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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View Entire Issue (Jan. 27, 1918)
THE SUNDAY OREGONIAX, PORTLAND, JANUARY 27," 1918.
mm ail.- ,
-a - ' '-'-X,- - V
25,000,000 MORE EWES
MUST BE RAISED TO PRO
VIDE GOVERNMENTS WOOL
SAYS FRANK G. CARPENTER.
WHERE THE FLEECE. WILL
prrtht. tv Frank O. Carpanter.
ASHINGTOX. D. C How much
onl vha.ll we nacd for tha
t hat put thla queation'lo tba ex
Jwrta of tha I'nlted Stales Bureau o
Animal Industry." Thr reply that It
will take 1 potnilf r for every
oldler that we aend to tho trenches.
and that it wilt keep JO sheep working
to supply that amount. - Thla la sup
posing that eart sheep gives a fleece
of eight pounds. So you aea that for
v ry million men wa aend over tha
ex-fan we mut have 3.0v.00 full
frjwa rheep here at home or in noma
i.rher part of tha world, and thla in
addition to the raat amount of wool
w need to cloth our own people.
On hundred and sixty pound! It
'ems a lot of wool for on man,
but you must remember that the fleera
a It comes from the sheep la about
taso-thtrd grease and dirt, and that
the fibers selected to make woolen
cloth are only a part of the whole. In
ordVr to know Just how tha wool Is
n-ed I have aked some of tha private
soldiers at Camp Meade as to the out
f is they ar carrying with them to
'ranre. They tell me tnat tha Gov
ernment has Issued to each man one
overt oat. two service uniforms, two
r-c:v-drab shirts, three suits of heavy
underwear, six Pairs of lightweight and
four pairs of heavyweight socks, two
pairs of thick cloves and four warm
banket. All of these must be of the
purest of wool, and the same la true
of the helmets and sweaters which our
women are knitting all over the coun
try. I venture there are now some
thing like a million women and girls
plying their nredl'. and that the yarn
they fosiumo will add one or two
hep to the flock of eeh soldier.
There Is already a shortase of wool.
and. as the men In the trenches roust
b kept warm, the rest of us will be
forced to wear shoddy or mixtures of
cotton and wool in order that the sup
plies for the Army may not be Im
paired. I am told that Kngland la dis
cussing the mixing of cotton with all
woolen fabrics. She Is rutting down
Die wrig'n of the cloth and is reducing
ier exports to other parts of tha world.
This loss will be greatly fell by our
tailors, who have been buying a large
part of their stuffs from her. During
t.ie first IS month of the war Eng
land used lSl.Oim.000 yards of piece
goods for her soldiers enough to have
mad a strip of cloth more than two
yards wide, reaching clear around tha
and Franc have each H.OnO.OOO and
Kngland about l.ono.ooo more. South
Africa haa 10.000.000 sheep, and Its
wool product goes mostly to England.
The biggest pasture on earth Is Aus
tralla. which at the time the war be
gan had more than 85.000.000 aheep
and was annually producing more
than (00.000.000 pounds of wool. The
sheep of Australia are remarkable for
the Increased product of wool cut from
one animal and the high prlrea paid
tha sales. The farmers there give
more for blooded sheep than do those
of any other country. When I waa In
Sydney a few years ago the sheepmen
told me that It was not uncommon
for a well-bred ram to aell for $3000
and upward and that a number of In
stances had occurred In which rams
have sold for 100 guineas, or more
than $5000. In It the ram President,
owned 'by James Gibson, sold for $8000,
while a year later the same man sold
Royalist for 50. At that time M
C.ibeon got on the average of 1430
for a flock of sheep he brought to the
sales, and prior to that time he had
received on the average $12l for each
sheep at one auction.
A great many of the fine sheep of
Australia arc brought from Vermont.
I met one Australian squatter who
valued his Vermont sheep at $250
head. This waa Samuel McCaughey.
who at that time owned more sheep
than any other man in tha world. He
had a round million and some of bis
flocks rut on the average as much as
SI pounds and at one shearing he aold
I. ISO. 000 pounds of wool. 1 saw one of
his rams at a stock show, which had.
