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About The Corvallis gazette. (Corvallis, Or.) 1862-1899 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 28, 1879)
WEEKLY MTAUB UIEIB.
Qorvallis, Fe!. 28", 1879.
THE HARBOR OF REFUGE !
A Commercial Necessity
OFFICIAL REPORT 0 f.
The' Sutfrey of Port Orford !
BXAittNAtlOX OF PORT ORFORD HAR
TJihtbd' States Engineer Office,
Portland, Or. Sept. 23, 1878.
Gxxebal: T have the honor to
transmit herewith a chart of Port
Orford Harbor, Oregon, and to sub
mit; the following report ot an exam
ination made bv me in accordance
with tne act of Congress approved
OBJECT 6f THE EXAMINATION
The object of the examination of
this harbor was "to asccrtpin its
adaptability for ar harbor of refuge."
I left Portland, Oregon, on the
morning of September 2, 1878, for
Port Orford, 330 miles distant, reach
ing the latter place on the evening of
September 4, the journey requiring
I fortunately had a fine opportuni
ty to judge of the capacity and avail
ability of the harbor, as I entered it
from the PaciBc Ocean during a north
west gale, and our vessel anchored in
! fathoms, opposite " Battle Rock,"
in smooth water.
I remained two days at the harbor,
during which I made a careful exam
ination of it and its surroundings,
and conversed freely with all parties
who were acquainted with its general
Character and the force and direction
of the seas from which it needs pro
tection. DESCRIPTION" of the harbor.
Port Orford, the most westerly
Jwrt of the United States south of
Alaska, is situated on the western
coast of North America, in latitude
42 degrees 44 minutes, longitude 124
29 minntes, and according to the
Coast Pilot of Oregon, published by
authority of the Coast Survey, is by
fkr the best summer roadstead on the
Pacific coast between Los lieyes and
the strait of Fuca.
The harbor is deep and capacious,
and is formed by a headland boldly
jutting out into the sea, nearly verti
cal ou its water face, the portion form
ing the shelter from westerly pales
attaining altitude of about 350 feet;
from the outer point the ground elopes
gradually down to an elevation of
about 60 teet above low-water, near
the northern part of the bay, oppo
site which the town of Port Orford
The survey made by the Coast
Survey, and plotted on their chart, is
imported as follows by the Coast Pilot:
"From the extremity of the south
west point eastward to the main shore
the distance is two miles, and from
this lino to the greatest bend of the
shore northward the distance is one
"The soundings within this space
range. from 16' fathoms close to Tich
enor's Rock, forming the southwest
point of the bay, to 3 fathoms within
one-fourth of a mile of the beach on
the northeast side, with 5 fathoms at
the base of the rocky points on the
northwest side toward Tichenor's
Rock; one mile of the shores of the
bay the average depth is about 14
fathoms, regularly decreasing in
shore." From my own examination and all
the information I could collect, I find
the bottom' of the harbor to be. of
sand and mud, presenting a good
holding-ground, and that there are
jto sunken rocks or hidden reefs to
endanger vessels after getting inside
the head. It is said that northwest
fogs-seldom, if ever, enter the road
Stead, which gives it, consequently, a'
great advantage over other harbors
on the coast south ot the Colutnbta
From my own observation I am
led tobelieve this is so. While off
the coast, between Cape Arago and
Port Orford, a dense fog enveloped
the shore; but when we reached Cape
Blanco this seemed to veer off and
follow the line of the reef north of
Orford, and we entered the harbor
where it was perfectly clear. On the
following day, while examining the
Coast north of Orford on shore I
found a dense fog enveloping Cape
Blanco, seven miles north, while at
Port Orford it Was perfectly clear
- , tides.
The mean lise and fall of tides is
.l feet; of spring tides, 6.8 feet;
and of neap tides, 3.7 feet.
DANGER IN ENTERING THE HARBOR.
