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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
MOST SeiEMTIFie PHUSICAL eULTUKE
FIGURE I THE FIRST HOLD IX CUMBERLAND. FIGURE II THE BACK HEEL. FIGURE III THE FLYING MARE. FIGURE IV-THE HIFE.
1 . . . .
HYSICAL culture in its most scien
tific form is found in that style o
wrestling known as Cumberland and
This is due to the fact thata fall In
Cumberland and Northumberland must be
sained from one hold, which must be
kept under all circumstances until the
bout ends. In view of this distinctive
feature of Cumberland and Northumber
land, it can easily be realized that every
bit of physical and mental Ingenuity pos
sible on the part of the contestants must
be brought into play both In offensive and
This one hold bars all ground wrestling;
every fall must be made from the feet.
As a result, the agility demanded is even
greater than In energetic catch-as-catch-.can.
Indeed, such activity on the feet is
T. PETERSBURG. May h. (Special
Correspondence.) I have had an In
terview here with the greatest man
in Russia if not the greatest man on earth.
His name Is Sergius Wltte. "Be is the right
hand of the Czar, and the business mana
ger of the great Russian empire. He han
1 dies all told in the neighborhood of a bll
'llon dollars a year, taking it In from a
thousand sources and distributing it with
'an even hand to the necessities of Russia
'in Europe and Asia.
t He is ono of the world's greatest bank
lers, being at the head of the treasury of
Russia and of the vast government bank
ling system whose capital runs into the
hundreds of millions. He is one of the
world's great railroad men, having an
enormous network of state lines In Russia,
'in Central Asia and Siberia the longest
line In the world. From the Czar's crown
estates he collects about $40,000,000 a year,
land from the debts owing him gets a
'revenue of $16,000,000. He handles the
i mines belonging to the crown and drags
tiorth gold and silver, iron and coal In the j
tens of millions from the bowels of the
earth. He is in charge of the tax system
land the customs duties and he is a mighty
'manufacturer. Stranger than all he is the
! greatest saloonist of the- world. He does
lan alcohol business which dwarfs that of
i the American, whisky trust, making and
'selling, as a government proposition, ev
Jery ounce of alcohol consumed by more
Hhan 100,000,000 people.
A Self-Madc Man.
All this "Wltte does ably, honestly and
Jior his master, tho Czar. He has acquired
Oils prominence by his own work, and is
what would be called in America a self
(snade man. He camo from the southern
"part of the empire, born of parents com
paratively poor. He had a fair education
and began life as a clerk in a railroad
office. This was at Odessa, on the Black
Sea. He did his work well and rose
to be manager. Then he was advanced
4o another road, which ran from Odessa
.to Moscow and managed that. His abil
ity here was such that he was recom
mended again and again to the govern
ment, and finally became a government
director of railroads. He revised the rail
road tariff, reorganized the routes, rebuilt
many of the lines and showed himself to
bo the ablest railway man of the em
pire. He was then put In charge of the
"board of public works and railways, the
position now held by Prince Hllkoff, and
a little later on was made minister of
finances or by far the most important
officer in the cabinet of the Czar.
This was 11 years ago, and since then
"Wltte has almost revolutionized the finan
cial condition of Russia. He has pushed
its trade into all parts of Asia, and has
reorganized the business at home. He has
completed the Trans-Siberian road, has
extended the roads in Turklstan, has put
Russia on a gold standard and has filled
the treasury, without oppressing the peo
ple. He is today full of new ideas for
the Improvement of the empire, and he
is slowly but surely bettering the coun
try In commerce and industry along the
llnes'of modem development.
Hotv Scrplun "Wltte Looks.
It was through the American Ambassa
dor to St. Petersburg that I got access
to Mr. Wltto. He received me, in the
finance department, a great brown build
ing not far from the Nevskl on Molka
street. He Is a busy man, and 4 o'clock
had been fixed for the appointment.
At five minutes before that hour I
stepped from my droschky and was ad
mitted to the department by two stern
looking Russians, long-haired and long
"bearded, wearing top boots and liveried
coats, which fell almost to the instep.
One of them helped me oft with my over
coat, the other took my hat and um
brella, and both directed me to the top
floor. Thero was no elevator, and I
walked, hearing an electric bell ringing,
announcing, as I supposed, my approach.