I was told, at least IS pounds of wool
on it and at the same time saw ewes
wearing 10-pound fleeces. When It is
remembered that elaht pounds Is the
average estimate of the fleece of the
nlted States as given by our wool
experts, it will be seen what these fig
ures mean. McCaughey's fr.000 ram had
so much wool that Its ears were entire
ly hidden and the fleece came out
hree Inches over Ita eyes, so that it
looked out at the world through these
wo little holes in Its head. I stuck
my finger into tne neece ana nan to
press my whole fist In before I could
reach tha skin.
Lt?' ' fv4'?
77 c J3 cs i of 1 Vcci zsr V?e?c?cJ for- the SocJc-.
Aief ( JAsnc Corner lfyoI Fiberj- GresiJyf&?niri ect.
U s III; 'hkif&
A &5.O0OAusdr7i&n fern. 7lsFeece Weyhs- Pounds.
much an Mr. HcCaughcy Hid. the new
wool created thereby would supply the
nnual output of 1,000.000 soldiers and
give each of them every artir-U! men
tioned at the first of this letter?
The Government at Washington Is
urging the farmers to raise more sheep
and the high prices of wool and mut
ton caused by the war will probably
Induce many of them to go into thin
business. Kor ten years before the
war began, wool sold, according: to its
character and the market, all the way
from 19 to !a cents per pound. In 1915
the average price was ltvs than 23
rents and in Midsummer, 1916, it had
risen to 29 cents. Last year the av
erage price per pound was Just under
SS cents and today It is selling for more
than that. Sheep have trebled In value
ind there in more money in sheep rais
ing than there has been at any time in
our history. The agricultural experts
ell me that we could easily double our
sheep population. They say there should
be more sheep In New England and
that there are millions of acres of suit-
ble land in the West which should be
occupied by them. Moreover, the present-day
labor conditions are such as to
encourage the business, as compara-
ively few men aro needed in connec
ion with it.
Kvery woolen mill In the Vnlted
States capable of making anything for
the soldiers la now busy upon war or-d-rs.
and the question is where we
shall get the wool to supply them. We
have something like tvi factories In
Nw England, and there are hundreds
of others scattered here and there
over the country. They rang In sue
from email concerns, with two or three
d'xeo hands, up to that of the Ameri
can Woolen Company at Lawrence.
Mass, whose machmea occupy 10.000.-
square feet of fajjor spare and eat
up the fleeces of 2j.v0 sheep every
As to our own product of wool, this
has been steadily declining, while the
consumption has Just as steadily in
creased. We produced 131.000.000
pounds of wool In 191. and our produc
tion last year was Is.ooo.ouo pounds
less. At present, as It comes from the
flteee. the total amount of wool we
produce Is so little that If equally di
vided it would give only three pounds
to every man. woman and child In the
I'nlted States. Jt Is so tittle that If
It were all made Into clothing It would
hardly suffice to supply a suit for one
person in three and the rest of us
would have to go naked.
Moreover, a decline Is going on In
the production of wool all over the
worlL The crop of 1911. the year the
war began, waa less than 3.000,000.000
pounds, and at that time the whole
world had only a little more than
(A (. o0 sheep. Since then Australia
which had more sheep than any other
country, has had a great drought,
vhtrh has reduced her flock more than
The sheep of Europe have been
slauahtered by thousands as food for
the soldiers. At the lime she marched
into Belgium Germany had less than
i.ooo.oou sheep and Austria not half
that number. In both of these coun
tries the flocks have been so greatly
reduced as to create a wool famine.
Every one Is skimping and saving, and
the German government has cut down
the wool consumption by making the
people turn In all their old clothes
before they get new ones and allow
ing them to buy woolen goods only
with cards. The same shortage Is
true In the sheep of the Balkan states,
and. In fact, there is no place on
earth, except South Africa, where the
sheep are now Increasing in number.
