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THR SUjSDAT DREGONIAN. P011TLANB, JUNE 14, 1905.
OREGON: PAST TWO PR BSENT
BU WILLIAM MACLEOD 'RAIME
(Copyright, 1903, Pearson Publkhme Company. Pe&usfeed by Courtesy of Pearson's Magazine.)
To Old Oregon" comprising the
r.ent States of 'Oregon, Washlng
ma. 'idaho and parts of Montana
ana Wyoming a special Interest -ati-taches
by reason of the fact that It Is
the only-territory possessed by the "United
Frates to -which the title, has been ac
quired by disqovery. About It centers
our National epic of exploration." as
well as tho keenest contest lor terri
torial supremacy that has yet been waged
without bloodshed on the American con
tinent. The coast country bordering on
the North Pacific has been in turn claimed
by Spain. Russia, Prance, Great Britain
and the United States, but the survival
of the fittest has left -only the Anglo
Saxon cousins to shake, hands across the
boundary line between "Old Oregon" and
In the brave old days when nations
claimed a continent - because some frail
craft timorously touched Its .coast and
hoisted a flag between tides, Cabrillo and
Fcrrelo, representing Spain, then tho first
nation In Xurope, sailed along the North
Pacific and sighted Cape Blanco. More
than two centuries cjapsed before Juan
Perez In 1774 discovered Nootka Sound for
Spain. A year later Heceta, skirting the
coast under the same flag, filed a caveat
on behalf of his nation -for everything in
But "Vitus Behrlng had already on July
IS. 174L hoisted the Russian colors while
exploring the coast of Alaska. He also"
discovered that tho Icebound' north was
rich in eeals and furst and as early as
1738 Slavic traders and sailors occupied
the North Pacific for commercial pur
poses, claiming; the whole ' country from
Behring Strait -to the mouth of the Co
lumbia. In 1S12 tho Russians founded by
permission of tho Spanish a trading post
at Bodega Bay. near San Francisco. So
they occupied -points both north and
south of -Oregon. , England. ,and the
United States protested against' this, and
Russia was forced to withdraw reluctant
ly from the-strugglc for Oregon.
The claims of Great Britain and the
United States to the disputed territory
were of a more substantial nature. They
rested on exploration as well as discovery,
and depended upon occupation and posses
sion for their strength. For England, Sir
Francis Brake. Captain James Cook and
Captain Mcares made voyages of explora
tion on which .claims more or less fragile
were based, but Great Britain's valid
rights to territory in the Northwest rest
ed upon the voyages of Vancouver and
the explorations of Sir Alexander Mac
kenzie. Curiously enough, both these
Englishmen, by a singular oversight, left
a flaw in thejr titles to the Oregon terri
tory, while establishing beyond a doubt
their country's right to the land farther
Tlie First Americans.
On April 29, 1792, Captain Gray, a young
American in command of the Columbia,
fitted out In Boston for the purpose of
fur trading, spoke . to Vancouver, who,
with three consorts of the rqyal navy,
was then exploring the Northwest Coast.
The American told him that he hadbeen
for nine days at the mouth of a great
river farther south, but had been unable
to enter because of the outsettlng tide.
The British captain discredited this re
port He had already observed, the coast
recession at this point, but had decided
that there was no inlet Heceta, for
Spain, and Mcares. lor Great Britain, had
already missed the mouth of the river.
Now, Vancouver, too, lost to his nation
the chance that comes nly once In a
lifetime. On May 11 Gray eptered the
river with all sails set, hoisted the Amer
ican flag, and remained till -the 20th.
The first man to cross the American
continent was Sir Alexander Mackenzie,
who started In 1792 up the Peace River in
a birch bark canoe on a search for a
route to the Pacific Already by mistake.
while searching for this route, he had as
cended the river which bears his name.
to the Arctic Ocean, and had acquired for
Great Britain the immense Hudson Bay
country- He now crossed the summit of
the Rockies, and came upon waters flow
ing toward the Pacific This river was the
Fraser, but he mistook it for the head
waters of the Columbia. Following It
for a. distance, he finally reached the Pa
clfic Just north of Vancouver Island, at
the mouth of the Eellacoola River, He
then journeyed up Cascade Canal and on
a large rock painted; ''Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, from Canada, by land, the
twenty-second of July, one thousand seven
hundred and ninety-three
loere is no more interesting story in
the history of colonization than this one
of the fight for "Old Oregon." It was
contest of hard work and endurance, and
brains and diplomacy. First the Span
iard, with all the clamor of the brilliant
steel-clad adventurer, strode across the
stage of Its history, but there was not
In the haughty Don the stuff that en
dures. The Slav made his spurt, but at
last tkcitiy surrendered the field to the
Anglo-Saxon. . The Gaul, warm-hearted
and vividly . Imaginative, eager for cm
plre and the salva'tlon of souls, labored
mightily to ' win this new continent for
France. Far and wide uor voyageurs.