On the third floor I found more flunkies,
in livery, and also a bright young official
in uniform, who spoke English fluently.
required. In order to avoid tripping, that
the wrestlers must dance around contin
ually. As a test of alertness, endurance
and powers of breathing, Cumberland and
Northumberland Is In the first class.
Br reason of the one hold that Is fair
In this style of wrestling all tendency to
violence Is practically eliminated. There
Is no danger from hammer locks or stran
gle holds. The only care necessary is to
see to it that the fall, which is from a
height, is not too hard. A little experi
ence will show the wrestlers how this can
be worked without disturbing or altering
The tall man should be especially adept
at Cumberland and Northumberland, and
for men of this class it is an exhilarating
exercise. Toung, overgrown boys, how
ever, should be wary of it for they are
although he was a Russian. He told me
that the Minister was expecting me, and
a moment later opened the door of his
ftxcellenev's office and asked m to enter. !'
1 did so and was in the presence of the
Russian Secretary of the Treasury.
Mr. "Wltte rose, came toward me and
held out his hand. He made me wel
come and gave me a seat near his desk
and then sat down himself and talked
with me through an Interpreter in re
sponse to my questions. I had a good
chance to study him during the interview.
He is very impressive, but simple and
unostentatious. He talks quietly, does
not get excited and apparently has him
self well-In check. He is a big man. He
stands six feet one In his stockings, and
bis frame is strong-limbed and muscular.
His forehead is very high and full, with
brown hair rising from It and combed
straight back without a part. He has a
rich brown beard and brown eyes rather
thoughtful than otherwise. He was
dressed in a morning suit at the time,
but In asking for his signature on a pho
tograph he wrote It on one representing
him in his -court dress, which is covered
with medals and gold lace.
He smoked a cigarette as he talked, and
I noticed beside his chair a tea table
with a glass of tea with a lemon floating
upon it, such as the Russians drink every
where. The American Invnnlon.
My first question was as to the Ameri
can Invasion. I wanted to know some
thing as to the chances 'for American
capital and American goods in the land
of the Czar. His excellency said:
"lncre are plenty of openings here for j
foreign capital in the way of manufac- ;
tures. "We already have some American
factories, and others could be introduced
at a profit. Russia Is on the edge of its
development. "We have a vast number of
people and a very large country, and the ;
growth must continue for a long time to t
come. As to the profits, they will depend
largely on the management of the bus!-
ness. Russia Is glad to welcome foreign j
capital, and to do anything that will j
materially improve the condition of the j
"Is capital safe In Russia?" I asked. I
"It is as safe here is anywhere,1' said
Mr. Witte. "The only questions are those '
of management and business ability." ',
"How about American trade with Rus- .
sia can it not be increased?" I
"Tlu is a difficult question." replied the '
Minister of Finance. "Russia and the :
United State are much of the same char- J
acter. "We both have an abundance of
raw material, such as grain, lumber and I
minerals. "We have petroleum, and so have
you. e result Is you do not need what
we have to sell, and there is not tnat
mutual exchange of commodities that
forms the basis of profitable commerce,
Nevertheless many of your manufactures
are in demand here. This Is especially so
with your farming and other machinery."
The Tar in-.
"How about the tariff which you have
recently put on American goods? Will it
. . .....
affect our trade to any great extent?
"That tariff was one of the necessities
ot the time." repueo Mr. witte. "it re-
lates only to certain classes of American
goods and does not touch others. It will
probably lessen the Importation of some
things, but other branches of the trade
will continue to prosper. It was a business
The Rnsslans Like Us.
"What is the feeling in Russia toward
the United States?'
Politically It Is tho best possible. The
two trovernraents are on the friendliest
terms, commercially our reiauons may
be somewhat strained, but that Is the out
come of conditions which. Russia could not
"What is Russia doing in Manchuria,
Tour Excellency?" said I. "It is charged
that you are colonizing the country and
intend to hold It."