There haa been a notable decline in
-our flocks since the year 1900. Wool
haa been so cheap that the lands have
been turned from pastures to grain,
and we now find some of our best
graln-producin areaa In the great
plains where JO years ago there were
only cattle and sheep. Intensive agri
culture la breaking up the sheep
ranges of 'he West. They are being
divided lnt5 homesteads and fenced ao
that the sheepman must have open
tralla to move hla flocks from the
Winter graslng grounds to the forest
reserve, where they teed in tne bum
mer. The total numoer oi sneep now
the United States Is about 4S.5U0.-
t00. and there Is only one farm of
over 30 acres in every seven mat
supports a sheep.
As to the sheep of the whole world.
here Is a census by continents that Is
approximately correct: North America,
6S.00.00O: South America. 111.700.000:
Europe. 174.000.000; Asia. 110.000,000;
Africa. S 1.000.090; Australasia. 105.-
Almost nine-tenths of the sheep In
North America are found In the United
States, and almost all of those of
South America graxe on the basin of
the Klo de la Tlata. The chief sheep
country of South America Is Argen
tina. It haa fO.OOO.000 aheep and it
gives us a large part of our wool. As
to Europe, almost half the sheep of
During my stay in Australia Mr. Mc
Caughey gave me some ideas that may
be of value as to the Increase of our
wool supply. He was an enthusiast in
up-breeding his flocks. He believed that
the fleeces of all sheep could be great
ly Increased. He told me that he had
raised the average output of wool per
sheep In nome of hla flocka from 7
pounds to IS. He had as many at 30.000
sheep In one flock and It la easy to see
that an Increase of only two pounds
per fleece for that flock would add
40.000 pounds to his clip. If we could
Increase our average fleece half as
Not only the Department of Agricul
ture, but severaf patriotic wool asso
ciations as well, have organized a
movement to increase our product of
mutton and wool. Among the latter
re the National sheep and wool bureau
and the More-Sheep-.More-'N ool Asso
ciation Of the United States. These are
composed of wool dealers, textile manu
facturers, bankers and others, all of
whom are uniting with the packers to
give us more wool and more meat. Sec
retary Houston has sheep specialists
who are traveling over the country lec
turing to the farmers tin sheep hus
bandry and he is planning to orKanize
boys and girl' sheep clubs as a part
of the extension farm movement of
every state. He Is especially anxious to
increase the flocks in New York and
New 'England and also in West Vir
ginia. North Carolina, Texas and
The wool experts are also sending
out over the country educational ex
hiblts illustrating sheep and wool, and
with them are lecturers who are urging
the farmers to Increase their number of
sheep. We have experiment stations for
the studying of sheep management
Maryland and Vermont, and in Fremont
County, Idaho, there Is a sheep farm of
30.000 acres, which is experimenting on
a large scale. The Bureau of Animal In
dustry has a flock of 1000 ewes on that
station, and this number will be in
creased as rapidly as possible. It ia
especially desired that the farmers east
of the Missouri River raise more sheep.
The experts say that 23,000.000 more
ewes can be kept there at a profit, and
that If this is done It will greatly help
the meat supply for ourselves and our
allies. It will also add 200.000.000
pounds more wool to our annual clip.
As It Is now, the United States wool
product is several hundred million
pounds short eveVy year. In 1915 we im
ported 308,000,000 pounds, and we have
now the additional needs of our Army.
How can they he supplied? In the past
we have Imported a great deal of wool
from Australia. This supply was cut off
in 1916 when the British government
put an embargo on all wool shipments
from there to this country. I understand
that 100,000.000 pounds have now been
released and that the embargo may he
raised as far as we are concerned. The
Pacific shipping facilities are not good,
however, owing to the need of vessels
for the Atlantic service, and we shall
probably have to rely upon getting
most of our wool from Argentina. The
product of that country is of the lower
grades, and it cannot replace the fine
It will surprise some to know that
there is as much difference in the hair
which grows on a sheep as that which
grows on a man. Some races of men
have fine silky hair, others have hain
that is coarse, straight and wiry, and
there is also the kinky woolly hair or
the negro. A baby's hair is fine, and it
grows coarser as the child grows older.
It Is the same with sheep. Lamb's wool
is finer than sheep's wool, and the woorl
on sheep varies according to the oreeas
or families to which they belong.