Between Port Orford and Cape
Blanco, and about 3 miles off the
coast, there is a group of rocky islets
and sunken rockscalled Orford Reef,
which renders the approach to Port
Ortord from the north somewhat dani
gerous; there is, however, a erood
wide ship-channel between this reef
and the main shore.
In reference to the present condi
tion of the harbor during winter gales
the Coast Pilot notifies mariners as
ln winter, anchor far enough oat
tcvpot to sea when a southeaster comes
tipV during a protracted gale in De
cember, 1851, a terrible sea rolled in
so that no vessel could have rid
"The old steamer Seagull was
driven northward, and lost two weeks
in regaining her position, and the
mail steamer Columbia hardly held
her own for many hours off Orford
In the tall of 1872 Major H. M.
Robert, Corps of Engineers, made a
careful examination of this harbor,
and in January, 1873, piesented an
elaborate report, with plans and esti
mates for a breakwater. In the sum
mer of 1876 the board of engineers
for the Pacific coast made a similar
examination, and in February, 1877,
presentented a report, with a plan
and estimates: these very interesting
reports were laid be-free Congress,
and to them I respectfully call atten
tion for details.
After a careful examination of this
subject I beg to report that, in my
opinion Port Orford is a very availa
ble point for a harbor of refuge. It
rs easily accessible, occupies a position
nearly midway between San Francis
co and the strait of Fuca,. presents a
deep and capacious roadstead, offer
ing secure anchorage from gales from
all points except south, southeast, ami
southwest; is not subjected to north
west fogs, has no shifting sandbars or
hidden reefs within its limits; the
land around is high and prominent,
and presents all the necessary materi
als, easily accessible, for a stone
breakwater. All that is now needed
to make it a secure harbor of refuge
at all seasons is a breakwater, behind
which vessels can ride safely at an
chor during gales coming from the
southeast, couth, and southwest, from
which it is not already protected by
A careful examination of the chart
of the currents and the general direc
tion of the gales leads me to the con
clusion that a breakwater about 5,000
feet long, running from the outer
point of the head toward Coal Point,
would give ample protection to a
large fleet during the heaviest gales;
for present purposes 2,000 feet would
be sufficient, and this could be ex
tended whenever it became necessary.
A breakwater 5,000 teet long would
secure a harbor of about 300 acres,
with a depth of from 4 to 12 fathoms
outside the three-fathom curve, while
one of 2,000 feet in length would
secure an available anchorage of
about 90 acres with the samn depth.
The plan of breakwater recom
mended is that proposed by the board
of engineers for the Pacific Coast and
described in their report of February
14, 1877, as follows:
" We propose to build the base of
any breakwater up tothe height of
15 feet below the level of low water
o; small stone, that, is to say, of such
stone as any quarry will furnish, and
while quarrying out this great mass'
to lay away all large stones of 5, 10,
or 20 tons tor the construction of that
portion of the breakwater from 15
feet up to low water. Upon this
foundation we propose to build a ma
sonry wall, faced with granite, 25
feet wide and 20 feet high, including
the foundation, protecting the sea
ward side by blocks of artificial stone
(if natural stone cannot be obtained)
of large size, (20 to 30 tons each),
and thoroughly paving the harbor
side with large blocks of granite to
receive without displacement the wa
ter that will be thrown over the wall
in great storms."
I think this breakwater should, be
connected with the headland, and
that the United States should pur
chase so much of the Head as will be
necessary for the works of defense af
ter the harbor is completed, and for
stone quarries, buildings, &c, tor the
construction of the breakwater.
