Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About Oregon spectator. (Oregon City, O.T. [i.e. Or.]) 1846-1855 | View Entire Issue (Oct. 18, 1849)
tCttkitU y Wiim Uitrtiott
inr tho nighLV
er sidnkv nri.
i JfctaifM, Un nltasn ultjii.
r bsry U(li
r M WW stiadssry ry .
sates, ikun assists
'wf . ff T IMU CftMsH tfoon
aaassaaasiiii incsnss sows
na starry rytsi
I,' atjat-k bsih a nh.
TO i.-.rr . ' .
- SSB?SSSISIS M FylCB
-MjWsWxtsasssx, Willi jssfclnj hurt
Brt MM laq Um hr
i fitf Iraa Calea, aatl tko
: ,VMtwMM HcvaiBiicaa
of tho .Union, ly
i of war into tho heart of
MttktL mm & jutV-..aa.
I f i hj ll IT I aMtu a JU.lAHkk .-..I
if'ipT taxation, might eventually com.
' ftpw Ik fate of the republican huti.
'ttlloaa. Butweotight sot to confound
; Mm IMura praepects of the republic with
. Mil f tko Union. The Union U an ac-
jfUart,' wUch will Uat only to long aa dr.
; yaiHiacM are faroratle to iu exfitence ;
mm a repuhlicaa form of government
;iaaaMtoiM la be tho natural cate of
i ; wMoa aotbiag but the con.
Mai afkoatilo cauuk alway
MNag M W eaaw mrtctloo, codld change
- law a moaarcar. The Union dxista Diin.
pafyaily la tho law which forroW It: one
WMlauaar, one cnange in public opinion,
:aWM deetroy A for crer : hut the rcnub.
p jn aaa a nucn oecper lounuatisn to ret
What b understood bv renubllcan ro-
rvarataeat to tho United Sutcs, is the slow
ad quiet action "of society upon itself.
It k a regular Mate of things really dun.
sMcaaoa tua eniutucnco wtu or I ho pec-
, pi. Itlaaoaaclfiatory government under
WsssCsifiaailntlMii are allowed time to
aajsj to waich tbsy are deliberately
a, ana executea witn mituro judg.
The rooublicans in tho lnltml
aet a triab value upon morality, re.
LidigioM belief, and acknowledge
xiateaoe of riahta. Tiiey nroieir lo
pumu a people ougnt to ne moral, .
is,aatf lamacrate, In proportion m it
. What to called tho rcpublio in
Uaitad'Statea. (a the tranouil rule of
frJs lasajnrilr, wwch, after having had time
w naawi ana to givo proot or its
a, lalsst eommou source of all tho
i of la state. But the power of
la not ol Itseii unlimited.
lb awral world humanity, justice, and
aajov an undisputed supremacy;
Bstnueal world vested rlchts ere
I with no leas deference. The ma.
r recognizes these two harriers ; and
w and men overstep tnem, ii is be
Iiko individual!, it has passions,
tx tnem, ii it prone to do what Is
j, while it discerns what is right,
. tb dWmagoguei of Europe luvo
keUanue discoveries. A rtwublio is
acoordiflg to tbcm, tho rulo of tho
rty, aa na nnnerto been taught, ii.t
9 oi inoso wno are strenuous parti.
' tho majority. It is not tho pco-
preponderates in this kind of oro.
nt, but those who best know what
the good of Ihe people. A happy
ilea, whlchallows men t j act in the.
i of nations without wssultlnc them.
MOMtm ibcir gratitude wliile their
larcspurncd. A republican govern.
. . ..!.-
, moreover, u ino oniy ono wiiicii
tbe right of doing whatever it
, and despising what men have
raapected. from tho hii'lust moral
atioM totbe vulgar rulosof common
nUtiu seen suppoe.i, until our
that despotism was odious, undei
lorm It appeared. Hut it Is a
,. W...l .1 . !
eryoi nwuera uays inai iucro are .
b thugs as lcailitnatotvraiiny
Mice, provided they aro excrchi d
, if 1 ?
diss of, tit pcoplo. ,
1 Ideas viilcu.tho Americans havo
I respecting (he republican form of
nment, render it easy for them to
nelerit, ar.d ansuro its duration. If.
sir country, ibis form bo oflon nractl.
f laid, at leat it Is theoretically good ;
it tb ad. tho pcoplo always act in
my wnn 11,
irapmibie, at the foundation or
t, and ll would still bo difficult.
abliab a cant ral administration in
Siiibabltauts are dispersed
oaco. and separated hv
r nalaral obstacles, for one man
IMW direct Iho details or their
Amorica is tlieretoro pro-cm.
