools. But these
are not productive Industries. Govern
ment doesn't grow wheat or hnn n
make leather or glass. Should it try.
tne result could be foreseen.
The production of "Even-man1
Portland last week, The Oregonian Is
told, made not a few persons eerlous
and sent to the churches on Sunday
numbers never accustomed to go. Now
here Is a. hint for the churches. An
effective way of getting up a "revival
might be to induce the theaters of
Portland to keep "Everyman" on the
stage for a month or two the church
people lending their influence, .attend
ing themselves and urging their friends
to attend. An influence could thus be
exerted that would fill the theaters
.every night of the week and the
churches to overflowing on Sundays
and in a little while the membership
of the churches would be greatly in
creased. For the fear of death and of
what may follow is the most potent of
all influences for conduct over a large
class of minds.
The English drama began in the
churches, as an expression of the
religious feelings of man, and the
intense opposition of the churches
to the theater came in with Puritan
asceticism, on the assumption that
whatever gives pleasure is sinful,
"Everyman," however, though it would
stir a feeling in many, is not the sort
of drama that gives much pleasuro; so
the Puritan objection on this score
wouldn't lie against it. If the church
people would take it up they could
easily fill the theaters for weeks, with
the attendant effect of filling the
churches, no doubt. "We should get also
a recrudescence of Bible reading, John
Bunyan and Young's Night Thoughts
It might do a lot of good, too; though
affcr while uch is the constitution
of the human mind that there would
be a turning: to frivolity and gayety
THE GOVERNOR'S DUTT.
If the State of Oregon had a Governor
with a more sober regard lor his duties
than merely to look pleasant and draw
down his unconstitutional emoluments,
we should have public order 'in Central
Oregon. It is not possible to view too
gravely the startling condition of im
potence Into which the administration
of law has been thrown in more than
one county by the timidity of local offi
cers and the procrastination of our
complaisant executive. Twenty-eight
hundred sheep were slain In Lake
County last Spring by a gang of outlaw
cattlemen, who took this merciless
method of wreaking vengeance on their
enemies; and the feud. between them led
to the shocking and mysterious death
of a leading citizen, J. C. Conn. A Cor
oner's jury said It was suicide; but the
circumstances pointed so strongly to
murder that there was a loud cry for a
more thorough inquisition into the facts
and for punishment of the supposed
assassins. The Conn tragedy became a
living issue in Southeastern Oregon
politics, and led to the defeat at the
polls of public officers who appeared to
have taken the side -of the criminals,
or to have hesitated to procure their
arrest and conviction.
Now thousands of sheep have been
slain In Crook County as a consequence
of the same conspiracy to expel the
sheepmen from the range. The slayers
are so audacious In their operations and
so avowedly ready to pass from the
massacre of sheep to the murder of
sheepmen that whole communities are
terrorized, the arm of the law para
lyzed, and anarchy virtually reigns. In
Grant County the stockmen, on their
part, have been made victims of the
depredations of an industrious band of
rustlers, who steal horses and cattle
with Impunity and practically defy ar
rest. It Is obvious that In all these
counties, and perhaps in others, the op
eration of law has completely broken
down, and It is obvious, too, that the
depredations of neither the criminal
sheepklllers nor the daring stock
rustlers will cease until they kill off one
another or until the present Governor
of Oregon can be made to realize that
the lives of its citizens are imperiled.
their property in Jeopardy and their
right to the law's protection denied.
Sheepmen have the same rights In
the country as cattlemen, and cattle
men the same as sheepmen. But it is
public land, and neither, at bottom, has
any actual right. They are bound, how
ever; in equity and justice, to respect
tne common right, on either side, to
graze their herds and flocks, till for
bidden by the owner of the lands. It
Is Intolerable when one party attemDts
to exclude by wholesale massacre the
other party from lands to which neither
has a legal right. Active measures
would be taken against these sheep
killers if Oregon had a Governor who
was not balancing and playing in poll
tics for re-election.
RURAL FREE DELIVERY.
Rural free delivery, as discussed in
the annual report of the Postmaster!
General, a synopsis of which was print
ed in yesterday's Oregonian. has be
come a very prominent branch of the
mall service of the country. The ranld
lty with which the service has srrown
is reflected in the official figures show
ing an increase from forty-four routes
maintained at an expenditure of 540,000
in 1837 to 24,566 routes on which the
disbursements last year wore 512.921.700
This swift development in the service
quite naturally has created a deficit.
the shortage for the year beine- nlnrert
at nearly 55,000.000. At first dance the
sum expended for maintaining a service
on these rural routes seems- large, but
when it Is compared with the prodigal
expenditures of the Government In
other directions it makes a less formid
able showing. The fundamental princi
ple "underlying all measures enacted for
the benefit of the public Is the greatest
good for the greatest number, and. rea
soning from this standpoint, the Gov
ernment has certainly accomplished
more with its money In the rural dellv
ery service than In any other branch of
expenditures for public service.