her ccureurs de bols and her devoted mis
sionary priests carried the Influence of
the motherland. But the Instinct for
practical colonization was lacking to the'
Frenchiran. The strenuous Anglo-Saxon
shculdcml him out of the field. His grip
rn the north land loosened. The Hudson s
Bay basin, Newfoundland. Acadia, and
finally Canada itself were won In turn by
Yet France was virile, een though she
was no match for her sturdy rival. She
still cherished dreams of sovereignty in
the New "World. Driven from the north,
she turned to the south. The mighty Na
pel eon, possessed by his iridescent dream
of universal empire, bought back the
western half of old Louisiana, and so,
under the ancient Spanish title, claimed
Oregon. A few years later, hard-pressed
at home and fearful Jest England might
t?fce it perforce, he sold' to the United
S tites Louisiana, including his title to
C'riT.n." There remained' then in the field
r- Great Brftaln and the United States
s. Anglo-Saxo had held on' grimly.
"Who Saved 4,Otd X)refironf
Vurh controversy -has been waged as to
v s. ' saved "Old Oregon" to tho United
S'l'-s. In the list of claimants the name
o Thomas Jefferson must be accorded
t pp.cuous place, for it was through his
ctz that the Lewis and Clark expedition
r.z 1 Its inception. For 20 years Jefferson
had' cherished the idea of anxpcdltion to
explore an overland route to the Pacific
la the latitude of the United States. Se
4sto the Revolution was woJl ended "he
v. as writing to General George Rogers
Clark about it:
i lino tney nave subscribed a. very
lrrge sum of money in England for cx
plTlng the country from the Mississippi
t3 California. They pretend It is only to
promote knowledge. I am afraid they
have thoughts of coionlzing Jnto that
quarter. Some of us have been talking
here In a feeble way of making the at'
terr.nt to search the country. But I doubt
wfcetner we have enough of that kind
cf iplrlt to raise the money. How would
7Tu like to lead such a party? Though I
am afraid our prospect is not worth ask
ing 'the question."
As a private Individual, he made re
peated efforts to promote the exploration
cf the Northwest, but it was not until he
attained the Presidency that his pet plan
reach"d fruition. He wap at the head of
a r Vi-al party that vas opposed, to pub-
- cijk ndlture cf the National funds for
such purpose, but. as the Louisiana pur
chase" rtras iijsh6w" a lew jrionlhs later.
Jefferson was great-minded enough to
free himself at times from party prin
ciple. The exploration of the water
courses of the Pacific was held by him to
be a matter of National Import, and in
1S03 he secured from Congress an appro- j
priation of J2oC0 "for the purpose of ex-
tending the external commerce ot the ;
It is entirely probable thai 'Jefferson
coveted for the United States this great
stretch of unexplored territory in" the
Northwest, but the ostensible object of
the Lewis and Clark expedition was scientific-
and. commercialwrather than po
litical. That 1t -directly induced a train
of events that later put the United States
Into a commanding commercial and po
litical position on the Pacific Is indubit
able- It was the first and most pregnant
of a series of now historic happenings
that eventually added to our Federal
Union a, group of states of the greatest
promise From it was born to the Na
tional consciousness the desire of win
ning this territory for the Union. Future
Government explorations under Long,
Pike, Fremont and others found their
justification in its success.
Lewis and Clark.
On May 14, 1804, the Lewis and Clark
expedition, numbering at first 30 persons,
left the month of the Missouri on its long
journey into tho unexplored wilds. The
command was vested In two sturdy young
Virginians, Captain Meriwether Lewis, a
grandnephew of George "Washington, and
Lieutenant "William -Clark, whose brother.
George Rogers Clark, was & distinguished
This journey across the continent was
an undertaking not less arduous than
that of .Stanley In hhv excursions into the
heart of Africa. Tact, wisdom, endur
ance and a high quality of leadership
were requisites to success in this march
of over 4000 miles to the sea through hos
tile Indian tribes. The flrat "Winter was
spent at Fof t Mandan. N. D.. whence the
explorers continued to the Three Forks
of the Missouri, up the Jefferson Branch
and across the Continental Divide at Lem
hi Pass. .The Bitter Root range was
crossed to the Clearwater, which stream
was followed to the Snake, the Snake to
the Columbia, and the Columbia to the
Pacific. The historical importance of the
acquisition of "Old Oregon" as a direct
sequence and effect ot the Lewis and
Clark achievement is not likely to be
overestimated. The Pacific Coast was
then more remote from New England
than China or India, Its Inhabitants more
strange and the difficulties of access a
hundredfold greater, yet today a young
giant of an empire stands as a monument
to Jefferson's foresight and his lieuten
ants' energy and Intrepidity. That the
Centennial Exposition In contemplation
should be held at Portland In 1805 to com
memorate this great historical event la
The first of America's long list of cap
tains of industry whose big brains hnve
conceived and carried out gigantic com
mercial enterprises was John Jacob As
tor. He had already become a millionaire
In the fur trade, but It was his dream to
establish a long line of trading posts to
stretch across the continent In 1SH he.
together with Ramsay Crooks and other
partners, built a fort at the mouth of tho
Columbia and named it Astoria.