1 cosjatry of provincial and
govarsvmeul. To this caU'so,
ipiaimy lelt by an tho Kuro-
sjew world, the Aoglo.Amcr.
jastl others -culisr m
Al ih lime of ilia settlement of the
North American colonics, municipal I ''
crtv had already-penetrated Into lite law
i "well m llio inauncra ol tint Cnlcli,
nnil tiin emigrants ndonted tt. not onlv 0.
a neccKMrviMni?. Inn as a benefit winch
they knew" how to appreciate. We liar ll may lw apprehended ili.it iiirn, prr.
already seen ihomanhertn which tin ivl. j initially thw.ii'e.l in ilit-ir'ilt ij;tw by lli
onleswcro founded; every province, and , mutability "I legislation, will leant In hvh
almost every district, was peopled .'par. iiK)ii icpublhaii institutions mi iiicun.
ately by men wlmworo stranger to emit vctiicui form nf wki; ; the evil rosnl
ollur, or who associated with very differ- ting from the instiibilitv of tho secondary
rut purposes. The Ihtglish settlors in the enactments, mi-tit then iimo n doubt as
United Blalcs, l!reforc, early perceived to tho nature of tho fuii.laiiieiit.il prinel
that they Were ifivIJrt Into n great Hum pics of the ootistitiiti..n, nn.l indirectly
ber of small Mid distinct communities j bring aKnit .1 lovulution ; luu ililt coeh
which belonged to no common ci litre ; is still votv rrntnti'. ,
anJ that It was needful for each of these ll haeeii ebjcclcil by nn Ainoriean
little communities to take care of its own i rev tew-, that our author ii mistaken in
afTair. since there di.l not npiiear t U cliarjiiwotir la iih iiftnhililv. ami in
any central authority which wai ttattir
ally hound nnd easily enabled to proi nl
for them. Thus, tho nature of the cun
Iry, tho manner in which the ItriiWt col.
oules were foundcJ, tho habits of the tint
emigrants, in short everythinj:, united to
promote, in an extraordinary degree, mu
nicipal and proxinclal liberties.
In tho United Slates, tlierefore, the mass
of the institutions of the country is cssen.
tially republican j and in order pernia.
nenlly to destroy the laws which form the
basis of tho republic, it would lo neces
sary to aliolish all the tans at once. At
the present day, It would he own more
diihculrfora party to succeed in founding
a monarchy in the United Slates, than for
a set of men to proclaim that Trance
should henceforward bo a republic. Hoy.
ally would net find a system of legislation
prepared for it beforehand; and a mon
archy would then exist, really siirroun.
detl hv republican Institutions. The mo.
narchial principle would likewise hate
great difliculty in penetrating into the j
manners of tho Americans. i
In the Untied .Slates, ihe sjvereignt) of
the people is not an Isolated dourinc l.'ar
ing no relation to tho prevailing manners
and ideas of the pcoplo : it may, on the
contrary, he regarded as a last link of n
chain ol opinions which hinds tho whole
Anglo-American world. That I'rovidtuee
hat given lo every human being the d..
grcoof reason necessary to direct himself
in the affairs which interest him cactus
ively; such is the grand maxim upon
rltti ntfc.ll ftml tw1tfli,l m-vlitv r.t ...
fee United Stales. Tho father of a futil
ity applies it to ids children ; tiitf master
tt hi servants ; 'the township to its oS-
cers; tlie province to its touhsiiipt; the
atatc to the prov'nees; the Union to the
states; ami when extended to the nation,
it becomes the doctrine of tho iovereignty
of tho people.
Thus, in tho United States, tho funda
mental principle of tho republic is the
samo which governs tho greater part of
human actions ; republican notions insin
uate themselves into all the ideas, ouiu
ions, and habits of tho Americans, wiulc
ihey are formally recomilzcd by the lcgii.
lition: and before this legislation can be
altered, mo wnoie community must tin-
drrmv verv sf-rlmis rhnnfM In tlm ITt.i.
tmA f3l,Aa MVAn (l-i. .aII..I.-. iF ..h.i f '
.'V M.U.10, v.v.l ,..v .ll.gl.Jll v, ,llufc VI
the citizens is republican, since ll submits
the truths of tho other world lo private
judgment: as in politics the care'of its
temporal interests is aliandoned to the
good sense of Ihe people. Thus every
man is allowed freely to take that road
which lis thinks will lead him to hcavtn;
lust as the lnw permits every citizen to
nave me rignt oi choosing his
It is evident that nothing but n In.jg
scries oKvovcnts, all having llio same ten-
uency, can sututuuto lor this coininnaiion
oi taws, opinions, and manners, a mass ol
opnosito opinions, manners and laws. '
in America, they can only yield after a
laborious sociol proccts, often interruptc I,
and as often resumed; they will have
many apparent revivals, end will not Is.-,
come totally extinct until an entirely new
people shall have succeeded to that w Inch
i ii.-j. uw. . vim 'iiuvi,,vn uiu u K-risu
now exists. Now, it must I-o adntitti
that there Is no symptom or presage of the
approach of such a revolution. There is ,
nothingmoro striking to a jicrson newly
nrritcu in inc united htates, than the
kind of tumultuous agitation in which I.e
ssiIb wvf itlrmm I .aI Mmm f,l..1M... - ?..
"; ,'" '" u""c'.1. "" "'an i no,
finds political society. Tho laws are in-
ccssantly changing, and at first tight it
that a pcoplo so variallo
its desires should avoid adopting, w jth.
ililist Hisna fit' lt... - t. I..
avorysetiicu state 01 roclcly; Iho other
"... ... ... I
.- ino very ouiiuaiions 01 1110 cnnstl.