"That Is not true," replied the Minister
of Finance. ""We are doing nothing of the
kind, and it is the intention of the .Rus
sian government to refrain from extend
ing Its -rule in that direction. "We have a
dozen times asserted that we will give the
THE SUNDAY 0KEG0NIA2J, POETLAKD. JUNE 14, 1903.
liable to Injure their arms and legs, which
are weak by-reason of their owners' too
quick springing up.
Cumberland and Northumberland gets
its name from the two countries in Eng
land where it originated and is mast pop
ular. Since the days of knighthood, wrestling
tournaments have been held yearly at big
fairs lasting several days in these counties.
'The champions of the different towns take
part, and each wrestler is urged on to
victory by his partisans, who bet on their
favorite as an American on his horse, or a
college boy on his alma, mater's football
This form of wrestling Is little known In
this country. It Is practiced only by the
professionals or those Englishmen who
have come here from the bout's home.
The hqld is described below, with three
movements that are used In every bout.
SBKGllS WITTE, THE
I government over to the Chinese Just as
j soon as we possibly can. and this we ex
pect ,to do.
The Fntarc of R nun In-
"Your Excellency Is considered the most
advanced statesman in Russia. It is gen-
! erally conceded that within the past ten
ears you have done more than any other
I man for your country and people along
, Droad poliUcai llnes. j vmU 1Ike to ask
; you what you hope for the Russia of the
"The future."' replied Mr. "Witte, after
thinking a moment, "the future is in the
hands of God and destiny. What it will be
I do not venture to predict, but If we may
Judge what is to come by the past, this
country will one day be the great country
of the world. This empire Is an autocratic
one, and its condition largely depends on
the individuality of its rulers. If those to
come-are to possess the great ability of
j those we have had since the time of Peter
! he Great I have no fear of the Russia of
Before leaving I asked Mr. "Wltte to give
me a message for the American people.
"You may say that Russia Is a friend of
the United States. She has always been
bo and she Is more so today than ever.
She considers the United States one of her
best friends among the nations. She re
joices In America's prosperity and hopes
that the friendly relations which now ob
tain will be perpetual." .
During my stay In the Finance Depart
ment, at the direction of Mr. Witte. I was
given information concerning the Russian
Others can be easily studied out and will
occur to the wrestlers as they strive to
gether. Flmt Hold In Cumberland.
Each wrestler places the left arm over
the others rlrht shoulder, and the right
arm underneath the left shoulder. Inter
locking the hands. To start with, the
chin is placed on the opponent's left shoul
der, in order to prevent butting or push
ing with the head at the beginning. (Fig
ure 1.) The bodies should be separated as
far as possible, so that danger from trip
ping or other sorts of leg wrestling will
be lessened. As in all kinds of wrestling,
have the feet spread sufficiently to insure
a firm basis.
This is the only hold In Cumberland,
and it must not be changed at any period
of the bout. It is permissible to Imprison
an arm of the opponent by slipping one
of your arms over it, or to turn back to
back, or to get you opponent on your
1UGUT HAM) OK THE CZAR."
government as a liquor dealer. The move
ment was originated by Alexander III. It
was introduced In several provinces by
Mr. Witte on the 1st of January, 1S95, and
it has now been extended to almost the
whole of Russia in Europe. The govern
ment has taken entire charge of the man
ufacture and sale of all alcoholic liquors.
It has its liquor ehops in every city and
village, and it Is against the law for any
private person to make or sell vodka, as
the Russian whisky is called.
This work was begun to protect the peo
ple from the liquor dealers and to Improve
their conditions generally. In the past
there were grog shops scattered over the
empire, many of them operated by un
scrupulous people, who sold drinks on
credit and finally got away the lands and
most;of the property In their neighbor
hood. The business was enormously profitable.
Many Russians had grown rich from it
They were not only robbing the people,
but they were selling them bad vodka
when Mr. Wltte issued his decree that It
must be stopped, and that after a time
the government would manage the busi
ness itself. Of course there was a great
outcry. Had there been a Congress, or
any purchasable commodity, the order
would have probably been remanded, but
the government here Is supreme, and the
liquor dealers went out of business.
Government Li on or Factories.
Since then great factories have been es
tablished to make the vodka, and the gov
ernment manufactures its own bottles and
corks. It supplies a better liquor than
(back, etc, so long as the same hold is
kept. But the moment the first hold in
Cumberland Is changed the bout must, be
gin all over again. " Professionally, chang
ing the hold Is a foul.
