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About The Bend bulletin. (Bend, Or.) 1903-1931 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 6, 1912)
Till: UKSU lU'M.KTI.V, IIHVI), WKUNKHUAV, NOVKMIItilt 0, 1012.
Dry Land Farming
Uy I'ruft TlioitinN Hliatv.
HOII. MOIKTl'ltlJ ItllV I'AHMINO.
In Ilia farming u( dry aroaa tho
question of oo 1 1 moisture In nlMin
liortniitr To fnrm such urea Ititollt
ueiilly ttn1 successfully tho fanner
should have Information nKnrilliiR:
(1) tho amount mat character of the
precipitation) (2) Hit) rnto of the
evaporation; (3) tho methods by
which water tinty be retained In the
soil until needed, ami ft) tho plain
Unit tuny he nruwu with tho mint
roinilte success under the conditions
When judging of rainfall and the
use that la to ho made of the nine,
(he farmer should have Information
not only In tenure) tn the amount of
.'the annual precipitation, hut also
with reference! (1) to tho period
covered by the monls; (2) tlm sea
mm or seasons when It fall, and (3)
tho manner In which It full. The
Ioniser thu period durliiK which the
record have been kept, tho more
reliable are the-y. It U never safe
to bate thu nature of thu fariuiiiK to
h followed on the record of preclpl
tntlon for one or two seasons, the
words vary no much In dlrfereut
year. In dry arras the rainfall of
omt year l sometimes I tin than one
half of normal, and In other yoara It
U Really In rxcvfa of tho name Tho
season at which the rain fall haa it
crtntly Ituportant InDuenco, not only
In diitrrmlnliiK thu crop that ahull
ho Krown, hut alio tlm preolie char
acter of the Ullage that ahuuld be
adopted. Theie differ very material
ly when the hulk of the precipitation
full In the winter In the ono case
and In the summer In the other. The
fc manner of the precipitation haa alio
j an ImiNirtant Influence on the moth
hub mat Riiuuiu n nuupieu in uruur
to utilise) It to the best advantaxe.
While tho degree of evaporation I
probably less Important than the
amount of the precipitation, It li
nevertheless greatly lmiortant. In
areaa far southward In the dry belt,
the precipitation called for to pro
duce plant growth I very consider
ahly more than what I called for to
effect tho name In arena of the same
altitude hut loented far to the north
The inethoda by which water may
bo retained In tho soil until It I
needeil Involvo consideration of tlm
handling of th soil In alt lit phase,
lucludliii:: tl) the breaking up of tho
eauni: (I) tho iwiMniMiit plowing.
II) the varliiHa proeeesea of IIIIuk
IncludliiK pucklsur, dlMlHg, harrow
Inr and rolling; (I) siiiwolllng, and
IS) aueeeMtktn In the crops that am
lo bo grown.
Tk plant that may bo grown with
Ike greatest sderos Is In Itself an tin
IHirUHt study. The speelea of plants
not only dlffor very much In their
adaption to dry areas, tint this I also
truo of varieties of the wmo species.
To atteinpt to grow those laeklng In
adaption would not bo wise. The
value of rorreet Information along
these Ilium cannot easily be overesti
mated. Water In Keml.arhl Soils.
Water owmrs In all nulls: tl) aa
free water; (2) capillary water. (J)
hygroscopic wntwr. and the water
that riiHa away and la lost In the mil
In ml-arld are tho frc water and
the walor that runs away la much
less abundant than In humid areas.
The distinctions thus ghou are not
nharply drawn, as will bo apparent
from what la said Mow.
Free water, sometimes called gravi
tational water, la that which fills the
poro space between tho soil grains
and moves down through the soil by
rrnvlty. When preent In excess It
excludes the air so aa to hinder
heulthy plant growth and In inaiiv
Instances to conAna It to growth that
la not of much vnluo. I'asslng down
Into tho subsoil, It may reach a point
where further descent ceases, And
f where ascent may begin, when It be
cornea capillary water, which la very
. frequently the ease In senibnrld soils.
)u huinlil nreaa it frequently passea
down until .It reaches ground water
below, when it may mavu lutorully
' through tho noil until It reaches some
outlut, as for Instance, through
springs. When the water tnhlo la
uiioi tno nenp nor iuo uimniii iruju mu
nirfaco and when the supply Is con
plnnts by nupplylnK them with water
' carried to tho roots through capll
- Jury action. Water occur a thua not
Infrequently In tho basins of sunit
nrld countries, more especially whine
. mountnlnn occur. When thua found
It romca front higher Iqvels, In Its
downward inoveiueut It finds u stnft
Uiu or subsoil that 'a usually aulll
cluutly porous to ndm't of frou move
ment laterally. Such movement of
water In thu Midi la spoken or ua boo
page. The presence of audi water at
proper levels will frequently main
tain good crops In arena whero thoy
will completely full when not sup
plied from such a source.
