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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View This Issue
TITE MOBNIXG OREGOXIAX, FRIDAY, MAY. 2, -1913.
PORT LA XD. OREGOX.
Entered at Portland. Origan. postoffles
Subscrlpuoa Jtrnt In variably la IdTiart
Sunday lnclodad. on year ......IS.
Puiwl included, six months
bundny Included. tnrss months.. 2.2
Sunday Included, on month
witntfut Sunday, on year ....
wltnout Sunday, six months -witaeut
Sunday, three months
wltnout eunday. as monta
Sunday and Weakly, ona year......
Dally. Suaday Included, ona year..
r&nv Ruciit IticltMled. ona month.
1 i i kj.mli ftml noetoffiee money or'
' der. expresa order or personal cheek on your
I local bank. Stamps, com or currency are at
n sender rlak. git poetonice mat
ull. Including connty ana state.
frr . wm ll-i Ten to 1 4 DSCSS. 1 CSI
la t v v inU: Id to 4U Bit".
mis: SO to 80 sues. 4 cants. ""
Lit(t, double rata. fc
lEaaterm Business Office Verr at Con"
.N,w York. HrunssrlcJt Duuam.
baa Fraudsca UOicv R. J. Blaweu -
Marset street. .
atwesa oaics Kft, rn
PORTLAND. FRIDAT. MAT t, 1913.
COXFEREXCE OX RBCULMATHMt-.
By 00111110: together tho reclamation
officials, the water-users and Con
gressmen from arid land states. Sec
retary Lane has adopted a very sensi
ble means of .finding out what is the
matter with the Reclamation Service.
When two sets or people engage in
mnirnnirir at lona ran ir e and start
desultory fire of mutual criticism the
difficulty is rather aggravated than
removed. Each Is apt to misconstrue
the motives of the other ana 10 mis
interpret Its actions. By bringing- them
Athnr tn talk thinsrs over face to
face, all misunderstandings and causes
of friction can be removed, tne sources
e afivfii in tha service can be dis
covered and work can be set going
smoothly on tne oasis 01 mutual co
operation. At the proposed conferences Mr,
t -on auuvrtain whv the reclama
tion nrinrs have so often exceeded
their first estimates of cost of various
projects and why completion has been
so long delayed. He can learn why
construction or the west umauua
r,4u.t nna not hesrun. though two
years have elapsed since President
Taft ordered allotment 01 innus mere
1.. tr -an learn whv settlers havi
been allowed to go on unwatered tracts
long before water had oeen t.urnea on,
also why completed projects have not
hn mnr fullv settled. From James
J. Hill Mr. Lane can learn why con
struction by tha Government is always
more costly and slower man uy pn
Having mastered his subject by get
ting information at first hand from
,. K..t uiurrp.s. Mr. Lane will be able
to reconstruct the machinery and set
It moving again with Better results.
He will know what aid to ask from
Congress. The man who showed the
express companies how they could re
vise their rates on a lower scale with
suontic tn themselves can surely
straighten out the reclamation tangle.
TTTE REAL CHARTER ISSrE.
Enough of valid criticism has been
directed against the proposed commis
sion charter to show the studious voter
that if It be adopted some Imperfect
changes will b advisable In the near
future. It was not to be expected mat
a perfect Instrument could be devised
In a city that had had no experience
with commission, government, but the
revealed defects are of such character
that the people will not be satisfied
with the complete application of the
charter as it now reads.
There Is little or no doubt as to the
opinion of the voters of Portland on
the merits of the commission govern
ment principle. The change from the
old form is desired by the majority,
but an alternative, which has hereto
fore been pointed out. plainly exists.
It la approval of the submitted charter
with the Idea of correcting Its defects
later or rejection of It with intent to
obtain a better one at an early day.
One of the charter criticisms that
has not been successfully refuted con.
terns the guesswork or lottery system
of electing the Mayor and Commis
sioners as embodied in the particular
form of preferential voting prescribed.
Another is the point made that the
honorary title, the greater power and
the higher salary given one member
of the commission the Mayor will
lend to center Interest In election of
that official and permit the remainder
of the commission to be-the product
of Indifference and apathy.