The Back Heel.
One of the hundred or more distinct
movements in Cumberland is the Back
Heel. To secure It much sparring and
working of arms Is necessary. In order to
. get the opponent close enough. When this
! Is accomplished squeeze In the opponent's
! back toward your abdomen by slipping an
' arm down his back as far as possible. At
the same time trip with a heel thrown
back, at the oaponent's closer foot, bend
forward at the waist, and press on his
chest with your head. (Figure 2.) If this
movement is correctly done, the opponent
must fall straight on both shoulders, and
you will fall with and land on top of him,
as a matter of course.
In falling, the grip must not be changed
SERGIUS WITTE WHO HAS CHARGE OF
AND HANDLES A BILLION
was sold In the past and at a ilower rate,
and at the same time makes an enormous
profit for the Czar.
In 1901 the receipts frdm this source
amounted to JSI.000,000. In 1902 "they were
more than $231,000,000, and this year. It Is
estimated, they will be over a quarter of a
billion dollars. They will be more than
the estimated cost of the Army and Navy
and ten times as great as the cost of all
the prisons and all the courts. If the per
centage of Increase keeps up as it has
been doing they will In time largely sup
port the government. There is some talk
of extending the monopoly to tea. which
Is universally drunk In Russia, and If so
the Czar will have money to burn.
I went Into one of the government sa
loons the other day and bought a bottle
of brandy. Just to tell you how It Is 30ld.
The saloon was not far from the Ameri
can Consulate. I saw the sign No. 6 over
It, with Russian characters below It, and
I pushed the double doora open and en
tered a room which looked much like a
mixture of bank and drug store. There
was a network In front of the counter,
and on the shelves at the back were
bottles of different sizes, from little ones
as big as a wineglass to some holding
half a gallon. The bottles were round
and white, and they seemed to 'be filled
with water. They really contained vodka,
or Russian whisky, which is as clear as
Behind the counter stood a nicely
dressed Russian woman, dealing with her
customers through a window In the wire
network like the teller of a bank. No
liquor Is allowed to be drunk on the
SPOKANE, Wash., June 8. (To the
Editor.) The anniversary of June 15,
"Oregon Pioneer Day," Is at hand, and
grateful memories steal Into our con
sciousness as we contemplate the deeds of
the noble pioneers of the great Northwest,
from Lewis and Clark down to the days
when the steam whistle waked the echoes
in the Rocky Mountains. Those Intrepid
spirits redeemed this vast region from
primitive conditions and Isolation, and
gave it in triumph to civilization. Some
pessimist will assert that the pioneers
came for their own profit, but the results
to humanity prove that it was a "divine
leading on," for without superhuman
courage those weary portages of Lewis
and Clark could never have been accom
plished, and it is almost incredible that
delicate women and little children braved
the perils and survived the hardships of
tho long Journey across the plains and
over the mountains.
Settlers are trooping into this favored
region, but these who come West now,
seeking fortune or a competence, find the
path strewn with roses compared with
the pioneer's Journey, and instead of In
dian guides the locomotive pilots them
on their way, leaving blizzards behind,
and Instead of IS months of weary wan
dering, three days' traveling and of feast
ing their eyes in wonder upon the vast
slopes and valleys and mountains of an
unparalleled region brings them to the
rich ore bfds, the fertile valleys, great
water power and magnificent forests of
the Pacific Northwest.
Many who have, for the first time,
turned their attention to this part of tho
states, have perhaps never heard of the
bravo pioneers, and It Is profitable that
those who are recently seeking homes In
this delightful land should pause and give
a thought to the sturdy band headed by
Lewis and Clark.
The pioneers of this vast region were a
God-loving and liberty-loving people, and
so erected the church and schoolhouse
side by side, and from the footprints of
Lewis and Clark civilization properly be
gins, for the policy of peace pursued by
the pioneers in dealing with the Indians
now prevails, though many who. caiae
after Lewis and Clark, abused the confi
dence which the pioneers Inspired, and
HPT TfT T""i TLJHPC fT!? T-)T X i m it i t- r Former Portland "Woman Writes "With
i OVjULrrl 1 O VJJP IrlUlNJDllK DAY En&uriaim Concerning Empire BvMcA
FORM OE WRESTLING KNOWN AS CUMBER
LAND AND NORTHUMBERLAND
or broken. It must be kept until the bout
is declared at an end.