When the ulr npacea between tho
' soil grulnu nro completely filled, tho
maximum of gravitational wutor U
presont. Tho. capacity of dry farm
noils thua to hold th'a water w1"' "'
course, vary, but on tho uverngo It )b
from nay 36 to 40 por cent of tho dry
weight of tho noil, In humid soils
such wator moves downward after
evory heavy riiln.'unt'l It reachoa tho
water table, that In, provld'ng It In
i not too distant, when It flown out Into
streams, In dry nroan the wutor
,' tahlo In tho ordinary neuse of tho
term Is soldom present. In such
arena It goes down an far as the force
of gravity can take It, which Is, of
course, dependent upon tlm supply.
It la thua atored In tho subsoil an
capillary water until drawn upon by
plants In process of growth, In arena
(hat are properly cultivated. Tho
great Importance of such water to the
dry farmer cannot easily bo overesti
mated, hence It should bo his aim to
Increase this supply to tho greatest
extent practicable, Thin, of course,
can only bo accomplished by keeping
the noil sufficiently open lo admit ol
the downward passage of all the
water that falls, and by not cropping
so frequently as to completely ex
haust the supply.
Capillary water In the thin film
that surrounds and adheres to each
soil grain. It In the outcome of tho
nttrucllon between noil grains and
wator which In always present, lie
causa of tho almost Infinite number of
the noil grains, an average soil may
hold a largu amount of capillary
water. As the fineness of the will
grains Increasen, It In mnnlfesl that
tho capacity of the soil to hold capil
lary water will Increase. Thus It Is
that thu capacity of clny loams to
hold capillary water Is much greater
than that of nnndy loams. King In
authority for the statement that thu
largest amount of water that can be
held In clay loams varlca from 22 67
to 18.10 per cent, In nnndy loams
from 17. Cf. to 10,07 per cent, and In
humus soils from H.12 to 21.20 per
The movement of capillary wator
In the soil Is upward when It moves.
It climbs thua on the principle that
oil climbs up through the ore spaces
of s lamp wick when the lamp Is
lighted. The supply of oil that re
news the flame In thus maintained
until the oil la consumed, when tho
flame must cease. Capillary water
la thua drawn upon nn the nupply
above above become exhausted. It
may be drawn up In two ways; first
to nupply water removed from the
surface by evaporation, and, second,
to renew tho supply called for by
plants In process . of growth. If
evaporation should virtually cease, aa
It does frequently In winter In the
absence of plant growth, the move
ment of capillary water would prac
tically cnm for thu time being. The
movement of water In the soil may be
thua summarlied. (1) It enters tno
soil In the form of rain or melted
snow. (2) It moves downward In
the soil as gravitational water until
It Is converted Into capillary water or
until It reaches the water table be
low. (3) Tho dlstancu that It goes
down as gravitational water before
It In converted Into capillary water
will depend mainly on thu dryness of
the soil and on tho copious eharaoter
or otherwise of tho precipitation. 14)
The rapidity of the downward move
merit will bo accelerated by lucreiue
In thu degree of the soil saturation,
(fi) It Is being continually drawn up
on by thu Influences of evaporation
and to supply the needs of growing
plant. (6) These drafts lead lo that
upward meveiucut of the water
known as etiplliary movement. I")
When the supply of capillary ;fr In
too small to meet '-ho needs of tlm
Plants lbt Imgu'ih proportionally
In their growth To maintain nuth
supplv In one of tno most Important
questions llmt enn engngo tho utten
tloa or tho dry land farmer.
Hygroscopic water In water that Is
held within tho soil grain. The
proportion of the hygroscopic water
in the soil varies In soils and In local
ities, In so mo very dry areas this
percentage has been placed at less
than 2 per cent.
Whether tuch water aid to any
extent In promoting plant growth Is
a disputed question. It may aid In
keeping tho soil cooler than It would
otherwise he In warm areas. It may
ulto exercise some Influence In bring
ing lant food Into Motion, but there
In not onourh of It present lu tho noil
to make It u c crying agent.
The run of. raters aru those that
flow away: tl) In quick melting of
tho winter snows; (2) from tht
downpour of (orrontlal rains, und (3)
from tho contlndanca of prolonged
rainfall. Especially In ureas whero
"Chinook" wind prevail, tho snow
melt no rapidly that much of It runs
avtay before It can sink Into thu noil.