That millions of people received a Ai
rect benefit from this service is proved
by the official figures, which show that
the rural carriers delivered durinir the
last fiscal year 906.424,121 pieces of mall
matter. There is, of course, a direct
financial benefit reaped by the subur
ban resident on the rural route. The
dally delivery of newsnaners nnr? tottora
enaoies him to keep in close touch with
all business matters in which he mav
be interested. This direct financial ad
vantage Is minimized, however. In com
,parison with the indirect benefits to the
people as a whole. The isolated life of
the country, and its lack of opportunity
ior commercial ana social intercourse
has from the lime when men first build
ed cities bton controlling factors in in
duclng the rural rtoldent to abandon
the farm and get in closer touch with
his fellow -men.
The suburban car and the rural deliv
ery have to a large extent eliminated
this disadvantage, and. today, wherever
the rural delivery route reaches, the
progressive rural resident is fully as
well Informed on the commercial and
social topics of the day as his urban
neighbor. The advantages now con
ferred by the rural mail service hav
not only added to the profits of the
farmers and small tradesmen dwelling
beyond the city limits, but they have
also spread contentment amonc a. eer
tain class of suburbanites who. without
these advantages, would be rushing
into the city and Intensifying the struc-
gle for existence which is ever more
difficult in the city than in the coun
try. In the promotion of this content
ment there Is. of course, a disappear
ance of that Jealousy which is too of ten
exhibited -by the country people for
those who dwell in the city. The coun
try dweller has his dally paper deliv
ered at his door not very much later
in the day than the city man. and
is as close up -with, the times as the
dweller in the city.
. The two classes, thus being brought
much closer together from a social
well as business standpoint, will reap
mutual benefit by the contact. It
impossible to estimate in dollars and
cents the value of this "sentimental
benefit," but it can easily be understood
that It has a value far and away in
cess of the cost attached to the service,
The rural free delivery has come
stay, and, while there will undoubtedly
be a steady Increase in the appropria
tions required for Improving and main
talnlng the service, they will be riv
less grudgingly than for almost any
otner purpose ror which demands
be made on Congress.
The recommendation -that the service
be extended to Include the delivery
small' parcels at a cost lower than
regular postage rates seems to be a
good one. The change as suggested
does not affect parcels mailed at any
other than the particular rural route
over which the parcel is to be carried.
Added value is given this suggestion
for the reason that the carriers, who
were formerly permitted to handle this
parcel business as a side issue, have
been prohibited from doing so, but In
lieu thereof will receive more pay. The
revenue from this source would materi
ally aid in making the service self -supporting,
and would also prove a great
convenience to the rural subscribers.
AMERICA AS AN ASYLTOL
The total number of aliens admitted
to the United States during the last
fiscal year was 812,870. More than one
half this number were of the Italian,
Hebrew, Polish, Slavak and Magyar
races. The need of new legislation for
the more competent physical Inspection
of aliens at the ports of embarkation
is urged by Secretary Metcalf in his re
port on this subject He also urges the
establishment of a moral and manual
tandlng for admissible aliens. This
"need is expressed in figures showing
that there are now in public and pri
vate charitable. Denal and reformatory
Institution in this country 44.9S5 aliens,
distributed as follows: In asylums for
the insane, 20,485; confined for the com
mission of crime, 9825; of dependents,
14,675. Upwards of 25,000 of the whole
number of these aliens will be confined
for life an unjust charge upon the
thrift of the communities or common
wealths, into which they were allowed
to drift poverty-stricken mental
Self-preservation should be the first
law of nations, as It is of Nature. This
is especially true in a country of free
political Institutions. Vigilance is the
price of liberty. The perpetuation of
our institutions depends upon the exer
cise of political sagacity and observ
ance of wise measures of political econ
omy. The old theory that proclaimed
America as the asylum for the op
pressed and the helpless of all lands has
been sadly overworked in practice. It
is time that the sentiment underlying
our National hospitality should be
amended so that our Invitation to aliens
to come In and share with us the bless
ings and benefits of a free land be
restricted to the law-abiding, the phys
ically and mentally sound and the self-
supporting. Sentiment is well enough
in Its way and within limits, but it Is
a most unstable thing upon which to
found the citizenship of a republic.
COURTS AND CRIME.