The Flying Mare or Cross Bnttocka.
To accomplish this picturesque and
effective movement, slip around the op
ponent by turning your back to him and
getting his head in your arm. Both by
pulling down hard and rising up your hips,
lift the opponent off the floor, and heave
him (Figure 3) over your bended back to
the floor again. This time he will be on
his shoulders Instead of his feet.
The opponent defends himself by pulling
upward and backward, thereby trying to
keep you from bending and. throwing him
This is conceded to be the most scientific
movement In all wrestling. To execute It
properly takes years of practice.
The movement Is also remarkable for
the reason that he who appears at a dis
premises. There were no chairs nor
lounging places, and one Is expected to
leave as soon as he makes his purchase.
I asked as to prices, and was told that
the smallest bottle cost 3 cents, but that a
cent would be paid back on the return of
the bottle. Bach bottle was tightly corked
and waxed with a government stamp.
The ordinary peasant buys a bottle,
takes it outside and gulps down the con
tents. He then returns the bottle and gets
his rebato of 2 kopecks, or 1 cent. I
bought a 12-cent bottle, and for that sum
I got almost a tumblerful of vodka. I
have not opened It yet.
Russian Brandy Drinkers.
The Russians are great brandy drink
ers, for after all vodka is a species of
brandy. Drinking Is common all over the
empire, and I see many drunken men. I
do not know that they are as bad as the
English In this respect, but they certainly
drink more than the Americans. The
abovs figures are the profits of the busi
ness, and they give a small Idea of the
enormous consumption, which will prob
ably increase as the people grow richer.
The English are the greatest drinkers
on earth. They have more than a billion
dollars invested In breweries and distil
leries, and their annual consumption of
liquors costs more than 520 for every
man, woman and child In their country.
Next to them come the Germans, and at
the bottom of the great nations come the
Americans. Nevertheless, our drink bill Is
a big one. "We produce from 100,000,000 to
130.000,000 gallons of distilled spirits every
year, and we count our beer by the mil
armies have marched and fought
where churches now rear their
spires. Our young men and women have
every facility for a most thorough edu
cation. There Is enterprise and energy
and industry where 60 years ago the plow
share had not disturbed the soil, and beau
tiful homes and magnificent business
blocks poke their roofs where then the
lumberman's ax had not scarred a tree,
and where the Indian roved. There is
superb citizenship, for from "the states"
came the children of pioneers who but a
generation before founded great common
wealths, men and women who by inher
itance and training possessed the mental,
moral and physical endowments that
could endure the vicissitudes of a new
country and blossom Into the highest
type of humanity. We are proud to say
that many of our most prosperous, highly
cultured and broad-minded settlers are
pioneers, and children of pioneers.
But there are good grounds for the as
sertion that the masses are Just beginning
to realize the vast possibilities for suc
cessful business and home building In the
Northwest. The wealth-producing power
of the Individual Is unparalleled. But the
world 'Is beginning to know of this glo
rious heritage, and the drought In Austra
lia has forced, the inhabitants of that dis
tant country to look to the Pacific States
What changes since the pioneers built
their log homes and tramped out their
first wheat crop with oxen! Those who
come now find other changes beside turn
ing wild land Into prosperous villages,
and wheat fields and blossoming orchards
and great cities, for we have a dally mail
service, where In pioneer days it took 18
months to get a letter from the dear one
"back In the States." though now we find
ourselves very much annoyed If the mall
Is one-half hour delayed or '.'central" re
plies to our call "Line is busy."