There is such a thing as making a
fetich of governmental forms. That Is
what the dogmatists are doing In the
present discussion. But the cold fact
Is that centralization of authority in
an individual official, or publicity of
his official conduct, will not make a
wise man of a dolt. If a charter en
courages election of mediocre, ineffi
cient men to control of the city gov
ernment that charter is materially
faulty, regardless of Its other merits.
The controversy over the charter has
attained an unfortunate status. The
arguments have degenerated Into ex
actly what Tho Oregonlan feared and
predicted as a result of the botch-work
In getting the draft before the voters.
The people are asked to vote their
prejudices, their emotions, their fears.
It Is strenuously asserted that the pav.
ing Interests are opposed to the new
charter and that it therefore ought to
be adopted. It is Just as emphatically
asserted that the hand of the paving
Interests can be discerned In the draft
and that therefore the charter should
be rejected. If either be logical argu
ment there still remains a question of
veracity to be settled.
The public service corporations and
the politicians are made to serve the
same demagogic purpose. The ego
that proved disastrous to Jonathan
Bourne has been applied in the case
of the women. They are confronted
by the dogmatic assertion by the Port
land Journal that the whole issue rests
with them. They are on trial not the
charter. The men are Intelligent
enough to choose for themselves be
tween good and evil but the women
would better do as the Journal says.
Meanwhile these 22,000 new voters
who had small Incentive to master the
charter last Fall are not now given
adequate opportunity to study it.
The selection of a political campaign
as a time for presenting the charter
i.-wue: the failure to get the charter
text to a large proportion of the vot
ers; the delay in delivering the draft
to those who r-jceived It; the confus
ing form of the original charter pam
phlet: the exaggerations of present
conditions In the city; the attempt to
blame all fault found in the municipal
government on the system to the ex
oneration from blame of all oClcIals;
the corporation baiting; the contra
dictory charges; the Invoking of preju
dice; the cheap personalities all these
things have been enough to cool the
ardor of those who are honestly seek
ing right reform in city affairs.
There Is no virtue whatever In the
old-style politics which has character.
Ized the charter discussion and made
the honest critic or doubter the object
of denunciation. Impugning of mo
tives and raking up of disputes as to
who Is for It and who against It are in
no sense enlightening. In themselves
they promote distrust of the thing In
whoso support they are offered. The
charter may carry in spite of the mis
takes of its more vociferous friends
but If It is defeated they may assume
a portion of the blame.
In event of defeat, however, Port
land will not have rejected the prln
ciple of commission government. It
will by no means have been proved
that a charter devoted solely to estab
lishing commission government a
charter free from experimental fea
tures and not weighted down with mis
cellaneous amendments that have
nothing to do with the commission
principle will not carry If presented
In honest form and given a calm, log
A POCBLE-BARRELED ELECTION.
There are some features of the city
election which it Is well to emphasize,
One Is that If the commission charter
be adopted the nominations of candi
dates made tomorrow will not be ef
fective. A new start rwill in that event
be necessary. Party endorsement to
morrow will gain no candidate pres
tige or place on the preferential ballot,
unless, as has been suggested, the
preferential system Is invalid. An
election will be held In June and the
candidates will be those wh.o shall have
filed petitions as provided In the new
charter and no others.
On the other hand if the commis
sion charter b defeated the candi
dates named by each party will be
opponents In an election to be held in
June under the old charter. 60 far,
therefore, as the candidate Issue la con.
cerned, the voter must be guided by
his conviction as to who would make
the best officials under a continuance
of the present municipal system of
government. That charter may be
abandoned, but the votes for candi
dates must be cast on the assumption
that it will not be.
It is well to remember also that In
choosing candidates tomorrow the elee
tions will be purely party affairs. The
registered Republican will vote a ballot
carrying only the names of Repub
Ilcans. His choice for the Mayoralty
nomination will be limited to three
men Mr. Lombard, Mr. -Rushlight
and Mr. Magulre. The Republican, of
course, may writ In the name of some
other man. but a registered Repub
lican or a registered Democrat cannot
participate in the contest between Mr.
Kellaher and Mr. Aibee for tne to-
greselve nomination. The writing In
of Mr. Albee's name on a Republican
ballot will count only as a vote for Mr.