The London Spectator recently pub
lished an article upon the creat In
crease of qrlihe in the United States
during the last tweiity years. In which
a grave view of the situation was pre
sented. It was supplemented by an an
peal to the American people to impose
radical reforms in its system of juris
prudence before it becomes too late
With much of the self-complacent Brit
ish spirit the Spectator goes on to speak
of the prestige that belongs to Judges
on the English bench rthe Mavbrick
case was probably not in mind), adding:
We venture to say that l American Judges
had the standing which belong to our Judges,
ncn men who now uso their money to cor
rupt DUbllc officials and rmhlln hnrll wnuU
find themselves in jail either for contempt
or court or some open breach of the law.
Rich men dare not openly defy the law In
England as they do In America. The actual
statute law in America Is more than sunt
clent to put down corruption. It Is Its admin
Istratlon that Is at fault. TV know hnw
difilcult. owing to the state system. It will
dc to give greater weight of authority to the
judicature of ordinary state courts. Until
this is done, however, no attempt to purify
American life can really be permanently suc-
cessiui. furthermore. It Is absolutely neces
sary mat, not morcly in cities, but through
out the country, there should be a larrp
well-paid, efficient police force, and this foroe
snouia ne made to recognize that Its duties
are quite as much preventive as punitive.
Perhaps it would be well for nnr
judges, or some of them, to lay this
counsel to heart. In, the meantime
however, the Intelligent American can
nacdiy he expected to fall down, before
tne snnne of "British justice" and see
In its methods a crime-free state. There
are statistics which show a somewhat
alarming increase in crime in the
United .Kingdom, notwithstanding the
-prestige and standing" of British
Judges and- the alleged incorruptibility
of British justice as administered by
them. Comparisons in this line are
more than likely to be disconcerting.
EXPANSION OF EXPORT TRADE.
If any further testimony were needed
to show that the foreign trade of this
country is not being hampered in the
slightest degree through an alleged lack
of shipping facilities, it is offered vin
the -advance sheets of the Bureau of
Statistics of the Department of Labor
and Commerce. These figures show that
for the first ten months of the calendar
year all previous records have been far
exceeded, and that, if the exports of
manufactures for November and De
cember are as large proportionally as
those for September and October, the
total for the year will pass the 5500,000,
000 mark, an increase of 566,000,000 over
the record year, 1900. The remarkable
growth of our manufacturing Industries
is reflected In a comparison with the
figures for 1890, when the total was but
It will thus be seen that in the com
paratively short space of fourteen years
our exports of manufactures have more
than trebled. The November fhrures
have not yet been compiled, but for
October there was an increase of more
than 510,000,000 over the corresponding
month of last year, while for the ten
months to November 1 the total was
5412,946,036. compared with 5348,673,560
for the same period last year. Iron and
steel products lead all other manufac
tures, and for the first ten months of
the year reach a total of 5105,350,418, an
increase of more than 525,000,000 over
the corresponding period last year.
There has been" a heavy falling, off In
the exports of agricultural products,
due to the short crop in this country
and attendant higher prices at a time
when the foreign markets were being
supplied . at lower prices from other
countries. It is also probable that there
has been a large increase in the de
marids for home consumption.
The increase in the output of manu
factured products of course reflects
corresponding increase in the demand
for laoor, and, so long as industrial
conditions warrant this increasing de
mand for agricultural products, no re
grets will be expressed over a decline In
exports of products which are worth
more for home consumption than, they
will command when shipped abroad. In
the segregations of our exports, cotton
manufactures make the poorest com
parative showing of any of the items on
the list There is of course an Increase,
but for the ten months it is only about
5 per cent. Our weakness In this branch
of manufacture is strikingly illustrated
by the fact that, while for the ten
months exports of cotton goods were
but 525,383,000, for the same period we
exported 5260,000,000 worth of raw cot
ton. When It is considered that Great
Britain's mills annually export 5240,000,-
000 worth of cotton goods, nearly all
of which are made from American cot
ton, it Is apparent that there Is at. least
one branch of Industry which is not
being developed in keeping with its pos
The statistics covering the imports
for the first ten months of the year
also point indirectly to the growth of
our manufacturing Industries. There
was an increase of about 58,000,000 In
the value of crude materials Imported
for domestic industries, and the Im
ports of articles of food and animals in
creased nearly 540,000,000, the natural
Inference being that the growth of
manufacturing industries was so much
more rapid proportionately than that of
agricultural industries that the in
creased imports were required by the
larger army of workmen in manufac
turing lines. The totals for Imports of
all kinds for the ten months show a
smaller gain than is noticed In the ex
ports, but had reached the total of 5844,-
152,000, making it a certainty that the
end of the year would .register a- grand
total In excess of 51.000,000.000.