Neck and neck with him in the race for
the "Old Oregon" fur trade was the great
Hudson Bay Company, which had been
chartered by Charles II In 1S70, with the
exclusive privilege of -establishing trading
posts on the shores of that bay and Its
tributary rivers. Gradually this company
had consolidated and extended Its opera
tions, till It was almost invincible. In
Western British America It crushed com
petition, absorbed Its rivals and became a
great political power. The Hudson Bay
Company stood, for Great Britain In the
Northwest, and fought stubbornly, un
yieldingly for Oregon. For long it was
an irrestlble force It controlled territory
to exceed the United States today, includ
ing .Alaska and the Philippines. In fact.
so far as the Northwest was concerned.
the Hudson Bay Company was Great
Britain. Their officials made and execut
ed the laws, controlled tho commercial In
put and output, throttled rival companies.
built roads, posts and forts. sk aasoiuteiy
did it dispense justice that in the hands
of Its m&hagers lay the power of lire ana
death. Its thousands ot employes trapped
and traded through the pathless forests.
Its chain of ports stretched across the
continent, and began to reach down along
the Pacific toward California. Its story
beggars romance. "When In 1S46 England
conceded the right ot the United States to
Oregon, the company claimed property
within the territory amounting to 5o.oifl,-
Dr. John McLonRalln.
Before Astoria rind yet been completed.
the Hudson Bay Company, thrqugh Its
agent. Dr. John McLoughlln, began to
build at Fort Vancouver. Soon, like -ants
from the heap, Canadian trappers spread
out over the surrounding country in tne
earch for furs. This was tantamount
to a declaration that England was In the
fight for Oregon to a finish. Both par
ties to the controversy were aiert ana cn
crgotic. and for long the lines of battle
were drawn between them, tsetrayea oy
his partners. Astor's fort fell into the
hands of the British, but at the close of
the War of 1S12 was returned, according to
the terms of the treaty of peace, which
left each nation in control of territory
possessed by it before the war.
The policy of the Hudson nay company
was to hold back -civilization, and to re
tain Oregon as a great game preserve:
the policy of the emigrants from the
states was to settle and civilize it This
difference in strategy, by filling the coun
try with Americans, ultimately deter
mined which country was to hold sway
over the territory. But for a long time
the Canadians were numerically, com
mercially and politically in the ascendant
throughout the Oregon country. Nathaniel
J. Wyeth, a shrewd New England trader.
ventured - to contest the field with the
Hudson Bay Company, but he fought a
losing fight. His foes--cre too strong.
too watchful, too well established. They
outbought and undersold him. No less an
achievement than the linking together or
the trade of both ends ot the continent in
one vast monopoly was their aim. Dr.
McLoughlln was personally courteous,
genial, hospitable, a charming host, yet
he never relaxed his vigilance. In those
Old stockades ot the company where the
Highland Macdonalds. the Mackenzles
and the MaeTavlshes held sway In old
feudal fashion, feasting and revelry might
be the order of the night, but none the
less the shrewd Scotchmen watched with.
lynx eyes the interests of their employers.
Wycth, beaten at all points, was forced
to sell out to his stronger opponents, and,
save for a little American outpost at As
toria, Dr. John McLoughlln. the genial
autocrat, ruled alone over his feudal de
pendents in wise, tolerant and broad
Hard on th heels of the explorer and
the trapper came inevitably the plonee:
and the missionary. Rev. Jason Lee, the
Methodist, was on the ground with
Wycth, and remained after that sturdy
trader had been forced out by competi
tion. Then came the Marcus Whitman
party, sent out by the American Board
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
Of Whitman's famous Winter ride back
to civilisation, of his efforts to interest
influential politicians in tne uregon ques-
ton. of the large parly of immigrants
which he led back across the Rockies next
year, and of his martyr death in the In
dian massacre shortly after, there has
been much written.
While Whitman was still in tho East
there convened at Champocg. May 2, 1S43,
a public meeting of- tlie Inhabitants of the
Willamette tor tne purpose or organizing
themselves into a civil community under
DR. JOIIX M'LOTGIILIX.
authority of the Hudson's Bay Company.
The Canadians attending the meeting
were naturally opposed to the proposed
plan, but by the close vote of 52 to 50 the
first American Government on the Pacific
Coast was organized. Tho result of this
was far-reaching, and had great effect
In determining the future of Oregon. It
is Indisputable that the wise laws enacted
by the Provisional Government, and the
Inflexible Justice with which they were
administered contributed very largely to
the future prosperity of Oregon. This or
ganization not only made adequate pro
vision for protection to life and property
by an equitable, competent and ecnoml
cal government, but It also by an overt,
formal act declared the purpose of those
settlers owing allegiance to the United
States to hold the country for the Stars
and Stripes against all comers. By prior
discovery, by prior exploration, by prior
settlement, by the acquisition of the
old Spanish title through the Lou
isiana Purchase, they felt the title
of the United States to be good; they did
not purpose to let It lapse for want of
The Oregon Question.