Nowhere is opportunity so boundless,
where fabulous destinies and fortunes can
spring from humble beginnings. Oppor
tunity is master of human destinies, and
the pioneers hewed the pathway by which
young men and women would leave the
sleepy old villages where splendid raw
material goes to waste, and thousands of
them have made far more of themselves
than It was possible for them to achieve
bad not this opportunity been vouchsafed
to them by the true pioneers. This Is no
tradition; so all honor to the sturdy
pioneers who braved the unknown dan
gers and hardships and raade it possible
for the present sen rati on to coxae in and
possess this favored land; And how let
advantage really has a great advantage,
It is necessary for the wrestlers to face
each' other in trying for the Hlpe, whici
is executed as follows:
Slide your arms well down over the op
ponent until your hands are at the small
of his back. Then bend backward, and, as
you do so, lift the opponent clear of the
ground. At the same time lift the oppo
nent's left foot high oft the floor on your
right and throw him down sidewise. (Fig
ure 4). As soon as he Is entirely clear
of the ground, he is at your mercy. Or,
lift up the opponent's right leg on your
left, or both his feet on either yqur right
or left foot.
The grapevine, which will he described
In Cornish wrestling, is permissible In
Cumberland and Northumberland. Other
movements are the outside and Inside
click-tripping by placing the heel on the
Inside and outside of .the leg.
THE CZAR'S FINANCES
lions of barrels. Every one knows that
the business is a most profitable one, and
were It not for licensing an evil and the
creation of an enormous government serv
ice we might copy Russia and cut down
our taxes at least one-half.
The Russian government, however, is
like no other on earth. It Talses its reve
nues In all sorts of ways. It has both di
rect and Indirect taxes and government
monopolies. It has heavy customs duties
which bring in something like 5100.000.009
There is a tax on matches which pro
duces more than $15,000,000, and one on
sugar which Is expected to yield $38,000.
0C0 in 1903. Than there- are stamp duties and
inheritance taxes. If you transfer a piece
of real estate 4 per cent of the value of
the property goes to the government, and
If you do any banking you must' use gov
The taxes are different in different
parts of the empire. There is a wagon
tax, a tax levied on the natives, of the
Caucasus Mountains by which they are
freed from military service, and a tax on
cattle owned by the Tartars, who live in
tents. The taxes on real estate are com
paratively light and the customs duties
comparatively heavy- There are a large
number of licenses, and also certain taxes
on Incomes and on Industrial establish
ments. A large part of the revenue, how
ever, comes from the government monopo
lies, the Czar being the greatest land own
er and the greatest capitalist of the world.
FRANK G. CARPENTER.
the whole population greet the pioneers
on "Pioneer Day" with royal hospital
ity, and help to shed a rosy glow over
the crown of their sunset splendor, and
thrill their hearts with gladness.
FRANCES MORELAND HARVEY.
JEWEL "BEAUTY BONO'S"
DON'T wear Jewels without first making
a study of your style and coloring.
Don't wear too many diamonds. They
detract from the brilliancy of eyes and
teeth. If eyes are dull, they will appear
more so by putting sparkling gema near
Don't wear rubies, emeralds and sap
phires with any shades of red. They are
not for the maid or matron with Tltlan
hued tresses, or with hair that is frankly
Don't be afraid of pearls. Of all pre
cious stones they are the best to soften
the face. Another equally becoming
sfone is the opaL Unfortunately "pearls
are tears," and opals are bad luck to
those of superstitious minds.
Don't despise coral, if you are a bru
nette. It Is the stone which most be
Don't wear zings recklessly. Many c
none is the rule. An exquisite hand re
quires no Jewels, but the charm of one
less perfect in shape is enhanced by a
blaze of gems.
Don't wear a broad gold band. A nar
row one Is much more becoming to the
hand. The present fashion in wedding
rings demands, a slender circlet.
Don't wear bracelets unless you have
the knack of turning the wrist to display
the Jeweled shackle to advantage.
Don't wear a necklace if you have a
beautiful neck. The lovely line from toe
nape of the neck is broken and Its value
lessened by a necklace.
Don't wear a string of pearls unless the
neck Is white. One less clear In coler
may have rubies or sapphires as the most
Don't wear a broad band one of seven
strings of pearls, for example unless you
have a swan throat.
Don't wear earrings unless the ear is -a
dainty seashell. Then, If wisely chosen,
the rings emphasize the best points in
hair, features and complexion, aad lead
light and color to the face
Don't wear a long or pendant earring-,
If the neck, is long. This style is fee tke
woman with a short neck.