Wools are also different according to
it a I I
i.iM ' lift ---fSCTliirr-.S?-
Uteri.- ;S8&3te:rt s IbJ
r mLd i ii m. m v f.
f.y 'V iuaw
. y .v. - -w
JM3ivny Sheep byJsohinsny.
the wave or curl in them and In eertain
other things that fit them for weaving.
To the naked eye merino wool as it
comes from the sheep seems to be made
of fine curly hairs. 'They are so fine
tnat 10,000 -or them are grown on a
spare the size of a silver quarter, and
so fine that a pound can be spun into
a thread 100 miles long. It is only by
putting the fibers under a microscope
that you can see how they differ from
hairs. Enlarged to the size of a lead
pencil you observe that each is covered
with sharp scales, which overlap
one another like those of a fish. The
scales are so close together that there
are several thousands of them on a
single inch of the fiber. These scales
are found on all wool, and it is the
scales that enable the wool to be
woven. They interlock so that the
fibers of which the cloth is composed
cling closely together. It is this
character of the fiber, its length, its
curl - and other things affecting . the
weaving which have to do with the
value of the wool.
There is a difference in the wools of
sheep of the same breed, according to
where they are found. Just now some
of the finest wool of the world is the
merino raised on the high, dry lands
of Australia and South Africa. The
sheep of Algeria and Morocco grow ex
cellent wool, and so also do those of
Asia Minor and Persia, as well as those
which graze on the highlands of the
Andes. Our Ohio and Pennsylvania
sheep produce some of the strongest
wool in the world. They are chiefly
merinoes, and they pasture on the sod
covered land. Our Michigan and New
York wools arc almost as good, and
after them come the wools from Ken
tucky, Indiana. Missouri and Wisconsin.
There is a special grade for Texas
wool, and also for certain wools of
Oregon and California. We have one
grade known as "territory wool," which
comes from the great range states of
the West, such as Montana, Wyoming.
Idaho, Nevada and Colorado. Much of
that wool is from sheep which feed on
the high plateaus, where the wind
blows sand and dirt into the fleeces. It
is related that one sand storm which
carrie up while the men were shearing
a flock caused them to stpp work for
an hour, and that at the end of the
storm the average weight of the fleece
had risen from six to nine pounds. In
such wool a great shrinkage has to be
allowed for on account of the dirt.
The grading of wool is a science and
it must be done by experts. It is taught
in the agricultural colleges of Aus
tralia and at Sydney, which is the chief
wool market, there are night classes
where the students learn how to grade
wool. The bales are sent in by the
dealers and the boys pick out the good
and bad wool and sort it according toj
quality. We have experts at our wool
markets, sone of whom can tell by the
feel Just how much each shipment
should bring when sold in the market.
Some years ago there was a blind buyer
at Boston who operated with success,
making his purchases by the touch and
odor. He could tell not only the quality
of the wool, but the section of the
country or the part of tho world from
which it came.
The most of tho wool is shipped in
burlap bags, which contain several
hundred pounds each, comprising tho
fleeces of 40 or 50 sheep. After tha
wool has been graded it is put up in
piles and is then ready for sale to the
mills. At the mills it Is sorted and
graded again according to the part of
the sheep from which it comes. The
wool from the back is not as good as
that from the shoulders, and that from
the belly has its own grade. The wool
from the head is short and coarse, and
in the black-faced sheep it is likely a
contain black fibers. There is also shore
wool from about the face and eyes.
The number of sorts vary also witli tho
quality and length of the fibers and
the goods for which the wool is in
tended. Each mill has its own way of
sorting and uses its own names and
numbers. From this it will be seen that
a great deal of Intelligent work has to
be done from the time the wool leaves
the sheep until it reaches the machines
which make it into the yarn our wom
en are knitting.
ffodem Poultry (Mure
We Americans have long ap
preciated the need for labor
.aaving devices. Our inventors
and engineers have contributed
many. If not most, of the world's
stock of useful appliances. Wit
ness th telegraph, the telephone,
the harvesting machinery, the
tractor, the sewing machine, the
typewriter, an hundreds of other
appliances too numerous to men
tion. We have had to improvise
these things because our man
power was more or less limited.