Up till this time, ever since the first
days of the Joint occupation treaty, the
British Influence had been dominant, but
now, with the increase ot American im
migration, the balance of power gradu
ally shifted. The Oregon question became
a vital Issue in politics. Relations be
tween Great Britain and the United
States grew strained over the boundary
problem. "Fifty-four forty or light"
"Oregon to Alaska," became Presidential
battle cries. More acute and bitter grew
the matter: war was imminent Then
great-hearted Rufus Choate said the right
word at the right time:
"In my Judgment this notion of a Na-
tlonal enmity of feeling toward Great
Britain belongs to a past age ot our his
tory. We arc born to happier feelings.
We look on England as we do on France.
We look on them from our new world,
not unrenowned, yet a new world still.
And the blood mounts to our cheeks; our
eyes swim; oar voices are stifled with
emulousness ot so much glory: their
trophies will not let us sleep; but there
is no hatred at all, no hatred; all for
honor, nothing for hate. If you will
answer for the politicians. I think I will
venture to answer for the people."
The better counsel prevailed, and the
war clouds lifted. Concessions were made
by both dies, and in 1S46 a treaty was
concluded with Grtat Britain, according
to the terms of which the Northwest
boundary ran along the 43th parallel west
ward from the Rockies, Just north ot the
present State ot Washington,
Tho Journey to Oregon across the plains
took six months of most arduous travel,
but for some years the migration had
been so. steady that the young common
wealth, separated though It was by thou
sands ot miles from the rest of the coun
try, felt Justified in asking for a terri
torial form of government. Judge J.
Quinn Thornton was sent to Washington
by the Provisional Government to ask
Congress for this. The bill which he
drew up and presented to that body con
tained an antl-slarery clause. Strong In
ducements were offered him to withdraw
the objectionable fiature, but as the peo
ple had twice voted adversely on the
question of slavery, and had Incorporated
a prohibitive clause In their temporary
constitution, he felt that tho bill as It
stood represented their wishes, and re
fused to amend it. There was In conse
quence a bitter fight in Congress over tho
bill. Senators Calhoun and Butler, of
South Carolina, Jefferson Davis and Foote
of Mississippi. Mason of Virginia, and
others fought the measure to the end. It
was warmly defended by Webster, Ben
ton. Douglas. Dlx. and Houston of Texas.
and eventually, after a bitter, acrimonious
debate, passed both Houses on August 14,
Tho Governorship ot the new territory
was offered to Abraham Lincoln. He de
clined it, but there is room for curious
speculation as to how the future of our
country would have been affected had ho
accepted, and so cut himself from any
chance ot the Presidential nomination ten
years lately General "Joe" Lane, a Mex
ican War veteran, was then appointed
first Governor. In 1SS9 the Territory ot
Oregon was admitted to statehood.
A comparison ot the first official cen-
the American Has. and independent ot the . bus of "Old Oregon," taken In 1E50, with
the latest Government enumeration, is
not without interest. The population of i
the territory at that time was 13,294. In
the same country there arc now, accord- j
ing to the latest count, 1.16S.116 residents.
Portland has grown from a village of 821 1
inhabitants to a beautiful city of 90,423
To this day Oregon retains the peculiar !
and Individual characteristics which she j
Inherited from the pioneer settlers. There
was about them something of the same
Intrepid spirit that fired the old Puri
tans. It was the spirit of adventure and
the lust for gold that sent the Argonauts
to California in '49, but the Oregon pio
neers were possessed rather by a com
bination of religious and patriotic en
thusiasm. The missionary clement was
strong, and, even among those of the im
migrants who had not been distinctively
influenced by the religious impulse, there
was a sturdy seriousness of mind and
steadiness of purpose that augured well
for the future of the young country.
Oregon Is more sufficient to Itself than
the neighboring States of California or
Washington. It Is more steady and con
servative, less cosmopolitan. While it is
as progressive as either of them, tradi
tion holds greater sway. The social re
lations ot the early settlers were by rea
son of Isolation unusually close, and that
kindly community Interest has perpetu
ated Itself even to the present time. Port
land is u stable city, steadfast and sure.
Quietly and unobtrusively it has pushed
forward to a commanding commercial po
sition on the Pacific, until today it la one
of the richest cities per capita in the
United States. A curious testimony to
this tenacity of local feeling may be
found In the fact that 'nobody except a
native Oregonian has ever made a dis
tinctive success ot a newspaper in Port
land. A stranger, no matter how alert
and how competent he might be, haa
found himself continually stumbllntr
against the local prejudices, which still
strongly endure. Even to the present
writing Oregon has only one metropoli
tan newspaper. This paper Is part and
parcel ot the history of Oregon, and, ir
respective of politics. It suffices for tho
people- of the "Webfoot State," holding
for them something of the position of
unavailability that the Thunderer used
to hold in England.
Portland ns a Seaport.