.lition, arid atlueks, tho ruudamcntal prin.
(-iriii-su nf Isrtls.lntlxrt list. ,.t n
.Si ii '. 1 ei "" "" ;i " ".!"
Mammy s always rolloiud by trouble, '
m Hi . . .. .1. 1
I I...I I.I .. .. . 1.
si""u""'"i . " iiw miuuii uiviitui. .
icrs uuuer 11, 11 in a statu 01 viln
KxperiMicosl.ov.sthat Ihcso two l.ii.ds I
oriigislativoiustabdlly havo no necessary
connexion; for Ihey have been found util-'
tOU Or fcfft-al... APr-tiriliti, (nil...... K...l
i , --.."...rt i' ...... s hiixii'i
'.'"..".'"''"" u nri is cominon In
... u ...u,. Qiiui..- u. ..ii..'. ii i.intnii mil- nrit .r. rr .... ....n .. . ... ........ .
-,--- -, --,... . ,v,. mi. wKigjHiHii ., iiaiurai f
, , , -it"-,"".' vim uiu uV cAioncu item iiic-ii iv . ucniig sum asavago iopie, nouso win
hcnslcns arc, however, premnturc; the Iconstrnint. ' strength derived from civiliJailon, and as
stability which a reels tiolliical Invtilu. I I do n,t thinka single people can bo , " Inw.glver, who, in an ago of persecution
hnsisof two kinds which ought not to '0,1101.. I, sir.co human society begi,,, tn 1 x. ado religious liberty tho corner slono of
Lc confounded: llio first, which modifies ,1st, which has, by its own ffl, will und a Klilv. Hut his wrlllngi and his llf.i
secondary laws, is not incoinnat Mo with . hv na own ,,nri!m.. ..,..,,, ...1 .... 1 crM-T. ,,l.,in.lnni r.r.r. if;.. i. .. .. . .
new lorm oi coveriimMit. muMi n...rn. .!....- . n.. .... .. i . ..
,i,iC.rn?'i ,'&tV'e.kc,,,l',: -! wo-stl.c sl.-Miny of the U,an;, and of ferment with Intrigu.sof gallantry and in
America is oneiiehango their Jaw, Im the llarhariaus ttfl.rlh.m. It r.,,,t.. Iriituos of ambition. The troffio In lion-
mo luuuumiuii oi mo constitution
'Inn.., .1..-. .1. .! ,. , .
!.!.. .!- .;' ,....-. ...x,
a si ! svsis) in s liu iL-niiiiiii nri urn oniiiii
tTio s'un uud' the return of iho seuw.'iis.
Amonc ihcin Iho roval lower had ii.iil..-r
..i . .... ....
does the mil i ,1 - ' ' . "T.V I
uoesihe renuhllcan rovcriiinciit exist in 'n
America, without cnntciitlonornposiii'inj
wilhotil prwfs and irgiiiiien. In a t,nit
i ir Pi i ' ' " ,,onurc"1'" lirl- arrivid i.i inviolable p,:,j,KI , n, ,.xt ... '
rh- nt lfVVUi V':;""",' w,y"M; and hothiiig i,imt(.N , .. a ,,'
IricnJa or the monarchy, hut Ihey ihouuht Ilo is iil..Ii- ... r.....iti. .. ""',"""
II Impoaslblo , ,? pu, nnhlngln L Z$& "'" "" "'
Ihov received It n wnremlfcn in, r.,.. n ' ' ! ' '
,;, I, I,,,,,, ." .... ... 1 '." ix'i-iir, iir uiu sup.
A lerica.wlihouicniitcntlonornp osiil'iitilpoitol U,, ,,.,,.. , .n,;ir,u,. ,. 1,. ,'..
Ineri-cmcnt, n vrt ot rem imlwmltr.
lit however, my .. ion that, hvchang.
..ii'i i". .r ami. ' I t-i. as often ns
t ! ilo Hi ul.itl' mi ' f il'i I'nll
2ilnlcsv.iiiiimr.iiii.' llio t ti I it r IaMIIi nf
I their oiuimirnl
!aii'. e to th.1 charge, tlto itiiuiicihv of
our liiiiil.iuii'iit.il pi.tlio.il imtilulfons hat
Itch onlr.isti'.l with tho resolutions in
Traiuv. Hut the objection proceeds up
on a mistake of the author's meaning,
uhkhatthis pa-o is ery clently etpres.
sid. lie refers to the instability which
modifies MtemUry laiet, and not to that
which hak the fiiindations of the con.
stitiition. The distinction is emnlly sound
and phitooihu', and th.se in the least ac
quainted with the history of our' lelTa.
lion, must bear witucs.-. to tin truth of the
author's remarks. The freitient reis
ionsof the statutes of the :.r- a rcinlered
neeeary by the multitude, lariety, and
often the intradiction of tit. run tmrnts,
furnish abundant exid.uce of tins nota
bility. Amtrie,in I'.ililor.