This country Is still shipping as raw
material a much greater portion of Its
surplus products than It Is to our ad
vantage to have go out In the crude
state. The gain, however. Is not un
satisfactory, and with a continuation
of the, present excellent shipping facili
ties, and low freights to all parts of the
world, we are almost certain to con
tinue to gain In exports.
Troubles continue to multiply for
poor, old, decrepit China. With the
news of growing strength of the rebels
In the Xwangsl Province comes a re
port that the soldiers In the Ching
yuen and Liuchou prefectures are on a
strike for wages long overdue. Eighteen
thousand .of the Imperial troops are
threatening to join the rebels unless
their demands for pay are met at once.
Meanwhile the rebels are picking off
government officials wherever they can
find them unprotected, and the gov
ernment "Is reciprocating by executing
rebels In larse numbers. The Chinese
government has been going from bad
to worse, since the Japanese victory ten
years ago, and there will be a task of
no mean proportions for some of the
great powers as soon as modern civili
zation moves a little farther back into
the interior, of the ancient empire.
There have been land frauds In Ore
gon. It is right and proper and neces
sary to pursue them. But could any
thing induce the land department to
look seriously Into the enormously
greater frauds In Colorado, Montana,
Arizona and California? It seems
doubtful. Besides, there are the enor
mously greater frauds of lieu lands.
covering millions of acres, that never
are to be explored. They are covered.
perhaps An all cases, by the- forms of
law, but for this reason all the more
unconscionable. But let justice pro
ceed. Let it convict -the little offenders
and let the greater criminals go free
"Sweep on, you fat and greasy citizens;
'tis just the fashion. Wherefore should
you 'look upon that poor and broken
bankrupt there?" .
The weekly wheat statistics yester
day were all of a "bullish' nature.
World's shipments showed a decrease
of more than 3,000,000 bushels as com
pared with the preceding week. Quan
titles on passage declined over 2,000,000
bushels, and the American visible
Bhowed an Increase of but 248,000 bush
els. In the face of all this strength,
which was not of a sentimental nature
the Chicago market lo3t a cent a bushel
and Liverpool also closed much lower.
The predictions of 51.50 wheat before
the turn of the year are no longer
heard, and, unless the Argentine crop,
now about Teady for the market, re
celves a serious setback within the next
thirty days, there jwill be still further
recessions in price.
The Coast Seamen's Union, which re
cently "passed a resolution condemning
the use of flshtraps, will now endeavor
to'nduce 'Congress to pass a law pro
hibiting the towing of log rafts on the
Pacific Ocean. Of course, the relief
sought by the seaman from these
abuses is not for selfish motives, and
the fact that no sailor ever owned a
fishtrap or sailed on a Jog raft is merely
a coincidence. Still, both of the meas
ures will meet with outside support
No glllnet fisherman will oppose the
effort to abolish flshtraps, and no owner
of a lumber drogher will object to hav
ing log rafts kept off the ocean.
It was the province of Senator Mitch
ell and of Representative Hermann to
decide, each for himself, whether they
would quit their work In Washington
and come to Oregon, to testify in the
land trials. For reasons stated by
themselves they have decided not to
come. Though The Oregonian thinks It
would have been better for the public
service and for themselves, had they
dropped everything at Washington and
come home to testify, yet it realizes
that they are to act upon their own
judgment In the matter, and leave the
result to the general judgment of the
The reason Lawson wrote "Frenzied
Finance" was his abhorrence for the
methods by which the stockholders ii
Amalgamated Copper had been victim
Ized. Now he has passed from words of
sympathy to deeds of sacrifice sacrl
flee by which he endeavors to ruin al
the remaining value the stock pos
The fifth jury in the Ames case at
Minneapolis is unable to agree, and the
greatest and boldest of recent boodle
Mayors will go unpunished. (However,
the country Is able to agree as to Ames
guilt, so the Minneapolis exposures and
prosecutions have not been altogether
Russia In its students has a very
large and busy body of copperheads.
If they would go to Port Arthur and
fight for Russia first, and for them
selves afterwards, they might be enti
tied to more of the world's sympathy.
The discovery that 214 ballots In Den
ver were written by fourteen persons
and 176 ballots by one person would
seem to dispose of the ancient notion
that no Democrat can write. He long
ago learned the value of education.
A fool art critic of Berlin -has begun
an agitation to prevent, the sale and
removal of art treasures to the United
States. Why shouldn't they come to
the United States?
NOTE AND COMMENT. ,
Darn your stockings Jr
Copper copper. T. Lawson.
The Christmas feeling empty pockets.