That Portland, Oregon's leading- seaport,
is a long way from the sea must be con
ceded, but of the leading 23 seaports of
the world, ten of them are more than 50
miles inland. Granted access to the sea,
every other condition In the growth ot a
port must arise from the land. The com
mercial metropolis ot a region " must be
that point nearest the center of' produc
tion that can be most easily reached by
the class ot transportation employed In
the transaction ot its commerce. It Is
here that Portland has In some respects
the whip-hand of every city on our West
ern Ooast From the northern to the
southern boundary of the United States
runs a chain ot nigged mountains that
separate the Pacific Coast from the coun
try back ot them. Railroads pierce these
mountains at elevations ranging from 2500
to 7000 feet. At only one point, by way
of the Columbia River Valley, may they
be crossed at water level and the long
mountain haul eliminated from the cost
ot transportation, Portland, at the con
fluence of tho Willamette and the Colum
bia Rivers, Is the natural gateway to the
rich valleys of the Rogue River, Umpqua,
and Willamette on the south, and to the
Columbia Basin north, east and south.
From all directions land lines ot trans
portation converge toward Portland at
easy grades, and the natural effect has
been that railroads radiate from Portland,
making the city the greatest railroad cen
ter on the Pacific Coast. The Jobbing
business of the city now reaches annually
$120,000,000. As a wheat shipping port but
Tour cities of the United States outrank
the Oregon metropolis. Its shipments for
the year 1S01 aggregating nearly 19.O0O.0CO
bushels. Its lumber exports are the great
est of any city on the Coast. The vast
fields of Eastern Oregon. Eastern Wash
ington and oNrthcrn Idaho send down
"much of thelr produce by the water-level
haul to tidewater via the Portland route,
From the Willamette Vallty, the South
ern Pacific alone hauled 3C37 carloads of
produce as early as 1S37.
Not only deca the Columbia River af
ford cheap and easy means of communi
cation between Portland and the rich In
terlor .It Is ' also the medium of access
for deep-draft vessels from the sea to the
city. The Columbia Is to the Northern
Pacific Coast what the Mississippi is to
the midland states. With its tributaries
this, river, the second largest In the coun
try. drains an Immense area of about 245,-
0CO square miles, of which 182,000 miles
Ho cast of the Cascades. This latter region
equals the combined area of the New Eng
land States plus that of New York, Penn
sylvania. New Jersey and Maryland. Its
navigable waters, including tributaries.
aggregate over 2000 miles, and, unlike the
Mississippi, seek the ocean In lines para
llel to the channels of trade rather than
at right angles.
Much money has been spent by both
tho Government and the people of Port
land In Improving the Columbia channel
At Its mouth a Jetty has been built that
makes it posslbl efor vessels with
draft of 25 feet to ascend and descend
without trouble. There Is on foot a pro
ject to open the river to steamers from
Lewlston to the sea, and If this Is ac
complished much benefit will undoubted
ly accrue to. the state. During the year
1S01 no less than 53 steamers with an av
erage carrying capacity, of 5000 ton3
cleared for all over the world; many of
theso are Asiatic lines engaged in the In
dia, China and Japan trade. During the
same year the lumber export was the
largest yet handled. 13 vessels alone car
rying over 36,000,000 feet.
Greatest Timber Belt In the World
The greatest timber belt in the world
is to be found In Western Oregon and In
Washington. According to Government
reports, Oregon has about 333.000,000,000
feet of standing timber, mostly fir, cedar.
hemlock, spruce and larch. As there Is
now cut In tho state about l.OOO.OOO.OOO
feet annually, there Is still enough Urn
ber left to last for several hundred years
at the same rate o cutting, providing
sufficient and much-needed precautions
are taken for the elimination ot forest
fires. In tho timber lands of the Eastern
states a yield of 6000 feet of first-class
timber Is a good average, but in the lav
ish Northwest 300,000 feet to the acre Is
not unusual. A fir tree 465 feet high and
220 feet to the first limb was recently cut
down. This tree scaled 96,245 feet of
lumber, as much as ten acres of aver
age Eastern timber. From the Northern
Pacific ports timbers JOD feet long and Fr rugged, snow-clad mountains,
moisture which Is not precipitated here
is carried across the- range and distrib
uted through the Willamette. Umpqua
and Rogue River Valleys, decreasing from
-45 Inches at Portland to 20 inches at tho
California line. A common Deuer pre-1
vails that It rains "with- less trouble in
Oregon than any other plac eon earth."
That this opinion is founded on a mis
conception is patent 'when one considers
that the annual rainfall of New Orleans
ia 60 Inches; of Galveston? 4S: of Jackson
ville. 54; of New York, 54; of Boston, 43.
The productiveness of a region is de
pendent more, upon an Invariable rainfall
and an exemption from extreme rangEs
in temperature than upon any other con
dition. The distribution of temperature
In these rich valleys Is constant and
equable, owing to the balmy influence of
the "Chinook" winds, which sweep m
from the warm waters" of the ocean, and
to the. fence,, or mocnfalns which, acting
as a barrier to 'the cold northern winds.
deflect to the. cast .the frigid currents that
otherwise; would sweep across this sec
tions Comparatively speaking, the Sum
mers are. cool and. the Winters are warm.