Albee for the Republican nomination
1 place he is not seeking. It will
not be added to his vote for the Pro
gressive nomination nor affect the con
test between Mr. Albee and Mr. Kella
her for that honor.
Those who are registered as So
cialists and Prohibitionists cannot vote
for candidates. Their parties are not
represented in the primaries. They
are. entitled, however, to vote on the
CONTTNXOrS POLITICAL, CAMPAIGNS.
Political campaigns In this country
bid fair to become continuous per
formances. The election was no sooner
over than the . Progressive party be
gan work on permanent organization
with a view to unbroken activity.
President Wilson and his lieutenants
seem to contemplate like action. Judg
ing by the preparations they are al
ready making for co-operation be
tween the Democratic "National and
Congressional committees in 1914.
This uninterrupted activity is an un
avoidable consequence of the general
adoption of the direct primary and of
the substitution of educational for red-
fire and torchlight-parade campaigns.
Political workers know that the for
mation of opinions which are ex
pressed by the ballot Is a gradual,
continuous process and must be influ
enced by oratory, pamphlets, maga
zine and newspaper articles published
from time to time throughout the In
terval between elections. The cam
paign of 1S96 was a lesson which poli
ticians will never forget. Only by her
culean efforts did the 'Republicans
overcome in a few months the effect
on public opinion of a diligent free-
silver propaganda which had been
prosecuted through several preceding
But this continual hammering at the
voters seems to have a somewhat op
posite effect to that Intended. It
dulls Interest In public affairs on the
part of many voters by boring them
and takes the edge off their enthusi
asm when the campaign really begins
and when it is necessary to bring the
work of the preceding years to a cli
max by getting out the vote. This
probably explains the great disparity
between the fevered political activity
of last year and the surprisingly small
percentage of qualified voters who
went to the primaries. We pay the
penalty In apathy for our continuous
political activity and our frequent elec.
ITALY AT MONTENEGRO.
Italy would be a pretty sight help
ing Austria coerce the Montenegrins.
Sixty years ago Italy was on her knees
to the world begging for help against
Austria, who has always been the op
pressor of the weak and the robber of
the poor. But the Italians are ambi
tious to repeat the deeds of old Rome
and extend, their power over the East.
They have already obtained a foothold
in Roman Africa and they want an
other on the coast of ancient Ilryria,
which is now Montenegro and Albania.
They fancy that Austria when she is
laying the stolen loaf away in the cup
board may cut off a slice for useful
Perhaps she will. There Is said to
be honor among thieves, though It is
not always perceptible at critical mo
ments. What Austria gets she la In
the habit of keeping as long as she
can. ' The Italians imagine that with
a foothold on the opposite Adriatic
shore they can spread out over the
Balkan region and Anally mass to
gether the ancient provinces of Rome.
Who knows but their modern empire
may some day Inclose the entire Med
iterranean, as the Caesars did?
The story is that Austria has sent
out 100,000 men against Montenegro.
These are land troops. To support
them a fleet also goes with plenty pf
soldiers on board. Things look bad
for little Montenegro. But they
looked bad for Greece 1609 years ago.
when Persia, the Austria of that time.
sent 3.000.000 troops against the lit
tle nation. To make matters worse.
the Carthaginians, were stirred up
against the Greek colonies in Sicily,
en that tVipro Tea a tin heln In the World
for Athens and Sparta and the country
towns in their alliance. The Persians
came out of Asia, 3,000.000 strong,
with a fleet that almost covered
Aetrean Sea. At Thermopylae Leoni-
das met them with his Spartans
and held them back for a day and
nltrht until Via and all his men we
dead". The Athenians fled to an Island
near-the coast and their fighting men
went on board the fleet. "When all
else Is lost." -said the oracle, "Athens
shall fln iflfAtv In her wooden walls
Her ships met the Persians at Salamls
and sent them to the bottom or 1
So civilization was saved and mod
ern. Europe became possible. Perhaps
tha A lmlfhrv baa riven It to Monte
negro to play on a new stage the part
or Atnens ana snarta. ai any rate,
she has done a noble deed. ,
CHANGING TUB NAME OF A CHURCH.