A desire for greater economy of
production waa the Incentive for
our Inventions. Not only hav
we sought to aave human labor
but we have endeavored to cut
down the toil of our animal
labor. Or rather we have in
sisted upon getting the most
from our animals. There Is no
better example of this fact than
th Incubator, without which our
poultry industry could not have
attained It present magnitude
BT ROBERT ARMSTRONG.
Expert Poultryman and Writer.
E havf in this country close to
600.000.000 domestic fowls. Each
year th greater part of these
fowl are killed off as meat, and a
new generation ia reared to take the
place of the old. The energy Involved
In this reproduction Is enormous. It Is
so stupendous, words and numerals fail
to measure It. It is done by two pro
cesses: Natural and artificial. In the
former, female birds ar used to hatch
and brood th young; In th latter,
machines are employed to do thla work,
which they perform almost as success
fully as the birds themselves.
laewbalors Veraaa Heaa.
Hatching is not so much a question
of which method produces th greatest
number of chicks th hen or th in
cubator? It Is a question of economy.
The Hen's greatest value lies in the
eggs she produces. If she is kept in
laying trim, she Is a monejr-maker. one
of the best assets on the farm. If she
falls to lay proliflcly. she is an expense,
especially during these times of high
prices for feeds.
Very well, the hen cannot be-expected
to lay and reproduce her young at the
sam time. If she raises a brood, it is
at least a two months' task, and then
another month before she is In physical
condition to commence laying again.
which sne seiaom aoes. oecause or me
time she haa weaned her brood, the hot
weather is at hand and more than
likely she enters the molt. The molt
keeps her busy for another three or
four months, and then Winter weather
is at hand.
This is the way of the average farm
hen. It is the natural way. And it is
the reason why the farm hen seldom
produces over CO eggs a year. Five
dozen eggs a year, unless they are pro
duced as a by-product, with little or no
that continent are In Russia; Spain expense to th keeper, will not show a
profit. Hence farmers aver that chick
ens do not pay.
Of course, chickens do not pay under
such circumstances. Neither would
cows pay If they were allowed to fol
low their own inclinations. It is
doubtful if any farm crop would pay
if It was neglected so much as chick
ens are Ignored on the average farm.
Save the Hen's Time.
The single plow was superseded by
the double plow; the double plow was
replaced by the three and four-horse
gang plow; the gang plow has been r un
placed by the tractor which hauls a
number of gang plows. Why? Be
cause too many men and too many
horses were required by the old meth
ods. It waa too expensive; it did not
pay. The draft animals and the men's
wages absorbed all the profits. They
were more productive in other lines of
work. The machine was made to -take
their place. And so It is with the hen.
The incubator hatches hundreds of
thousands of eggs, while the hen
hatches a dozen or 15. The machine Is
attended by one man, and only a por
tion of the man's time, while the hens
required to hatch an equal number of
eE2s would reauire the attention of
three or four men. The incubator can
be run on a few gallons of oil or a ton
of coal, while the hen's energy meas
ured in the eggs she fails to lay by
reason of her being on the nest, would
run into hundreds of dollars.
There is still another factor, and a
highly important one. When you deal
with hens, you deal with mighty per
verse creatures. You may want to
bring off some early hatches in order
to have early pullets for rail laying
but if there are no broody hens you
are helpless. Again, you may find
some broody hens, sitting on nests in
some obscure place, and when you try
to make them sit on a setting or eggs
In the place you provide for them, they
will have none of It. Or, they may
accept the proffered eggs and sit on
them for a week, then abandon them.
If there is no other hen to take the
eggs promptly, the partly hatched eggs
must spoil. Anyone who has had any
experience with chickens knows only
too well how exasperating a broody
hen can be. She is the last word In
obstinacy. She will sit when it pleases
her, where it pleases her. and as long
THE Houdan was tne most exten
sively bred fowl in France, where
It originated. In America it has
been more or less popular for 50 years.
Aside from the fact that it is a hand- of breast
some looking fowl, the Houdan is a small.
good utility bird. The hens are heavy
layers of large white eggs. They are
particularly dsirable for the backyard
flock because of their docility and be
cause they thrive in confinement. They
are hardy, good foragers, and may be
left to rough it.