Governor Vardaman la the boll weevil of
politics. - '. "
Even .Siamese twins don't hang-together
like Tom and Jerri'.
Speaking of the spirit of Christmas,
hat price hot Scotch?
We trust the stork noted" the reference
to it In the Presldent'3 messace.
About thtK timo nf voar "rri" nnV.
. ... v.-.a V . V1-- V.t.
ingg become more popular than over'.
Pat Crowe hag ' forfeited all claims to
kindness by bobbing Into the papers again.
This is the time of year that the glass
with the spoon in It has the best of the
glass with the straw In It.
"Fancy Waists Are in Favor," says the
Brooklyn Eagle. Sure, any old waist la In
favor. If you can get your arm around it.
Carnegie will receive $1.50 a day while'
testifying before the grand jury. Fate
stems determined to make him die dis
Student demonstrations In Russia are
largely shared in by women. Of course;
and we'd like to see the Cossacks that
would dare to charge a hatpin brigade.
The father of Jim Jeffries Is about to go
on a preaching tour. If his spiritual Dunch
rivals the physical punch of his son. we
expect Old Nick to last about one round.
A man In KanAs Ciy was Injured by
the burning of his celluloid collar. With
out being vindictive. It may be said that
Fate now and then makes the penalty fit
In Tonopah a man bored a hole in the
floor 6f a gambling joint and got away
with the bank roll of this roiiletto wheel.
That gives the owner someJdea of what
it feels like to see lt."come green."
The Burnslde Commercial makes the
following slam at conditions in another
"Jackson now announces that it has
neither police force nor saloons. The lit
tle still up In the mountains and the
feuds supply both booze apd bullets."
The cult of the limerick flourishes in
Kansas, as this specimen from the Eldo
rado Republican testifies:
Thero was a yonnjf girl from Sallno
"Who looked like a perfect Albino,
"When asked why her hair
IVaa so fearfully fair.
Her hasty reply tsus, "Damrfno."
A dispatch from St. Petersburc saya
that the 11-story building just opened by
an American manufacturing company 13
the "handsomest structure In Russia."
Presumably the correspondent who sent
thiH dispatch la tired of domes and
minarets and tho alght of a staring steel
and concrete block relieves his homesick
Driving the "last spike" Is a favorite
pastime with presidents and kings, when
they are not "turning the first sod" or
"laying the first brick." In view of the
veneration in which first and last spikes
are hold, the following paragraph is not
devoid of amusing qualities:
The final spike In the railroad from Canton
to Saxnshul was driven the other day. But be
fore. It had been down - hours It was stolen
by tho Chinese. Xew Tork Evening Sun.
The London News thinks that collars
and tall hats will soon have to be creased.
since coats and overcoats have followed
tho fad set by trousers. Why not? Man's
attire is already Idiotic enough to give
grounds for supposing that before long he
will be going around In a four-cornered
garment of tin or some similar comfort
able substance. The armor-clad knights
were never foolish enough to wear their
steel trousers and jackets with four
creases in them.
A New Tork girl of 15 hit upon a clever
way of making money. She used to go
about the streets In a shaky-looking skirt
and when she met a woman with a purse
In her hand, would ask for a pin to keep
the skirt from coming down. The woman
would usually offer tp help the girl. Fre
queniiy ine gin wouia nom tne purse
while hor sympathetic helper would pin
up the Bklrt. It was easy to take out the
money oeroro returning the purso and
then the girl would disappear. The plan
did not brlhg In such big returns) as Mrs,
Chadwick's, but the Inventive girl man
aged to live comfortably on her earnings
until the police heartlessly Interfered.
There Is a queenly young saleswoman In
one of our stores who seems to have a
very accurate Idea of the real significance
of Christmas gifts, says the Washington
Post. I saw her the other day Standing
behind a counter on which lay a number
of curious objects made of paper.
"Will you please to tell me what these
are?" I asked, respectfully.
"Christmas presents," said she, idly
fingering with a bcjeweled hand the price'
less pearls about her throat.
"Yes,'' I said, "but what aro they used
She looked at me languidly, and Instant
ly I wished I dared to tell her that'
really did have a beaver hat and a new
fur collar at home. The finality which
attaches to a Supreme Court decision was
,In her voice.
"They are used for Christmas presents,'
she said. ,
Scandals That Make Portland Famous
Portland la having a good deal of free
advertising just at present. The trial
and conviction of Its leading gamblers
and closing up of tho Chinese fan tan
games follows closely upon the great land
fraud swindles and the conviction of the
principals. Then, to make things still
more Interesting, the City Council and the
government of the municipality has
gotten Into a terrible fuss over the build
ing of the new Tanner-Creek sewer. Port
land Is evidently up against some hard
propositions, but the sensible element will
root out tho rottenness and put the city
on the plane ot respectability it should
have. The grafters and lawbreakers mil
go, in that ctiy as well as everywhere.
i'VoIce of the Land."