The year'ts divided Into two seasons.
the rainy ana the" dry. Between rsovem-
ber and April the rainfalls pretty con
tinuously, and" during thesemonthsaman
shouldkeep hi osye on his umbrella and
overshoes. One fact, however, to be
noted In connection with the heavy rain
fall is that, because of the nature of the
sella nd physical features of the country.
there is no malaria.. Indeed, the official
statistics of the Government show that
the states of the Columbia River basin are
the healthiest three in-the Union. The
yearly number of deaths per thousand of
population In Idaho Is 6.62; In Oregon,
8.76; In Washington, 9.65 as compared
with 19.16 for Massachusetts, 16.58 for New
York. That is. In Massachusetts there are
three deaths In proportion" to the popula
tion for every one in Oregon. The same
fact is shown by the death rate of troops
stationed in different parts of the coun
try. In New York the annual mortality
among the soldiers is one in 65; in Texas,
one In, 67; in New England, one In 233;
in the Pacific Northwest, one in 529.
Aaazlag Agxlcaltural Resource!.
There Is probably no conutry in the
world so rich in natural resources that is
at the same time so sparsely settled. The
diversity of agricultural possibilities Is
continually blng shown by successful ex
periments. and the richness of the river
valleys beggars description. The North
west is pre-eminently th ewonderland of
production on the continent. A farmer
in the Hoed River country raised on four
acres 800 bushels -of potatoes, that nearly
all ran from three to eight pounds apiece.
There was not in the lot one that weighed
less than a pound. Squashes weighing
as much as a large man, pumpkins tipping
the scale at the hundred-weight, water
melons larger than the Southern plckanln
nles, whose eyes would bulge at seeing
them, turnips larger tha none's head.
pears and apples with a circumference of
half a yard, are to be seen at the
annual fairs of Salem and The Dalles,
The biggest apples, the biggest pears, and
the biggest cherries at the Chicago expo
sitlon were from Oregon, and the charge
cannot be made against them that what
they gain In size they lose In flavor. The
Pomological Society, which io the highest
authority on fruits In the country, award
ed to the State of Oregon the Wilder med
al for the horticultural exhibit at the Pan
American. The "Webfoot State" stands
first In the production of hops, raising
about one-third of the country's? total pro
duction. So far as Is known there is no
spot on earth, with the exception of East
ern Oregon and Washington, and the ad
Joining valleys of Idaho, where three or
four crops of wheat may be harvested
from one Sowing. Yet since the first set
tlement of the country these "volunteer"
crops have been reaped. A second crop-
from a single seeding Is officially reported
to have yielded SO, bushels to the acre.
On the vast semi-grazing lands of East
ern Oregon the raising of cattle, horses
and sheep is an increasing Industry. Here
the bunch grass obtains, and the animals
fed on It thrive excellently. During the
cold weather which sometimes prevails
east of the mountains the stock suffers,
but as a general thing It docs well In the
open air. Winter and Summer. A3 Irriga
tion increases, much of this grazing land
will be reclaimed for farming purposes.
but, as the water is more carefully util
ized to produce alfalfa and other feed, a
much larger number of cattle may be
fed on the same terrltory.
It Is a great thing for a country to be
rich not only in its land3, but In its wa
ters, and the waters of the Pacific Coast
teem with Tlche3 In the form of fish. Here
are to be found cod, herring, halibut, shad.
sole, smelt and sturgeon. Jiere, too.
trout of various kinds, may be found in
the lakes and mountain streams. But
above all, "Where Rolls the Oregon," are
to be found the great salmon packs which
have made the Columbia famous, ' and
here alone dwells the royal chinook sal
mon. Immense quantities of these are
packed during the osason of the "run,"
caught principally by means of nets and
fish traps. The National Government is
taking pains to perpetuate this great In
dustry by the establishment of salmon
hatcheries along the streams. Two years
ago nearly 11,000,000 young "chinooks"
were planted in the streams of Oregon
The development of Oregon's great lum
ber Industry, of its agriculture, its min
ing, its fisheries. Its dairying, its or
chards and Irs stockralslng offers an at
tractive field to the homebuilder whose
eyes are turned to the West. Till within
the past four years Oregon has been shut
up within itself, but the Spanish War, by
opening the markets of Asia, has awak
ened Oregon to a sense ot Its industrial
strength and commanding position; its fu
ture is bright with promise.
It is not generally known that Oregon
is one of .the scenic states of the Union.
two feet square are constantly being I fllmy waterfalls and roaring cataracts.
shipped, and to supply this demand for j ior a picturesque profusion of evergreen
large timbers there is but one posslblo
source In the world.
Fcr shipbuilding, masts; bridge timbers, !
car sills and other needs demanding a
combination of great length, strength.
durability and lightness, the Oregon flr
ana fern, the "webfoot State" Is second
to none. From Tho Dalles the scenery
to the mouth of the Columbia is compar
able to that ot tho Hudson. The grand
clIfT-liko palisades of basalt tower for
thousands of feet above the river gorge.