The males weigh from seven to eisht
pounds and the females six pounds.
For the average table this is a good
sized fowL The skin is thin, the flesh
is fine-grained, there is an abundance
meat, and the bones are
The Houdan has five toes on each
foot, instead of four, as in most other
varieties. The-skull differs too, in
that it has a "bump." from which the
crest grows. In newly-hatched chicks
this lump is particularly noticeable. In
addition to a crest, full grown birds
have a V-shaped comb.
as It pleases her, and no amount of
coaxing will alter her views in the
Machine Mesas Control.
The incubator Is the reverse of the
foregoing troubles. It can be started
in late Winter in order to produce
early pullets, perhaps months before
the hens would even think of becom
ing broody, and it can be run as long
as desired, and wherever it is desired.
It is always under perfect control of
the operator. Give it reasonable care
and good eggs and it is the most oblig
ing thing in the world. Use it once
and you will abandon the perversity
of the hen for all time.
To the inexperienced mind the incu
bator appears as an intricate machine
requiring special training for Its opera
tion. It is a mistake to assume that
they are difficult to manage. Reliable
incubators are made almost automatic
and fool-proof these days, and previous
experience is altogether unnecessary.
I do not mean that you can neglect
them, or give them the Indifferent
car that you might give to a washing
machine. But, the Incubator is so
simple that children have gotten ex
cellent results with them, and all that
is required of the operator is that he
shall follow the directions which ac
company each machine, and be punctual
in doing bo.
No incubator can vitalize infertile
eggs or eggs which have weak lire
germs, and It cannot overcome condl
tions which may have had a bad effect
on the eggs before they were placed In
the machine. It cannot offset the evils
of weak breeding stock or injudicious
feeding methods. Therefore, when
poor hatches result, it is well to look
for other causes besides the machine.
Which Machine to Bay.
The prospective purchaser of an in
cubator is sometimes perplexed as to
which is the best machine for his pur
pose. Size, of course, is a leading con
sideration. Choose one that will fill
your requirements, but always buy a
larger one in preference to one that
may prove too small. It costs very
little more to run a slightly larger ma
chine, the initial cost is- not great, very
little additional labor is necessary, and
usually the larger the machine the more
accurately It will run.
In regard to price. It is well to bear
in mind that the value of the machine
is small compared to the value of the
eggs which it will receive during its
lifetime. It is poor economy to buy a
machine simply because it is cheap. Buy
one of ' the reliable makes. The good
hatches that it will produce will soon
return its initial cost.
There are so many makes of incuba
tors on the market, and so many sizes,
it would be impossible to describe them
in a single article. Some are described
as "hot air machines, others as hot
water machines." Then there are
"moisture," and "non-moisture" de
signs. In principle they are all essen
tially the same. They have to be, for
the reason the whole theory of arti
ficial Incubation is based upon the fact
that if a fertile egg is kept for a suf
ficient period of time under certain
conditions of heat, ventilation, mois
ture and position, it will be trans
formed into a healthy fowl.
Incubators come in a wide variety of
sizes, from the small oil machine hav
ing a capacity of 50 eggs, to huge coal
heated machines of many thousand
egg capacity. Gas is sometimes used
to generate the necessary heat, and its
fixtures may be fitted to the ordinary!
machinery with few modifications. Elec
tricity is also used, and has proved sat-
isfactory; but it requires a totally dif
ferent principle of radiation.
Hot Air or Water.
The hot-air heated machines are
those In which fresh air is taken in at
the lamp heater, warmed as it passes
around the heating drum, which cor
responds to the chimney of a lamp,
then passed through the egg chamber
by means of a diaphragm in the ceil
ing of the machine. In some machines
the heated air simply passes over the
radiator above the egg trays, and never
actually enters the egg chambers.
Hot-water machines are heated by
tanks or a system of pipes above the
egg trays, similar to a hot-water sys
tem for heating a dwelling. In prac
tically all types of incubators the heat
is supplied or controlled by a regulator,
which, acting upon a valve or damper,
governs the admission of heat to the
egg chamber. These appliances are
usually termed thermostats.