In inuqli of thu neml-arld country rain
frequently fall lu showers that nro
dashing In character. In some local
Idea those assume thu character of n
downpour. Occasionally cloudbursts
occur, and when thoy do tho rnn falls
lu ahoat. When It rail thu much
or thu water Is lost to tho noil, much
of tho noil I nisi) removed to lower
lovols and tho gullying of tho laud bo-
come moro pronounced. Tho aim
should be, of course, to prevent such
loss as far a this may ho round prac
ticable. Tho loss from thu third
source mentioned I soldo lueorloua,
a prolonged nnd heavy rain seldom
occur In dry ureas,
(To Do Contlnuod)
Kj IVH AlUtANdlC HANQUKT.
'Tho Knights or Pythias lodge, or
llond will have high Jinks this even
ing In tho Suthur Hull, In celebra
tion or occupying tholr new qunrtora
thoro. The first, second and third
ranks will be put on during tho eve
ning. At 11:30 there will bo an
adjournment to Hotel Wright whero
a banquet will be served. Tho local
loriga officials wish It to ho known
(hat all knight", whether members
In llciiil or not, nro Invited lo attend
and participate In tho gnyetlcs,
NOTICi: I'OH I'L'IIMCATION.
Department or the Interior, U, H.
Land Ofllco at Tho Dalles, Oregon,
October 21st, 1012,
Notice Is hereby given that Itnlph
A, Dunn of llend, Oregon, who on
Juno 201)), 1100, made Desert lnnd
Hnlry No. 041, Horlnl No. 04 47, for
K'sNI-U, section 2f., township IB
south, rango 12 east, Wlllamntto Mo
rldlnn, has filed notlco of Intention
to muko final desert proof, to estab
lish claim to tho land above described
before II, C. Kills, U. H, Commission-
Arc coveted remember
nnct-fl, but whnt could be
more greatly appreciated
by your family nnel friends
than n nicely finished pho
tograph? With n now complete
equipment Individual at
tention to each sittini -nnd
our portraits will be second
Come In and Inspect our
truty and down-to-date se
lection of Holiday mount
THREE SPECIAL FREE
for ladles November 9th,
10th and 11th. A nicely
finished and mounted cabi
net photograph free to
each lady! Mrs. Todd will
assist in posingand draping.
The Elite Studio.
See me when you want wood.
1 WILL SAVE YOU MONFAr,
F. M. Carter
The Wood Man.
TO THE RESCUE
Ws will v your Itnsn. but you must
not was much lira Etttlna our ru"
band at work
LOW PRICES, BBTTBR SERVICE
Bend Steam Laundry.
Put Your Duds
In Our Suds"
cr, at his office at llend, Oregon, on
tho noth day of November, 1012.
Claimant uamen nn wltncnscn
Mllo W. Wllaon, Henry Blnrr, Oeorge
V., Ixjwell and Kenneth It. Dunn, all
of Ilnnd, Oregon,
C. W. mooiu:,
First Class Work
of all kinds
Ajrt. for Washington
and Mayer Shoes.
R. H. LOVEN
Wall street, Bend, Ore
Wall Fnpsr at
N. P. WEIDER
Chtspcst nnd Best Wall I'tter Sam
ples in the county. Oct
Office sctbu ktrcit ft no po-toSc
Dos J9. Ileud, Oregon.
Clover Leaf Dairy
nnd we will deliver
S. L. STAATS, Prop.
the Star Theatre
enn be rented any
nf ternoon for meet
tags of all kinds.
U. N. Hoffman, Mgr.
' First Class
J. J. KLEIN, Proprietor.
MRS. W. D. CURSEY, Mtr,
Fino ani Popular Line of
Wall Street, Bend, Orejron
i .'' -
R. H. DEYARMOND
We know how to do nil
kinds of Machine Work.
TRY US AND SEE.
VAUMBI.8 INFORMATION FRKU
If you hST sq Invention or sny
patent matter, write Immediately to
W.W.WKiailT. wintered attorney,
Loan & Truat Olds. Wahlnton,D. C.
IIHIl'K I'OK I'lHTKIlNH.
Tho llond Ilrlck Company desires
(o call special aUentlon (o tho ad
vantages of using brick for cistern
and similar work. It is the most
economical nnd the most satis
factory material, 22tf
CJIVK I'NKXCKf.I.KIs HKKVICK.