That kindly little word, "Zemstvo,
which appears so frequently in news from
Russia these days, is derived from the
noun, "zomlia," meaning land, and the
verb, "vopeet," to clamor. Thus it slg
nlf.es "the voice of the land," and is
council of landed proprietors appointed to
deliberate and report to the central ex
ecutlve the wants of the rural population.
It Is something like an English county
council without the latter's authority, yet
that authority is what it now pleads for.
The Zemstvo was founded in lS&i, and
Alexander II intended It as one of the
most important of his reforms.
GREAT SAILORS OF MODERN TIMES
PIERRE ANDREE DE SUFFREN SAINT-TROPES
(By Arrangement With the Chicago Tribune.)
Ono of the most dangerous enemies the Eng
lish fleet3 have ever met, and without excep
tion the most Illustrious otflcer that has ever
held command In the French navy. Laughton
on Suffren, In "Studies In Naval History."
If the winnina: of brilliant and decisive
victories be the sole test of a sea fight
er's greatness Suffren does not deserve to
rank with such renowned commanders as
De Ruyter and John Paul Jones, Lord
kelson and David Glasgow Farragut. If
audacity and celerity of action, distin
guished tactical ability, dauntless courage
In facing either danger or responsibility,
heroic constancy and resourcefulness to
keep the sea and steadily gain upon the
enemy in spite of difficulties that would
overwhelm any. but the stoutest heart
constitute greatness, then Suffrta was one
of the greatest warriors that ever trod a
deck. Suffren's reputation rests malnly
upon his Indian Ocean campaign. If he
had been properly supported by the
French government and his subordinates
he might have wrested from England her
Indian empire. The French government
and his own captains almost utterly fail
ing to support him, he made astonishing
progress toward that end single-handed.
Suffren sprang from anoblc family of
Provence. At 17 years old he was sont to
Toulon for his naval schooling. It was a
time of almost incessant wars in Europe,-
and naval officers got their training, not
In the p"eace and quiet of an academy, but
upon the rolling and often bloody decK of
a man-of-war. The year after Suffren
arrived at Toulon he received his baptism
of fire on board the ship Mars, which
fought a bloody and successful duel with
the British ship Northumberland on: tne
Scilly Isles. During the next 44 years he
was to fight upon almost every sea and
In almost every clime. In 1747 he was cap
tured by thb British in a fight oft Lako,
Capo Flnlsterre. Soon after ho was ex
changed he went to Malta, where he was
received a3 a knight of St. John, and dur
ing six years took part In the knights
obligatory cruises against their hereditary
enemies, the Turks and tho Alrrerine pi
rates. In 1759 he was captured again by
the British in an engagement off GIbral
In 177S France recognized the indepen
dence of the American colonies and war at
once commenced between England and
France, and Suffren, as captain of the
Fantasque. sailed with Vice-Admiral d'Es-
taing's fleet - for America, and entered
upon the brilliant part of his career.
Foiled in repeated attempts to fight the
enemy on the coast of North America, the
French Admiral on July 2, 1779, assaulted
and took Grenada, a British stronghold in
the Windward Islands. The next day tho
British fleet under Admiral Byron was
seen bearing down under full press of
sail. Suffren, whose ship was at the rear
of the French line, boldly and skilfully
passed to the head of the line, where1 for
more than an hour he received the brunt
of the broadsides from 22 British men-of-war.
The British having passed him, ho
returned swiftly to his place at the foot
of the line and again received tho full
flro of the enemy. His ship was fearfully
damaged, but mainly as a result of his
brilliant maneuvering and the execution
done by his guns the British were com
polled to retire.
After 35 years of subordinate service
Suffren was now to have an Independent
command. The French learned that the
British government had intrusted to Com
modore Johnston the commission of cap
turing the Dutch settlement at tho Cape
of Good Hope. Suffren, having returned
to France, was dispatched with Ave ships
of the line and several transports with
orders to outstrip the British, warn the
Dutch of their danger, and help them beat
off the threatened attack. Johnston had
several days' start of tho French com
mander, but with such celerity did Suffren
proceed that, to tho surprise of both sides.
on April 16, 1781, ho overtook the English
at Port Praya In the Cape Verde Islands.
Two of Suffren'3 ships were far in the
A SUBURB'S GREAT LUCK.
Tho St. Johns Review sounds a note
of warning to the people of that suburb
that Portland wishes to annex St. Johns.