The proposed breakwater of 5,000
is estimated to cost as follows :
108..333J cubic yards of ashlar ma
sonry, at 18 1,950.000
70,000 cubic vards of rubble ma
sonry, at $9 630,000
295,000 cubic yards large stone,
at So..... 1,475,000
2,247,500 cubic yards small stone,
at 2 4,495,000
Contingencies, 10 per cent 855,000
A breakwater 2,000 feet long is es
timated to cost as follows :
43,333J cubic yards ashlar mason
ry,, 18 , 3780,000
28,000 cubic yards rubble mason
ry, at 9 252,000
118,000 cubic yards large stone,
at 5 590,000
747,000 cubic yards small stone,
at 2 1,494,000
Contingencies, at 10 per cent 311,000
The prevailing winds on the coast
from November until April are from
the south ami southwest1; in May
they veer around to the north and
northwest and continue from that di
rection until about October; the gales
mostly dreaded by mariners are from
the southwest and are at times fear
ful in their severity ; on the whole of
this northwest coast between San
Francisco and the strait ot Fuca, a
distance of 750 miles, there is no har
bor that a sailing vessel will attempt
to enter during a southwest gale.
A harbor of refuge is absolutely
necessary, and natnre seems to. have
indicated that Port Orford by its lo
cation and natural advantages should
be selected for man to complete, and
thus present a safe harbor to which
mariners can run for shelter in any
Port Orford is in the collection dis
trict of Southern Oregon; it is no
longer a port of entry. In the range
of hills in the rear of the harbor
there is said to be an inexhaustible
supply ot coal, and between the town
and the Coqnille river there are for
ests of the best cedar timber.
The nearest port of entry to Port
Orford is Ellensburg at the month of
Rogue river, about 25 miles south of
the harbor. 1 was' unable to learn
what, if any, revenue was collected
at Ellensburg during the last fiscal
The nearest lighthouse is on Cape
Blanco, 1 miles distant, and the near
est works ot defense are at the month
ot the Columbia River, about 220
Since completing the foregoing I
hate received a very able and inter
esting communication from Captain
William Tichnor. an experienced
sailor and old resident of Port Orford
upon the great stream setting from
the Japanese Islands northeast to the
northwest coast of America, and its
effects and changes on our shore line
in eddies, shoals, drift sands, &c.
Captain Tichnor has gone into the
whole subject, and gives his opinions
as Id the effects upon our coast from
Cape Mendocino to the strait of Fuca,
and particularly at Port Orford. I
quote from the closing portion of his
letter as folHws :
"Port Orford has the following ad
vantages: it is the central point be
tweeti San Francisco and Puget
Sound; it is the most western harbor
on the coast, and it is therefore not
liable to calms; it is exempt at all
times from black fogs, and it is very
seldom visited by gray or cabn fogs;
it is the most capacious roadstead on
the coast, and large enough to accom
modate our rapidly growing com
merce for all time to come ; it is ex
empt from all sunken dangers, either
in it of its approach ; it is shielded
from all danger of being filled with
drifting sands; it has the very best
holding ground of any roadstead up
on the coast, composed of sand, loam
and decomposed slate ; it affords im
mediately at hand all the material,
and of excellent quality, for any im
"Its approaches are unsurpassed,
having on the east of the harbor a
prominent sugar-loaf nJbunUun of
eighteen hundred feet altitude, laved
by the waters of the bay, and four
miles east of this mountain another,
with an altitude of twenty-three hun
dred feet, thus presenting to the nav
igator landmarks that cannot be mis
taken in approaching the shore. The
country in the interior isnndoubtedl v
as rich in resources as any portion of
our coast, with inexhaustible deposits
of coal, iron, copper, silver, and gold,
extensive bodies of timber, and fer
tile valleys, all teeming with nature's
riches, but, like the major portion of
our iron bound coast, destitute of a
place of shipment.
"At the same time, important as
.are these internal resources, they
should be considered but secondary
to the great commercial demand for
a port of refuge for the safety of the
lives and property engaged in our
coast traffic. We have only to refer
to the said detail of the sacrifice of
life and property during the last win
ter, to raise our voice in prayer to the
Government to look to our safety.