It my, however, be foreseen. ct en now,
that when the Ameneaiis loo their re.
publican iiKtitutious, they will speedily
arrlw nt a despotic j; n.-rnuuut. without
a lona interval of limited moinriliv
Monlesouieu remarked, that nothing is
nurc abvilutc than the nittliorttv of a
prince win immediately succeeds n re
public, since the powers which had fi.ir
iov.lv tccn entrusted Uan ilectrd mngis
Irate are then transferrcil to an heredttnrv
sovereign. This is true in gin. ral, but it
is more peculiarly applicable tv a demo
cratic republic In the United Stales, the
magistrates are no' dieted bv a mrucii.
lar class of citizens, but U the majontv
of the natiiu; thev are the immediuli
representatives of- the pasvuiisof the mul
titude ; and as they are wholly denendiut
Uii its pleasure, they cito'nctbcr ha
tred n'.T Icar . hence, rs I have a!rca,l
.1. .... ..... I...I.. .... l... I .,).... ,.
limit their i.illuence, and thev are h. ft in
nl fi il..fit rtr p.,svt
iwwcr. This state of things has eiteeii-
- iHt US.US VI IIIU IIHI I
dcrcd habit which would onlluo ilv If; laliimnics wureiiiiugled accusations ittuih
tho American magittrate would ritatu his better founded.
power, but he would cense lo tn nspousi. Tosnaklhc whojc truth concerning
hie fjr the ei reive of u ; nn.! it is nuos. i'enn is n task V hich requires oomo cuur
siblc to say what bouudscould then l set i age, for he isra;h-r a" "mythical than a
S- .nc of our European jwliticisns ex
pecttcsec an aristocracy sriso in Amuri
ca, and tiiey nirccily prcilicl the exact
period nt winch it "ill he all
tho reins of Government. I have ore
j viously observed, and I ricat mv aser.
nun, mai ii.- prcsci.i iciiiieiny . I .imeri.
can society appear, to me' tu become
more and more democratic. Neverlne.
less, 1 do not assort that th" Anient nt.it
will not, nt some future time restrict the
circle of political rights in tle-ir country,
or confiscate th-m Holds n- ihe advontoge
of n single Indiviihial ; bull cannot im.
ai;iiieiiisi iiiey win ever Lesion tic ex
elusive exercise of them in. n n privde"
(d class of eitiVens, or, in other words, '
that (hex will ever found an an,;
An ar.siof,ratic Ivly is comosi d of'a
'cettain ifimyer or crirMis, who, unhuiit
being very lur remind from the mass of
tlm prnplp, nr . ncvrrtl i hss, permancinly
swiuiivii uoqv. u: n uouy which it is
easy lo i u h. a..d difh'cull to strike j with
width th it!c are .ti dm!-. . ninti. I.m
"im which liny i en never combine,
Xoihiig can !
inaginr I more ccntrary
Iho secret nrotrf until s iif
oior I innro rr.i, m.v
to n.ilurc and to the secret protrfimnits ofl)r two points of high iinportanro ho had)
U l-lini.n I.A..I . I ... . ... !. 1... I ....linn, mn.n m- ... .1.... ... .. . !.! .I-..I
the human heart, than utuhjit'ion of this '
ii, ui. ii, ,ii, i iiiin u SUI'JIC IOn III ItllS
aiiin.cii, who arq left to follow
kiiiu; aiiin.cii, ho nrq lelt to lidlow
tin ir own lent, will always prefer tlm,
arbitrary p'.werof n king to the regulnr
ledministrtlion of nn aristocracy. Aris.
, locrattc iiMitution cannot stilut wii
t lav ing down ihe iiicnualiiy cf men
1. .!. I s s
ocratic iiMitiiticnscnntM stibMjt without
fundamcn - al printiMe.ai a i.ait and nar'sble to carry his theories into nracticS i
ecl of llio legislation, ntRciiii" il
.i r .i . i . i .. - . i
tton r.f the human family as tut
lam - cta that nf society : but i,
intich as it
racy within its own Umui. All thu aris-
----- '- ', V..U...I llll HllSlltC
locraties or ihe middle ages wore found, d
by military ton.iictt : thn conoueror wits
,1 l. .1 ' . . . .
i'."c "ouie, in in:iiiiishiiiiHtniiieihcsarf.
Incmiality was then i..s,,l I.i- r" I
" -... MIT llinillllinL II
nun niirr it inui Imcii intruluccl
.- . . I - ' -".!
into the '
(iLa.-incitsiii inc country, 11 inni.i
jii ii.iinniiiy, ami v.us snnct oncd by Urn
Icgi-hitiui. (.'oiiuutniiii. s i.uvu i-xlvtid
which w. re nnto( ratio fiom th ir. niliest
origin, owing to circumslanf es interior
... .1... , . . .
noil i vein, alio v. IikIi l.ciiino more .
'ilcinoeraln in cuehsu.cn iiirnr,.. , t.
having taken ilk rise in ilvilinlinii uud
.. i ... . .,...,,
'".rr."" - ' .""" .Ml" IIU UrUIIIIUIIV C S.
ii.ii ui. . . . :..... it.. i.
l-'i.t.i. Kcuiium At u spreinl ilcttlon
at hi. Louis, tho .nitstloii win tin i ii m.