Is unrivaled. Government tests show that Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, and Mount
under pressure It has nearly twice the I Adams, snow-capped throughout the year.
strength of oak and three times that of J loom white against the sky line. Farther
pine. From each of the five continents up the river, among the ferns and pines,
the demand for it is continually Incrcas- the Multnomah Falls drop the melting
Ing. The German Emperor's new yacht snowp S00 feet to the river's edge, while
".t,i ... - i . me j-tjihto uiu ut river is jammed
royal standard on Windsor Castle floats
from a flagstaff of the same wood. The
surprising feature of Eastern lumbermen
visiting the forests of the Northwest for
the. first time, is tire great size of the
logs handled by the sawmills, as well as
the great height attained by the trees be-
together into a long narrow slot of un
known depth cut sheer down In the ba
salt." On its bank3 are the historic
forts, Vancouver and the Cascade Blocl:
house, with many another long-forgotten
camp where civilization first found Its
way through the wildcrnesrv 'Here Grant
fore the first limb Is reached. Trees that ana Sheridan began their military careers;
were standing when Columbus first dis
covered America, and were giants when
Gray first put Into the mouth of the Co
lumbia, are still sound to the core.
Climate of Pacific Trorthvrcst,
The climate of the Northwest along the
coaxt is so modified by proximity to the
ocean, by its hedge of mountains, and by
the Japan ulf stream, that latitude Is
not by any. means the most Important
clement In Its determination. Because ot
the different modifying circumstances, a
more diverse climate Is hardly to be"
found than that of Oregon, the different
conditions being produced by Its topo
graphical features. Roughly speaking,
Oregon is bisected by the Cascade Moun
tains, which run north and south through
tho state What Is known, as Western
Oregon is traversed HkewiseVjjy the Coast
range. The warm, raolsture-laden air.
J passing from the ocean, reaches "the high
er altitude or tne nrst range, is con
densed, and falls in the form of rain, so
that along the coast an annual rainfall
of CO to 70 inches Is not exceptional. The
here McLoughlln and Whitman led the
vanguard, of the Anglo-Saxon settlers:
here Astor and Wyeth tempted fortune
in the wilds with Yankee pluck. The
Willamette and Umpqua Valleys, too, pos
sess their own beauty of stern mountain
and perpetual evergreen forest, in addition
to the more pastoral charms of waving
grain and prosperous homestead rich in
fat kine, and loaded orchard, and bloom
Blrds-Eye "Vlevr of Orejron History,
1543 Cabrlllo and Fcrrelo sail along Pa
cific Coast and discover Oregon.
1575 Sir Francis Drake, In circumnavi
gating tho globe, discovered for England
the coast ot Oregon, naming it Nova Al
1741 Behring discovered Mount St. Ellas
and took possession of all contiguous
territory for Russia.
1T74 Juan Perez discovered Nootka
Sound and named it San Lorenzo.
1775 Heceta landed on soil of Old Oregon
and took possession for Spain.
177S Jonathan Carver heard from the
Indians of a great river running Into the
Pacific, and calkd it in a book-of travel
"the Oregon." Captain James Cook dis
covered and named Cape Flattery. Cape
Foulwcather and Cape Gregory.
177$ Francois de la Ferouse voyaged
around the world and touched the Pa
17S6 Captain John Meares built at
Nootka Sound first vessel ever built on
K32 Vancouver ' explored coast and
charted North. Pacific waters. On Mas
11 Captain Robert Gray entered "Decep
tion" Bay and discovered the Columbia
1793 Alexander Mackenzie was first
white man to cross continent.
1803 By purchase, the United States
acquired from France her claims to Oregon.
1EOI-6 Lewis and Clark cross continent
and sail down the Columbia to the Pacific
1S10 Captain Nathaniel Winshlp builds
first house ever constructed on Pacific
Coast by a white man.
1S11 Party under W. G. Hunt and Ram
say Crooks establish trading post at As
toria for J. J. Astor. The Enellsh under
Dr. John McLoughlln. representing the
Hudson 8 Bay Company, enter Oregon in
competition for the fur trade and eventu
ally capture it from the Americans.
1812 War between Great Britain and the
United States; Astoria captured but
eventually returned at conclusion of war.
1519 Treaty between Great Britain and
the United States tor the joint occupancy
1S32-7 Nathaniel J. wyeth contests fur-
trading Held with the Hudson's Bay Com
pany and Is forced out by too close com
1S34 Jason Lee. the missionary, settles
with a party in the Willamette" Valley.
1S36 The AVhltman party sent out by tho
American Board; other missionaries soon
1836-40 Migration to Oregon of many
184Q Portland founded.
1542 The famous '"Whitman ride" back
to Washington to save Oregon.
1543 Organization at Champceg. on May
2, 1S43. of the Provisional Government, the
first American government on the Pacific
1544 Willamette University founded.
1346 "Fifty-four-forty or fight!" War
with Great Britain lmriinent over Oregon
boundary question. By treaty, boundary
fixed at 49th parallel.