All shipmasters on this coast, those
commanding our magnificent steam
ers as well as sailing vessels, unite in
lecommendir.g Port Orford as the
place adapted for an improvement of
A chart of Port Orford, showing
proposed breakwater and the dirction
ot the heaviest seas and currents, is
I am. General, very respectfully,
your obedient servant.
JOHN M. WILSON,
Maj. of Eng. JJrev. Col. U.S.A.
Brig. Gen. A. A. HuMrREYS,
Chief of Eng. U. S. A.
CARD FOR VOI fit i AS'i'OR.
First of all let every church begin
the work of 1879 by resolving to
give its uastor a united and just, sup
port, and by support we mean not
merely efficient aid 'in church work,
but such a salary as shall make it
possible for him to live comfortably,
and joyfully to give his whole time
and strength to his work. This is
the first duty of every church. We
would be the very last to discourage
liberal giving for missions and all
other necessary benevolent objects,
but a church that gives its money for
such purposes and leaves its pastor
in want is as culpable as the lather
who should give his children's bread
lo strantrers. Both thinrs ousht to
be done, but the pastor ought to be,
J J JS 11..-. -11 iM l
provided lor in si oi an. hilarity oe
gins at home, though it should ex
tend to the ends of the earth.
Not only is it the duty of a church
to provide well for the pastor, but an
enlightened self-interest would dic
tate the same course. A business
man wdio wants his interests well
looked after pays his employes a fair
salary, and considers it poor econo
my to do otherwise. So it is the poor
est kind of economy for a church to
neglect to make proper provision for
its pasloi's support. No man can
study well or preach well or do pas
toral work well, unless 1iis heart is
free from anxiety about his daily
bread. If he is obliged to give his
mind to the question how he shall
keep the wolf from the door; if he
can not look the butcher and the gro
cer squarely in the face because his
bills are unpaid, and he has no pros
pect ot paying tliem ; how can he be
expected to do anything but half
hearted work? So we say to the
churches, if you want your pastor to
look after your interests well, do you
look after ids.
Another thing: pay the pastor
promptly. A salary of $1,000. paid
promptly in installments, as agreed
on, is worth $1,200 paid irregularly.
A cash buyer always gets the lowest
prices, and can therefore live on less
than the man who lets his bills
run weeks or months before payment.
See to it that your pastor is able to
pay cash, or has a credit as good as
cash. If his last year's salary is in
arrears, now is the time to make it
up. This is the holiday season, when
even the crabbed1 are genial and the
stingy generous. Make your pastor's
heart glad by paying him what is
due him to the uttermost farthing.
Then take account ot ways and
means; and whether his salary is
raised by subscription or peW-rents.
see to it for the future that he is paid
promptly. It tfill do your own
hearts good, and cheer his more than
yon can tell. Any church that pur
sues this policy will find its aggres
siveness and its power doubled. Ex,
Labor, Money and Transported
' Ed. Gazette : Human prosperity,
and the material and intellectual de-.
velopment of society are promoted
through the production and distribu
tion ot wealth. Before the resources
of nature can contribute to the pros
perity and development of society,
they must undergo, 1st, a change of
form, 2nd, change of location, 3rd,
change of ownership.
The first is accomplished by labor,
the second, by transportation, and
the third, by money. In the morn
ing of civilization, when labor was
unskilled, and unaided by machinery ;
when the absolute necessaries of Hie
in their most limited, crude and rude
form occupied nearly the whole time
of man in their production, exchanges
were few, but limited transportation
facilities were necesary, and there
was but little need or use for money.
What exchanges were made were
mostly in kind one kind of products
exchanged for another, while the raft
and the pack-mule were the principal
modes of transportation. As skill in
creased and machinery took the place
of bones and muscles, increasing the
quantity, quality and variety of pro
ducts to meet the demands, needs,
tastes and luxuries of a higher social
development, the pack-mule had to
give way to the wasjon, and the raft
to the canal and keel boat, and a me
dium of value exchange became nec
essary in place of simple barter.