: " "" 'in sin
I0,,r,w' " '""" shall w levied ..,,
I r.-nl 1.1.1.. .. i.i.t.. .1 .-... r-.,
s..,,,-M, ,,, v.uiUMI'JJ1 IIIllll 11
; i . l . ll
t'tinrnrtpr or ivilllrtni IViiii.
The ()tial.eM had n powerful and real,
oils aduioalo nt court, 'l'lioitgli, as a
nlas, lliev lived Jittlo with I Mi world, and
shuitiyil polllle.s nsn pursuit ilinjeri)iisto
their sitiritunl Interest:, ono at litem, wide.
Iv ili"tiuf;uishi-d I'hhii the ret bv edueu
tion and forttnie, Hied in the highest fir.
eles, and had constant neeess to the tuuil
tor. This was the celebrated Willi.tiu
Ills fjther hnd held great itavul cnni
mands, Im.S ueeu n coiuiiiiitsioner of the
Admiralty, hads.it in I'arluuiient, had ro
ceivedtho honor of knihthiKsl, and hnd
Itoii encoil raged toiN'ila IVermjc-.
The son had lcen educiilu.1, .ind had been
designed for the profession ol arms, hut
while still young, injured his privpects,
and disgusted his fi lends by joining what
w as then generally cousidci-d ns n gang
of crnr.y heretics. Ho liad been sent
sometimes to the Tower, nnd sometimes
loNewgnte. Ho had been tiled at the
Old llailev for iirvaihiui! in ilelisnee of
the law. After a time, however, ho had
been reconciled to his fumilv. and had
sucreedet III obta n in.' sue i inikmIii tiro,
i . - .
teelion. that, while nlltho iiiilsof KnglandJthat grand object which tho
,... .. --..-
nil the tatlsof l-itii'lntnlltiint grand oluccl whlelillio AhisIo John
were filled with his brethren, he was ner.
... i i ..I. : ,.',
'opinions without molestation. Towards
iiiuieii. iiiirini. iwaiiv vrnrs. iu iiniiess ins
the close ol the late reign, he had obtain
ed, in satisfaction of an old debt due lo
him from tho crow n, the grant of an im
mense region iu Not tli America. In this
Iract, then ticopled onlv by Indian hun
ters, ho united hli persecuted friends lo
settle. His colon) was Mill iu its infancy
In ii James mounted the throne.
Iletweeu James and I'euii there hud
long been a familiar acquaintance. The
Quaker now Ucamo a courtier, and al
most a favorite. He was every day sum
moned from the gallery Into 'the clo.rl,
and sometimes had long audiences, white
Peers were kept waiting in tb'o autciham
lrs. Il was noised abroad that he had
more rial uwcr to help and hurt than
many noblis who filled tilgli ullices. Ik
was soon surrounded by flatterers and
lis house at Kensington was Mimcfimes
thronged a) his hour of riing. by more
than two hundred suitors, lie pild .liar,
However, lor litis sefintoi prosperity
ICveu his on ii sect louknlioldlv- on him,
and reunited his sorvices with uMopix . llrn-y iniinnren on ir ran Is fund tin
lie wus loudly accused of twmg a ruput, I '"aVdii. The c lil ether would im! ihe.l
nay, a Jesuit. Sjiiic afllrmultliAl lie had! its snow fuithrrs on the earth, nor would
;i,idit,.l,i5i. lit,,,...'- .k..i... i...il.i......e . i.... ..,.!..,... it... it...... .. !!..
lncn orJamed al Rome. These ealiiui.
Hied. iiiiIii-i . rnii hi null1 fiiiil s-sroilit ttiiii
,i..-i , iHv.ii vmm - blVUII " llll
the undlsceriiing multitude, but with these
historical person, llival nations and hos
tile sects havo agreed in canonizing him.
'Unglaud is pioud of his na.ne. A great
commonwealth beyond tho Atlantic re.
TjsTraTIilin with a reverence similar to thai
which Ihe Attn mans Tell Tor I heseus, and
tho Itomaus for (Juiriuus, The res-cla-blc
society of which he was a member,
honor him as an apostle. My pious men
of other persuasions ho is generally re
garded as a bright pattern of Christian vir.
Meanwhile admirers of a very diuerrnt
sort have sounded his praises. The l-'rctith
philosophers of llio lHlli century pardoned
what they regarded as his superstitious
tuncics, in consideration ol his contempt
for priests, and ol his cosmojioljtiin be.
nevolcncc, impartially extended to all ri.
ce nl"' '" all creeds.' His name had thus
uecome, turoiigiioui an eivnij-d countries
asyuoiiviu for probity and philanthropy.
Nor is this high reputation altogether mi.
I'enn wa, without doubt, a man ol em
incut virtues. He hud a stronir sense of
religious uiiiy, aim u liHTrm-0ui. lo pro.
Iliote tho liatiriiiiess of mankind. On nifr
mv. w. .-..!...- V... 1 1 vi HIU II W',11-, HI HIS Ul
common, even uinong mm of enlarg
notions more corrrct than w.,e, ,i his day
common, even uinong mm ol enlarged
minds; and, ns tho urnpriitor and legis
lor of n province, which, bcl.ig almost ti
inhabited when il camo into hl possersu.il
urdcda clear field for moral experiments
lit llfltf llls-l frirA nr.n.1 iV.I.. . C I .f !
without uny compromise, anil yet without
.. " . . . i
any shock to existing institutions. He
will always be mentioned with honor os u
founder of a colony, who did not, In
man of strong senvo. Ilolmdno skill iu
- "-.. J..W.T
reading iho characters of others. His
confidencu in twrsKiis less virtuous than
.it s s 1 1 I ..