And It proceeds to say:
That soma talk of this kind induged In by
our neighbor on. the south Is not at all sur
prising, in face of all tho fact. "With a de
pleted treasury, brought about by a waste
ful extravagance, and the pursuit oc a pol
icy that means nothing short of municipal
bankruptcy, unless checked, It Is quite nat
ural that they should cast about for some
new source o revenue. "What Is wanted Is
moro prolific "producers." St. Johns will
have an assessed value at the next assess
ment of something near a half million dol
lars, and with a city tax levy of S mills
would bring In a snug sum, and very materi
ally add to the cash assets of our neigh
bor. The city tax In St. Johns has never
exceeded 3 mills, and by provision or tne
proposed charter, tho levy can never exceed
7 mills. The bonding limit of Portland Is
10 per cent of valuation, while the bonding
limit of St. Johns under thfr proposed new-
charter is limited to a per cent oi valua
tion. The reason for a desire on the part
of Portland to annex this growing district
Is very apparent, and the reason for tho
residents of St. Johns to oppose such a move
Is equally apparent, and we don't believe
will be given serious consideration tor one
moment. St. Johns has nothing whatever
to gain and -everything to lose by such an
alliance. The attention, such as public Im
provements, fire protection, given the out
lying districts ot Portland, is not such as
they are entitled to. and in no sense com
mensurate with the taxes paid by such dis
tricts. They are simply neglected, and the
, appropriations to which they aro rightly
entitled diverted to other channels. No,
St. Johns tried the annexation proposition
once, and to Its sorrow, and will not soon
repeat tho error.
Let us say to our suburban neighbrrs
that they need have no fears on this
score. Portland has area enough at this
time, and for a long time. Its suburbs
have proved very costly to tho city. They
have doubled its debt and increased Its
taxation. Portland had St. Johns once,
and doesn't want It again. Certainly not
now. After Portland had built St. Johns
a schoolhouse costing $10,000 and made
othere heavy expenditures on the penin
sula, as much with a view to St. Johns
as to other parts of that section, SL
Johns withdrew, seceded from the city,
but never paid back a cent of the many
thousands expended by the city for her.
Portland didn't complain about it, for
she was willing to let the suburb go, and
so escape further drafts and drains from
that quarter. St. Johns Is now prosper
ous and Is getting ahead all right, and
Portland Is more than wllllhg to' let her
paddle her own' canoe for an Indefinite
period. The "haughty" suburb certainly
will wish to come In again after a while.
Then we'll see.
What's the Worry?
Kansas City Star.
Dr. Shurmann, president of Cornell
University, addressed a New York audi
ence a few nights ago on fancied dangers
of milltarlsin In this country, and among
other thlngshe said:
Take away the Ideal government of the peo
ple, by the people and for the people, and leave
nothing behind but toleroble prosperity, heavy
taxation, a big standing army and a despot over
all as absolute as any Oriental despot, and, as
In the case of the Soman empire, a nation will
fall Into decay and gsadually disappear.
Why,-certainly. That's as plain as the
nose on Cyrano's face. But as long as
none of these things are being done or are
likely to be done, why should Dr. Shur
mann or any other professional alarmist
allow himself to get "fussed up" about
rear of the other members of "ils fleet.
Nevertheless, with customary audacity,
the French commander ran up the signal
to engage and bore down full tilt upon
the enemy with his flagship, the Heros.
Only one other of his vessels, the Ann!
bal, succeeded In taking a position in
the mldstfOf the enemy's line. The Heros
and Arinibal made a gallant fight, buf
the British were too many for them, and
they had at last to put to sea to avoid
capture. The British judiciously decided
not to try- to follow up their advantage.
His mission at the cape accomplished.
the, French commander spread sail for the
Isle de France. French naval Interests
In tho Indian Ocean had heretofore dur
ing this war been Intrusted to pusillani
mous and Incompetent men, and Pondl
cherry, the last French possession on the
xnuian cuusi. una lauvu juits mu nuiiua
of tho British. A change began to come
over the face of things as soon as the
courageous and resourceful Suffren ap
peared. He set about refitting his dam
aged squadron with a swiftness and vigor
hitherto unknown to French administra
tion In India. In two months he was
ready to put to sea.v On February 14, 17S2,
a British fleet of nine ships under Sir Ed
ward Hughes was sighted at Madras.
There at once began between Hughes
and Suffren a 16 months' struggle, during
which four pitched battles were fought,
and which, while giving Hughes a high
reputation, won for Suffren a place In the
front rank of great sea captains. When
the mists of the morning cleared Suffren
wag chagrined to find that the English
ships had got between him and the coast
and were making off with his convoy. The
French commander Immediately prepared
for attack. His dispositions were ex
ceedingly skillful, and he Inflicted heavy
loss upon the enemy, but the Insubordina
tion of five of his senior officers prevent
ed him from winning a decisive victory.