Oood harbor service? That in
what you want, or course. Thero In
ono shop In llend where you always
get this, at Innes & Davidson's, on
Oregon street near Wall, Innes &
Davidson's Is tho pioneer harber shop
or the city, and they have, by their
courteous and superior service,
gained a large patronage. That
haircut and shave that you need
better get them at Innes St David
KOTICK roll PUItMCATION
Department or tho Interior, 17. S.
land Office at The Dalles, Oregon,
October 16th, 1012.
Notice In hereby given that Elmer
A. Antes, of llend, Oregon, who, on
September 13th, 1911, msde home
stead entry No. 00482, for NEU,
Section 2G, Township 20 South,
Range 16 East, Willamette Meridian,
haa filed notice of Intention to make
final commutation proof, to estab
lish claim to tho land above de
scribed, Ittforo H. C. Ellin, V. 8.
Commissioner, at his office at Uend,
Oregon, on the 30th day of Novem
Claimant names as witnesses:
Orlea O. King, Peter Jordan, O. C.
Ilenklo and W. C. ifcCulston all of
C. W. MOORE.
33-37 pd Register.
The United Warehouse
Doctors Use Ibis for Eczema
Dr. Evan. EsCommlstoner of llcalt i,
ays; Tlitra Is almost no relation be
tween skin diseases and the tlood, ' "ino
akin must bo cured throush tho t'. In.
The cerms must bo washed out, cid so
alveo hove long sko l n found t.'Cli
less. The most adrar.c I physicians of
this country are now acned on this, and
ro preicrlulnc a, wash f wlnte rtc-,
thymol and othrr Ingredients for ecttm
nd all other skin diseases. This com
pound Is known 1XD.D. rrcscript.cn
Our nursery is located on Powell Butte, fourteen miles
east of Bend. Our trees are the kind we recommend
after over thirty years experience in the fruit business
in this neighborhood. Our prices and treatment will
please 'you. Catalog free on request. Come and see
our orchards and nursery. Office address, Prineville, Ore.
LAFOLLETTE NURSER.Y COl
I J. ii. musqroVb
THE LOTUS BAR
Schmidt & Musgrove, Props,
WINES LIQUORS CIGARS
ONLY THE BEST OF QOODS HANDLED
1 Bond Street
NOTICE FOR Pl'IIMCATIO.V.
Department of the Inlorior, V, B.
Land Ofllco at The Dalles, Oregon,
October nth, 1912.
Notlco is hereby glvrn that Albert
Karryman, of Rend, Oregon, who, on
February Sth, 19C9, mndo homestead
entry No. 02H0, for Ui NK't. Sec
tion 7, Township 17 South, Rango 12
East, Willamette Meridian, has filed
notlco of Intention to make final
three year proof, to establish claim to
the land above described, before H,
C. Ellis, U. 8. Commissioner, at bis
office, at Rend, Oregon, on tho 3rd
day or December, 1912.
Claimant names ns witnesses:
John K. Young, Earl D. Houston.
George Rates or Rend, Oregon, and
Georgo W. Horner of taldlaw, Ore
gon. C. W. MOORE.
NOTICE FOIl PUflMCATIO.V
Department of tho Interior, U, 8.
Land Office at Tho Dalles, Oregon,
October ICth, 1912.
Notlco Is hereby given that C. 8.
Renson, guardian of Jense L. Poush,
of Rend, Oregon, who, on Juno 19th,
1907, made homestead entry No.
15542. Serial No. 04113, for NW,
Section 8, Township 18 South, Range
1C East Willamette Meridian, ha
filed notlco of Intention to roako
final five year proof, to establish
claim to tho land abovo described,
before H. C. Ellis, U. 8. Commiss
ioner, at hlf office at Rend, Oregon,
on the ZCth day of Novemler, 1912,
Claimant names an witnesses: C.
H. Erlckson. Oliver Erlcknon of Rend,
Oregon. Oeorge T. Kltchlng and
Ralph E. Gatea, of Rolicrts, Oregon.
C. W. MOORE,
Cr. Holmes, the well known skin spe
cialist writes: "I am convinced that th4
P.D.I). Prescription la eta much a kpcclOu
for eczema, aa quinine, for malaria. I
liare been pretcrlblnr; the D.D.D. remedy
for years." It will take away the itch
the Instant you apply It.
In fact, we are so sure ot what D.D.D.
will do for you that wo will be clad,
to let you have a II bottle on our truar
antee that It will cott you notlilnc un
leu you nnd that It does the work.
Patterson Drug Company.
W. F, SCHMIDT i
Bend, Qrsgoi T