Mumscii, leu nun into great errors and
misfortunes. His rni ...!..,., .,
Krrnl principle homellines impelled him lo
violate other 'great principles, which ho
----- . .... ....
, ought to havo buhl sscred.
Nor was his inleerilv nltntroihrr tironf
against llio teinplallont lo which it wos
expand In that splendid and polite, hut I
I ,.. ' . .. .. ! .
we") corrupieii socieiv with which he i
How in nu ml. Tin who o court wns In u
"", places nnd pardons was incessant.
ll was natural that a man vylio was daily
seen at tho palace, and whoWas known lo
havo frco access to majesty, should hu
iri.jih ntly lmioniincd lo Use his inlluenoc
for purposes which a rigid morality would
Tho Inlegrl'y of I'enn hail stood firm
against obloquy and reculion; hut now
attacked by royul smiles, by femalo blsn-
and delicate flattery of veteran diploma
.!.. ,.',. ... '.
i.siiniriim, ojf um insinuating oiniinncn
iisii ami cnuriiors, ins reso ill on negan
i ,,1.-,. . 'i';,i 1 ,.i. ft.-..
whi. hhr lindnfleii horne hN li-slliimnv,
hM.. iihii sni'a 111 11 11 MUlil B'Jil llll
inole tho happiuess of lou'ikiinl. On ofnvinl a oiiil ol perleclion which tin (n ncv.
or two tioints of Idiili imiiurlaneo ho hadvernass. In a few vears he hnsatl ihoi n.
.iiwi .i.i na. 11. ,1 11
dromied occasionally fiom Ills tins and It!
lien, ll would ho well If lie liad Iwn
utiillv of nolhlin: woistt than such coin
pliances with tho faihions of llio world.
I'nhnpjillv it ennnot l coiuvnled lh.it ho
U)nt n oliiof ixitt In wnuo triitisaetlons
coiiih'iiuied by tho ligld code nf society,
to whleh ho iVlougttl, hut bv tho general
sense of all honest tneii.
II i afterwards lirotestrd ihat his hands
wore pure Iroin illicit gam, end that ho
hud never received tiny gratuity fiom
tlio.su whom lot had nhilged, though ho
might easily, while liislnltueuco ut court
lasted, have m.ido a htliidred nnd t'veutv
thousand pounds. To this nxerliou full
credit is due. Hut bribes may In' offered
In vanity as well ns tn cupidity; and il ii
iuiKissiliu In deny Ihnl IVim was. csinled
into lienring,ii part in mine uiijiistlliahlo
trnus.ielious of w Inch others enjuvid the'
profits. .Uiieniifv's lifc'ry o' Km;,'.iihi
. Tho atmosphere rises above us with its
catlndral dome arching towards tho heiiv-
ln of which it islho iii.hI familiar ntnoii
. . . . ..... . .,f
me aifl ymiu. II iio.uk iiroun.i us iiko
. . . , i,
. , .... . . ,
!w.w in his vUion : "n sea of class like tin-
to CTjMal." ii i massive Is il, thnl, when
it begmsiti stir, it tosses about great ships
like t.Uv Uiiiiits, and sweeps cities rtud for.
esls like sunn llukes tn ili-Mruc ti"n before
il. And rt il is so mobile, tliat we hav
iiviii yeais iii a i-ii'iw we van "- irmn.i-
d.,1 ..exists a. oil. and the crent bull, of
livid yeais In It Nioro we can I.e persiia
mankind never realize tlio trutli that thev
.. - .
are bathed III an ocean of air. Its weight
is so tuorinous that lion shivers Uforoil
tike glass, yet a soap-liall sails through il
with linpuuitv, and llio tin:el nueit waves
it with its wings. It imiusteis lavlshlv
to all the semes. Wo touih it not, but ll
touches ti , its warm soulli wind bungs
lin.-L .,.?. tr ... ,1... ..nti. T..-.. ..I .1 ...I..I
:.-.-.l ...... ..;,..!- .. r.i. .1... r. ,
brow, and make tho blood m.ntlo iu ok
cUeks. iven Us imith blasts hr.iee into
new vigor the hanlemd vluldrui of our
riiL'cnl i lime
d . lime. The . Ve is Hid, bled lo It
for all the magnificence of sunrise, the
full hrighliiiss ol iiuil.ilnv , the i liastmid
raduiiieu of the gloaming, and the ilouds
ihat cradle nmr the setting sun Hut foi
I the r.imlKiw wnuM want its liiuiiitihal
'a reli, and the winds would not - n I thru
kindly rain would never fall-had, v't.irm.