For this purpose, society selected
the so-called precious metals, as they
possessed value in small compass,
and comparatively light weight and
from their divisibility into very small
portions, and their capability of re
union or restoration to larger bulks
and values without loss.
Still this was nothing but barter
an exchange of value for value. But
it was the best the age could produce
as private credit was unknown
and uo government possessed suffi
cient stability to give its credit cur
rency even among its own subjects.
The reader should keep in mind the
three changes necessary for nature's
resources to undergo before they im
part their blessings to man, form, lo
cation and ownership, for no man can
produce all he needs, any lack of fa
cility or means, to effect either one of
these changes effectually blocks and
obstructs the other two. Lack of
labor or production deprives trans
portation of business, money of use,
and society of blessings. Lack of
transportation facilitates, slackens and
cheapens production, and produces
high prices and a death in the market.
Lack of the medium of value ex
changes produces stagnation all along
the line, prevents both production
and transportation, throwing labor
and machinery out of employment,
and opens the door wide to crime,
vice and moral degredation. The era
of hand work, the pack-mule, and
simple barter gave way to the wind
and water wheel, the canal boat and
stage coach, and gold and silver.
During this era, but little com para
tivcly was produced, the needs of
man were few ; no individual or na
tion had sufficient credit to get large
ly in debt ; but little money was nec
essary and the precious metals were
ample to perform its functions. In
1G90,$12 would buy a horse in Eng
land. A pound of silver was eigh
teen shillings, or about $4 15, now
we make $10 of it, and England makes
66 shilling of it.
In the wilderness of Judea. eigh
teen hundred years ago, the disciples
estimated that 200 pence, equal to
about $30, would give a square meal
to 5,000 hungry people costing but
three-fifths of a cent each. (See Mark
6:37). Then came the era of steam,
by the aid of which one man could
perform the labor of ten or a hun
dred. Production increased rapidly,
and the labor that was thrown out ot
employment by machinery, must seek
employment in extending and multi
plying the varieties of products.
This stimulated inventive genius, cul
tivated a higher order of taste and
refinement. A better class of build
ings and furniture took the place of
old. Better and finer clothes, car
riages, equipments, books, musical in
struments and works of use and or
naments, were then supplied to meet
the growing demands of a higher
civilization and social culture.
Thus were the changes of form
greatly facilitated and the possibili
ties of production increased. This
demanded a corresponding increase
in tho facilities for transportation and
distribution. The locomotive took
the place of the horse the iron rail
of the wagon road and the steam
ship of the canal boat. So far no
legislative obstructions interposed
the march of improvement. No mon
opoly could control the inventive
genius of the laborer, or the enter
prise and energy of the men of trade
aud commerce. Labor, machinery,
steam power and genius found among
the growing and developing wants of
society ample demand for the pro
ducts of their full employment.
Transportation, by means of steam,
afforded every necessary facility to
distribute with economy and dispatch
all the products ot labor to far and
near consumers. An ample medium
for the value exchange of these
greatly increased products was all
that was lacking to produce a condi
tion of material prosperity, social
refinement, intellectual development
and moral grandeur, never before at
tained by man. The barter system
was wholly impracticable. The gold
and silver medium becaineinadequte
from its limited quality and not
until the credit of England, from
1797 till 1822, that of the United
States, 1862 till 1873, and that of
France while recuperating from the
losses by the tjrerinan war, were
coined into substitutes for the pre
cious metals, was the third medium
formed, exactly adapted to meet the
demands of the highest civilization.
T , .. .1,.
rmuiere wc meet opposition, x lie
love of power, the ambition for su
periority and position, the selfish
greed of man to control an undue
share of the blessings and privileges
of earth, have arrayed the monopo
hzers of the precious metals against
human prosperity, social tranquility
and the general welfare.