Proceeding to Porto Novo, Suffren, by a
nne stroKo of diplomacy, formed an alli
ance with Hyder An, nabob of Mysore,
who was at war with the English. Then,
having speedily victualed and repaired his
crippled ships, ho set out once more In
search of the British. On April 12 he came
upon them near Trincomalee. The French
fleet was the weaker, and Suffren's senior
officers were again Insubordinate, but once
more he got the better of the fighting.
The rest of the campaign was like its be
ginning. Badly supported from home,
while Hughes was well supported, hl3 offi
cers Insubordinate, his supplies of provi
sions short, his ships crippled, and soon
In every respect Inferior to those of the
enemy, the Indomitable Suffren succeeded
by capturing prizes, by enforcing rigor
ous discipline, by -working himself and his
men almost night and day, not only in
keeping the sea, but In making a brilliant
and successful descent upon Trincomalee,
in fighting two more battles upon the Bea
with Hughes, both of which were French
successes, and finally in completely out
maneuvering hl3 antagonists and relieving
Cuddalore, which was being besieged by
tho English on both land and sea. Sut
fren, despite all the disadvantages under
which he had labored, was now in a posi
tion to proceed more vigorously and moro
effectively than ever against the British.
In September, 1783, however, news arrived
that peace had been signed between Eng
land and France.
Suffren on his return to France was
treated with the most dis anguished honor.
He had been made a Lieutenant-General
after the capture of Trincomalee. The
King now created solely for him a Fourth
Vice-Admiralty, which was abolished on
his death. In 17SS, on tho appearance of
trouble with England, Suffren was given
command of a great fleet which was arm
ing at Brest. On December 8 he was dead.
Apoplexy, it was said, was the cause ot
his sudden demise, and, as he had always
been enormously fatr this seemed credi
ble. Many years later, however, a story,
apparently -well Xouned, came out that h
had been killed In a duel which was ,
direct result of official action taken by
him in India. Since his day Franco has
had no naval commanders of marked abil
ity. S. O. D.
CIGAR STORE TRAGEDY.
"A woman Is only a woman, but a good
cigar 13 a smoke." Kipling.
Scene Any cigar store or cigar depart
ment. Time Present.
(Enter demuro damsel and damsel's
Demure Damsel (to clerk) Er ah I
wish to look at some cigars for a gent
leman. Clerk Yes, ma'am. Something pretty
Demuro Damsel Sir!
Clerk That is-the cigars, of course,
Demure Damsel Oh yes. (Demure
Damsel and friend laugh.)
Friend (in stage whisper) Well, he is,
Demure Damsel Well, now
Clerk Here's a box of our best Havanas
exceedingly fine. A smoke such as any
gentleman will onjoy and, while smoking,
thankfully remember the donor. A gem
for the price.
Friend Oh, I don't like that kind of a
Box. Do you, Maud?
Demure Damsel How much aro they?
Clerk Seven fifty for the box of 50.
(Loud silence for a full minute.)
Demure Damsel No, dear, I don't like
that kind of a box, cither. Let me sea
something cr something else.
(Clerk brings out all kinds and grades
of cigars. None pleases- Friend suddenly
espies a bargain sale on tho counter.)
Friend Oh, Maud! Do look at these!
"Lo Flor de Cabbageos. Strictly domestic
wrapper." What lovely pictures on tho
cover of tho box! And, Maud, look! Only
98 cents for 50.
Maud I'll take a box of those, please.
(Takes purchase and both leave store,
talking of the joy In store for a certain
Clerk (looking after them, with feeling)
Russia's Bulk Its Weakness.
From Letter In New York Sun.
Granted the enormous area dominated
by the Romanoff dynasty, and an aggre
gate population of 129,000,000, an honest
dissection will show that its huge bulk
is Russia's greatest weakness.
- Out of the total general population, the
following races, conquered and held In
subjection, are naturally looking for an
opportunity to release themselves from
Sartens and Bickis 3.000,000
This leaves only 20,000,000. genuine Rus
sians in whom. unlimited confidence might
be placed, were not the majority of the
true Russians as dissatisfied as the for
eign races held in subjection. This d:r
satisfactlon Is evidenced by the assassi
nation of nrominent offlpials
. Its Up to the People.
More shooting on the street Sunday
night In front ot the postofflce. Kow long
will such conduct be allowed to continue?
Such could be and should be stopped; but
when will. It be? When the people take
the matter la. hand. Not before.