unr f.i 1 1 i V n r . i fv lint 1.1 ri liT llin bL V. (hir
.....-.,-...-.-.-. ....... -
naked glubc would turn its tanned uitshad
owed forehead lo tin- sun, slid onoilreary
miiiiotoiniiis blare nf light and heal dar?.le
and burn up all things. Wire them no
atmosphere, tho I'teniug sun would in n
moment set, and, without warning, plung,
tho earth in darkness. Hut the air kn.ps
in hor hand u sheaf of his rays, and h is
them slip but slowly through her liugeis;
so that the shadows of evening gnthf r hv
degrees, and the (lowers have lime to Uiw
their heads, ami cnih creaturu space ti.
find a place of rest and uestlo to re"e
In the morning thu garish sun would, at nn
bound, biirtt Irom the Isiviui of night and
blaze above the horizon; but tlieulr watch
es fur his coimii, and sends nt first hut
one little ray tn announce his upprnai h,
nud then nniilber, nnd hy-and-hy n hand
fill, nnd so gently draws aside the dun.iiu
of night, ami slowly I. Is the light fall on
tho face ol the shepiug earth, till her i)e
lids open, and, like man, sh gm th fnlh
again to her l.il-ir until the i veiling
How tan it enter into tho thoughts ol
man, that the soul, which is ian.il.le of
deceiving pen ituproveiinnts to nil lierni
ly, shall fall anuy into nothing, nlhiost as
soon us it is create df Are such iihililieH
made fir nn puroiei A brute nrrlvis
Vlnwmeuls ol which ho is capable; and
verrc he to llvu len thousand more, would
ho Ilic samo thing he is at presrutr
Were u human soul thus to stand still in
her accomplishment", were-her facullici
to I incapable of further enlargements, I
I.I f t Is ...I.. I.i
fall away inscnsl.
hlv. and Sm at once i
into u state of aiini.
. .r . i
dilation. Hut can we believe n thinking
being, that is in a pcrietuul progress of
improvements, and travelling on from
tier fict ion lo pcrfc'cliou, after having just
looked abroad into tin: works of llio Cre
ator, and mado n fewdiscovcties of Ids
infinite goodness, wisdom, and power,
tuiii-t perish in her first selling oul, nnd in
tho very liegluning of her inrulric.
With h will you do smile and in'uke
others happy, nr bo crabbrd nnd inako ev
ery Ixxly .around you miserable? You
can live tinning Ix-aullful Unworn and sing
ing birds, or in Iho mire surrounded by
fugs. The amount nf happiness you can
produce Is Incalculable, if you will show
n smllliiu fuce a kind heart and ntienk
pleasant words. On llio other hand, by
sour looks, cross words, nud 11 rrelful ills.
!.f - -1. .. . I I
l""''"'i y"'i " hio n-urri bihi nun
dredw wretched almost beyond endurance.
Which will ymi do? Wear n pleasant
countenance let joy benm In your eyes,
and luvo glow mi your forehead. There
is nu joy so great ns ihat whiuh springs
from n kind ncl or a pleasant deed and
you may fi el it al night when you rest,
in llio morning when yon rise, and through
tlm day, when about your dally busi
ness. Tin: .Simms.ii Missm. A despatch
from Washington says, "tleorgo (frnh.
nni of North Carolina has positively dc
cllneil Iho inkilon to Hpalti. (leneral
llarrlnger, nf Iho samo state, It is tindor.
Mood, has been olTercd Iho million, nud
has nciepled il "
- . , 1 ' I ei, nsj S I ' .
Rnll non1 loVrrstCH.
Wo notleo by the papers from tho Slates
that tho piiijnol of uniting tlin Mississippi
nnd I'uclllo by n llnll.ltnad, Ii rapidly be
coming lite great Idea of tho age, Meet
lugs for tlm fiiithcr.iucn nflhe project have
hccotiii' unite coimiion, and they oro well
attended in nil the principal towns and
elites throughout ihe Union. The follow,
ing paragraph from n letter of Senalur
llentoii, declining an liivilatlnii to attend
one of these Conventions In Illinois, ex.
presses llio general sciHlmcnt:
"I take great pleasure in expressing my
extremogratlftcntlon at seeing llio ardor
with whiuh the gnat Idea of a great csU.
Iral national highway, by railroad and olh.
er cuiiteyauees, across our continent is
taken up. I'lom saa to sea, nnd through
ihe centre, is llio grand national Idea, ami
.stands fotih as llio gigantic conception of
llio day. In command, when completed, llio
g'lillludc nud admiration of tho present
age, of futurity, and of all nations. Ills
a work for A lurries, for I'.uropc.for Asia.
and fur their itotIilos through all time.
Ihe nwaiulils of l-.sVsi have existed far
four thousand years riist we know of. and
for what purposeF tinfm I This great road1
w HI eslst as much longer than these pyt
-audits as our glol-e Ilsilfshall outlet ,rm
and for Ihe most uieln! and noble of all
piirH)sts tu draw iiallunn Ipoellier. la
.- , , ,. . . n-.,.-.
, f '""'i1"" C,,,W'" ("Hlo st.reaj rcll
I i.K.II Ira. .-.It. ii. nil. N...I ...1 ...
"' sciences; lo uring
llirie continents t-'g,ihir iu n dally Inter.
course, and to nnkeimr country tho grand
centre of lljir Co tunleslions. Who
can calculate tho sggrrgsie of such ad.
au'iages tu ourselves and lh huinaii race.