They have taken possession of
power, and fortified themselves be
hind protective statutes. Kegardles:
of the country's welfare, and heart
hardened against the woes of want,
and the wads of distress, they have
banded together, to maintain the su
premacy of gold and the monopoly
of the most important distributive
medium ot the world s wealth. Hits
is the enemy which is blocking ' the
wheels ot progress and scattering
desolation through the land.
Labor and machinery are ample to
produce, aud transportation to dis
tribute ; but while limited to the
meager barbaric medium of exchange
which was barely sufficient when
products were tew, and hand-made;
all labor thrown out of employment
by the introduction of machinery
must perish or seek subsistence by
preying upon the peace and safety,
and the surplus ot society.
The medium of value exchanges
must, keep pace with the increase and
facilities of transportation, as well as
the improvements in production and
labor-saving machinery, or the world
will return to the pack-mule, the dis
taff and the tread mill.
W. A. Wells.
Corvallis Feb. 21, 1879.
. a .
Never consult a man on business who does
not manage well his own.
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sign of a return of a Rupture since the first day I nut
It nn anl foal ,1.-. T n , i , i-, , , ...... J .r .
" ...v. l i uil x uui r I . li I CKj 1 Li X UU1U.11. It 18
invaluable, and the fact should be known to the
world. You can refer any one to me on the subject
of their merits. 1 am yours truly,
ALFRED J. BURKE,
Chief Mail Clerk S. P. Daily Evening Post.
San Francisco, July 20, 1878.
ENDORSED BY THE MEDICAL PROFES
SION. California Battle 7.r My ' 1878
After practicing medicine many years in this city
during which time 1 have had an extensive experience
in the application of all kinds of Trusses, I can and
do recommend yours as the best in every respect, lor
it is as near perfection as modern science can lnnke it.
It has many advantages over the torturing steel-hoop
Trusses, which inflict great injury on the hips and
spine, bringing on other distressing ailments, such aa
lumbago, morbid affections oi the kidneys and numb
ness in the lower limbs, all of which are avoided by
wearing the California Elastic Truss. It is not only a
perfect retainer, combining ease and comfort, but the
pressure can be changed to any degree. It also re
mains in its proper place at all times, regardless of the
motions of the body, and is worn night and day with
perfect 'ease. It is superior to any of the Elastic
Trusses now in the market, while "it combines the
merits of all. 1st It is easily adjusted on and off
with snaps, doing away with straps and buckles.
2d The universal spring between the plate and pad
prevents all irritation, which is a god-send to the suf
ferer. 3d. The pad is adjusted on and off in an in
stant, and can be changed for any other size and form
most suitable to the case. In fact it combines every
quality essential to comfort and durability, and is un
equaled in lightness, elasticity, natural action, and
artistic finish. Many of my patients who are afflicted
with hernia are wearing them, and all shall in the fu
fure, for I think the great ease with which these
purely scientific appliances are made efficacious, is
trulv remarkable. Vou can refer any parties to m
on the subject of their merits. I remain truly yours.
L. DEXTER LYFORD, M. D.,
Physician and Surgeon,
600 Sacramento street, San Francisco.
It is constructed on scientific principles and sells orv
its own merits. If you want the best truss ever man
factured, don't forget the name and number.
Trusses forwarded to all parts of the United States,
at our expense, on receipt of price.
Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price
Giving full information and rules for Measuring.
CALIFORNIA ELASTIC TRUSS COMPANY,
720 Ma i ket Street, S. F.
C O NSUMPTTO 1ST
ALL SUFFERERS FROM THIS DISEASE THAT
are anxious to be cured should try Dr. Kissner's
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Price for larg-e box, .S3 00, sent to any part of the
United States or Canada, by mail, on receipt of price.
Address, ASH & RObBINS.
16:Syl. 300 Fulton street, Brooklyn, N. Y
fp A A a week in your own town. $5 Outfit free
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