Whether moisture should or should
not be supplied has never been defi
nitely determined; both principles have
their advocates. Some machines are
built with pans to hold moist sand or
water: others have none. Some ma
chines are built with a solid bottom,
the' idea being to conserve the mois
ture within the eggs; others are built
with slatted bottoms, through which
there is a constant circulation of air.
All types are in general use, and all
give good results. Apparently, the
problem of moisture must be solved by
the Individual experience of the opera
tor. Everything depends upon the de
sign of the incubator. Its location, the
season of the year, climate and the ex
ternal atmosphere at the time of the
Rounding Up His Offenses.
The court called the negro to the
stand. "Ben Jason." "Yas, sah." "Ac
cused of being under the influence of
liquor on Christmas eve. Yas, suh."
"Disorderly conduct." "Yas, suh."
"Profanity." "I might er swo' yah,
suh." Resisting an officer." "I sho
tried to lick dat Irishman, Judge."
Petty larceny." "Count dat in, too."
Ben, the law must deal heavily in
your case. Is there anything you left
out on your holiday spree?" The negro
scratched his head. "Yas, suh; ef yo'
could lemme out fo' a few minlts I'd
like to beat up my ol' woman fo'
ceptin' presents rom a Macon barber."
Cakes of Rye Flour Aid in
t Wheat Conservation.
Home Economics Department of
University of Washington Shows
Ways of Using Cereal.
OT only yeast breads and hot breads
other flours than white, but cakes made
with rye and graham flour are found
to be light and attractive in appearance
and delicious in taste. This is one of
the most recent experiments of the de
partment of home economics at the
University of Washington. The strange
taste of the rye flour Is successfully
masked by the use of spices. The cof
fee cake recipe below not only uses
half rye flour, but contains no shorten
ing. These recipes from the depart
ment are thoroughly tested many times
and ar issued because of the great
demand of Washington housekeepers
for conservation methods.
- Boston Favorite Cake.
Two-thirds cup shortening (Cotto
lene, Kream Krisp, oleomargarine,
2 cups sugar. H teaspoon suit.
4 eggs. 5 teaspoons bak-
1 cup milk. powder.
3 cups flour (equal 4 teaspoon cinna-
parts graham and mon.
rye). 4 teaspoon cloves.
Cream shortening, add sugar gradu
ally, eggs beaten until light, then milk,
and then flour mixed and sifted with
baking powder. This recipe makes two
loaves. If flavor of graham flour and
rye is too prominent, use a little more
Coffee Cake Without Shortening.
3 eggs. 1 teaspoon alsplce.
1 cup sugar. 1 teaspoon soda.
1 cup molasses. 1 pound raisins.
1 cup coffee. 2 cups rye flour.
2 teaspoons cinna- 2i cups white
1 teaspoon cloves.
Mix dry ingredients, add molasses,
coffee and beaten eggs and raisins.
Mother Knows in Advance.
Little Walter was eating lunch when
he gave his arm a sudden shove, and
splash! down went his glass of milk.
"1 knew you were going to spill
that," said mamma, angrily.
"Well, if you knew," queried Walter,
'why didn't you tell me"
After an Argument.
Her At the conclusion of an argu
ment between a- man and a woman,
the man may be silenced but not con
Him Yes, and the woman may be
convinced but not silenced.
It is sometimes difficult for a girl to
find her ideal man, but she's nearly al
ways willing- to accept a substitute.
Feed and epirs are worth
much money this season I
your hens loaf on the job.
Keep the Hens
Great for Breeding Stock
Tones up the system and strength
ens the productive organs. Puts health
ana nustie. vim ana vigor into nens.
A gmt moeay-msksr if wed regularly.
Use it for young, growing, molting and
laying itocK. no rniar no oayenno
pappar juaf goo lonie. vueanaouo.
CONKEY'S ROUP REMEDY
XX, 60c. f 1.20. S-lb. can 17.00. Just
coicaena gona i iimiaei
Koutledge Seed A Floral Co.,
14S-I47 Second Street.
fa;7 Sr. Portland Osi.
New Poultry Supply Catalogue Free.