Truly, I believo that since the discovery
nflhn New World by Columbus, there has
.in. ivii'ui-iiiiigK- creni inai is o halo
siicli nil rllecl n Auspicious, sn imlvrr.
T"1 j""1 l'llual upon the allslrs of man.
.'!.,' , ...
"'0 road which J ouconlemidsie thro'
v'mrown oiaie, I. . ink 10 c of
..ns Kiniiii uesiguj ami uesiues a cnntlliu
nuoii in iiinuireci route irom St. Louis In
tho Atlantic, I hopo luseo a convrrgenal
of railroad rnuics, eiuanatiiig from iho
-mi. eireuinfiToiHo of the Ifnien from
the N'ortheru lakes, I ho Kasteru ocian,
and the .Southern gulf all ineeliug the
gnat cettral Inuk at tho ctntrsl illy
whiih marks the irutie, giogmphiiiillv
,n " commercially, oltlie insenlfieenl Vu .
' ',, ' ! i .,',i"!" ,.1!1 ,, u "", ''"''"j,
. . I " im vuiri H III
il.. ..!..!... .!
1 le 1-mplnve.l Upon other parts. The con.
ciirrancc r msny will he urrded, and I
trust will i-onif, and ihat the great wink
wjlll accomplished, and thai rsdilv.
With our command of moons, our uulluii.
t.d command of money and lalsir, thn
whole route fioin thn Mississippi to the I 'a
. Ilic, including Ihe branch n On gon, sho'.l
10 put under coiistruc'.iou at on. c; and tho
wliole distance thus completed In ihi'tim,,
lliul niiv Mcll.ni of fiu-or Un inild euu I ,
man's Dpiiso is his emthly paiu.li .
11 should Ih , or all other ils', llint whitli
he leaves Willi most regr.t, prjd I,, which
he tuiiis with iixist delight. And in or
l.ir lli.il il may Ui mi, it should I his dui
Iv tusk topintiihi 1 very thing cueniiiit
ami L-nmKiit.it.le. ami el. .11 the last. fn and
l-s nut 1 liil should not h negh ilnl!
A ft fciimi) (., Inir. mi Minplr hstlirs sliLuu-,1,
V f. tt li funis .JnMi...-ll,r vrisllh U Ihr'iinu.l
Auil.rir aii.l linn. Iira.urr.l hhih. rsir jnn i-f nn)
Tu liinllr ,r fanr) , i. rvftm Hi. hull;
'lints mill) .um.,.i,.lr,l, ssijr, hy,i,uM I resnii
I Ih ' nni I nut li..) , mot mot l,o1,). t ,umr-
Tiii.'.THi 1: wii'i:.
How sweet In the soul ol man Is llio
snehly of a lielmitl wife, when wearied
mid broken dnw 11 by Ihe labors of the day,
her endearments to soothe, her tender
earn lo n store him. The solitude, tlm
anxiety, and the heaviest misfortunes of
life arc hardly toV borne by him who
has Ihn weight of business and iloiiuiiliu
c are ut Iho samo lime lo contend with.
Hut how much lighter do they seem when
his necessary avocations aro over, nud ho
ri turns tn his home, and finds tliero n
partner of his griefs nud troubles, who
takes for his sake a sharo of domesiiu la.
hor iton her, nnd soothe! !.'." anguish of
her anticipation, A wife is nol, ns alio i
falsi y represented nud esteemed by Homo
n burden and sorrow to man. No, slio
shares Ids burdens and alleviates his nor.
rows; for there is no ilifliculiy so heavy or
iiii.ihiiiiiiiio m um oui 11 may ho mir.
mounted by mutual labor, and iho nffic
I ionato concord of that ,ny partnership.
Nl.Ulin ItKI-IIKiHSNTATIVRH ATTIIK CllfltT
or St. Janks. Tho London Times of
May itlsl, devotes llirco columns lo thu
names nf iho parlies who attended tho
tliicen's.lrawlng.rnom.oii her Alajesly'n
hirlh.day. In iho list of diplnmaliu iwr.
Hoitages present, is Iho name of M. I).
Ilclin, (Hciialour,)llaylcn Mtnlsler. In
nnolher place, It is announced Ihat thu
llaylieu Miulstur presented N. li..Segiiy
Killevullex, Hcorelary nf tho Haylien l,o.
gallon. In honor of Iho samo 'occasion,
Lord I'alinorston entertained Ibf rorpt .'.
;iimiif , A tnong tho guests at tho ban.
iii I wo notleo tho names of tho United
.Stales and Haylien Ministers. Illusion
(i'ii.nrtii I'ioiit. Wo were informed bv
n (iennan friend last ovening that tho
"jeat German palrlot and statesman,
Ifcckcr, left this clly last evening for
Germany. Ho recently received a letter
from the pcoplo nf that distracted coun
try, rcnurstliis him to return and Isknnnn
In the great political strugglo now .yon.
vtilalng his nsllvo land. Ho at onco niado
prep rations, and Ins left to flu hi the en.
emlei nf freedom. Hi. kouinUnlyn,