1S48 Pacific University founded at For
est Grove. "Old Oregon" given Territorial
form of government.
1545 7S Intermittent Indian wars.
1850 Seat of government located at Sa
lem. Population of Portland, 21; first
number of The Oregonian Issued December
4. Oregon donation act, by which Congress
granted each missionary post and each
settler 640 acres of land.
1S51 Battle of Rogue River fought by
Maj. Phil Kearny against the Indians.
1S52. Gold discovered.
1853 Washington Territory created out
of a part of "Old Oregon:" in 1E63 the ter
ritory of Idaho was carved from Oregon,
and later part3 of Wyoming and Montana.
1S57 Oregon constitution adopted; ma
jority against slavery 50S2. against ad
mission of free negroes to the state 7539.
1S3S Oregon admitted to statehood.
1S63 First National Bank of Portland,
the oldest west of the Rocky Mountains,
1S6S Clnclnnatus H. Miller (Joaquin
Miller) appointed judge of Grant County.
1S67 "Irst cargo of wheat shipped dir?ct
to Australia, on the bark Whistler. Grad
ing began at Portland for Oregon Central
Railroad and the Oregon and California
1S72 .University of Oregon chartered and
built at Eugene.
18S3 The Northern Pacific pushes across
the backbone of the continent Into Oregon.
1S91 Auetralian ballot law enacted.
1833 Women over 21 made eligible to all
educational offices. .
1SS Building of Cascade locks on the
Columbia by the Government. .
1D00 Oregon, with an area of 56.000
square miles (equal to New England and
New York combined) has population of
413,536. Stands flret In production of hops.
has greater amount of standing timber
than any other state, ranks high In quallty
of crops, and in many kinds of crops first
in quantity produced per acre; holds first
place in salmon fisheries. Portland, the
principal city, population of 90,426 (an in
crease of over 90 per cent in a decade).
ranks fifth among the cities ot the United
States in wheat and flour export.
1901 Lewis and Clark Centennial cele
bration planned for 1905. Nearly a million
dollars raised in the state to further it.
Some Famnnn Men and Women Iden
tified With the History of Oregon.
Juan Rodriguez Cabrlllo, Bartholoma
Ferrelo, Spanish explorers; first whita
men to see coast of Oregon.
Juan Perez. Spanish explorer; discov
ered Nootka Sound.
Heceta, Spanish explorer; first white
man to set foot on soil ot great North
Vitus Behring, Russian explorer; dis
covered Mount SL Ellas and Aleutian
Islands; Russian claim to Oregon based
on this. ,
Sir Francis Drake, Captain James Cook,
Captain George Vancouver, Lieutenant
John Meares, English explorers.
Captain Robert Gray, American ex
plorer; discovered the Columbia.
Francois G. de la Perouse, Etlenne
Marchand. French explorers.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, English ex
plorer; first white man to cross the con
Captain Meriwether Lewis, Lieutenant
William Clark, American explorers;
crossed continent, sailed down the Co
lumbia to Pacific
Ramsey Crooks. Wilson Price Hunt,
founders of Astoria, the first American
settlement on the Pacific Coast,
John Jacob Astor, promoter of As
toria and other trading posts.
Nathaniel J. Wyeth. fur trader.
Dr. John McLoughlln, chief factor
Hudson Bay Company; founder of Van
couver. James Douglas, Hudson Bay factor.
Marcus Whitman, missionary and pio
neer. Narcissus Whitman, first white woman
to cross the continent
John Ball, first schoolmaster on Pa
Thomas Jefferson. President of United
States; chief promoter of ' Lewis and
General John C,. Fremont, explorer and
Jason Lee, Cushing Eels, H. H. Spald
ing, pioneer missionaries.
J. Quinn Thornton. Territorial Judge
and Envoy to Congress.
Genera Joseph Lane, first Territorial
Governor, candidate for Vice-President
on Breckenrldge ticket In I860.
Lieutenant U. S. Grant. Lieutenant
Phil Sheridan, Lieutenant Joseph Hook
er, Indian fighters in command ot Gov
ernment troops; afterwards famous Gen
erals in Civil War.
Schan-na-wlch, chief of the Wascoes;
led his tribe against the Snakes and the
Bannocks under Grant, Sheridan and
Colonel E. D. Baker, statesman and
soldier; killed at battle of Ball3 31uff in
George H. Williams, former Senator;
Attorney-General under Grant.
John H. Mitchell. Charles W. Fulton,
UnlteH States Senators.
George E. Chamberlain. Governor.
Sylvester Penndyer, former Governor:
famous because of tilt with President
Harvey W. Scott, editor The Oregonian.
Henry Falling. William S. Ladd. Will
iam Hume, business men identified prom
inently wtth growth of state.
Dr. Thomas L. Eliot, Bishop Morris.
Dr A L. Lindsay, promoters of "reform.
M. P. Deady. William L. Hill. W. P.
Lord. Judges eminent in Jurisprudence.
Joaquin Miller, poet.
Edwin Markham, poet; born In Oregon.
Eva Emery Dye, writer.