Thomas Kelson Page, the well-
known writer, has come to the front
with a vigorous protest against the
project to change the name of the
Episcopal Church. This religious body
has always been known as "Protestant
Episcopal." - The innovators wish to
call . It "The American Cathollo
Church." In view of the protuberant
fact that America has one Catholic
Church already, the project Is not
without what some people would des
ignate derisively as "gall."
The undeniable historic truth Is that
the established Church of England, of
which the American Episcopal denom
lnatlon is a branch, is one of the most
Intensely Protestant bodies in the
world. The claim that it never broke
with the Church of Rome la absurdly
contrary to fact. It originated in open
rebellion against Rome and for many
years its very existence was dependent
upon warfare against Rome, under
Edward VI and Elizabeth, the Church
of England was not only intensely
Protestant lit ltsolf, but it led and sus
tained the Protestant cause In Europe.
It was the Protestant Church of Eng
land that financed the rebellious Neth-
erlan-ds and afterward supplied a great
part of the sinews of war for Gustavus
Adolphus In Germany. Without the
support of Protestant England, Spain
and the Jesuits would have subdued
This is the contention which Thomas
Nelson Page makes in his article and
It Is historically sound. Those who
pretend that the Episcopal Church is
Catholic violate the truth of history in
every possible way. Worse still, they
make themselves absurd. The real
Catholic Church knows how ground
less their claims are and will have
none of their company. Their unex
pressed wish Is to sidle up to the
Church of Rome and unite with it, as
it were. Imperceptibly.
Rome does not act In that way. The
Episcopal Church can unite with her
by making absolute submission and by
no other process. Rome does not do
things by halves. It Is one of the curi
osities of human nature that the Epis
copal Church, -with Its noble achieve
ments and long roll of distinguished
men, should wish to abandon its his
toric position In the world and assume
a name to which it is not entitled.
One would naturally suppose that It
would glory In the name under which
it won- its victories.
THE rrBLIC MEETING AT CKAMPOEO.
G. W. Le Breton's official report of
the . "Public Meeting at Champoeg on
May 2, 1848." is curiously Inaccurate
in two particulars. It states for one
thing, that "the committee made their
report, which was read, and a motion
made that it be accepted, which was
lost." If the motion had been lost,
as Le Breton states, there would have
been no occasion for a division,
Schafer, whose accuracy is unques
tioned, 'merely notices that "the vote
was very close and someone called for
a division." The official account says
that "considerable confusion existing
n consequence" of the vote being lost.
"It was moved by Mr. L Breton and
seconded by Mr. Gray that the meet
ing divide preparatory to being count,
ed." If the motion had been definite
ly lost, as the reporter tells us, such
confusion could not have arisen and
the result of the division would have
been predetermined. Perhaps Schafer
was a little careless in saying that
someone." that is some unknown per
son, made the motion to divide. It
may really have been Le Breton with
Gray to second him, though his asser
tion does not prove It, nor would Gray's
standing by Itself. Neither of these
gentlemen enjoys the unquestioning
confidence of historians.
The official report goes on to say
that when the division took place '
great majority was found in favor of
organization." This is known to be
inaccurate. There was a half hour
of great confusion," according to
Schafer, while the opposing sides were
being counted, but when the tally was
finally made up It was found that
there were fifty-two votes for organ
ization and fifty against It, The "great
majority" reduces to two. But this is
perhaps a venial sin. We may forgive
Le Breton for giving us Incorrect fig
ures, but not for omitting all mention
of the most dramatic and significant
incident of the whole meeting. The
truth of the matter is that there
would probably have been no division
at all, but for Joe Meek.' Someone had
shouted "divide" when the result of
the first vote had been found to be
Indecisive, but the colonists hesitated.
Perhaps their courage wavered at the
critical moment. At any rate a leader
was needed and Joe Meek showed him
self the man of the hour. "Stepping
out grandly in front of the crowd of
excited men he shouted: 'Who's for
a divide? All in favor of the report
and the organization follow me.' " This
act makes Joe. Meek the commanding
figure in a great historic scene and it
gross injustice to pass him over
without mention. Perhaps in a bald
official account like Le Breton's it
may have been discreet to leave his
name out but it would also have been
discreet to aim a little closer at the
The committee whose report Is men.
tloned in these proceedings was ap
pointed at a meeting held on the sec
ond Monday In March, 1843. The os
tensible purpose of this gathering was
to protect the colony against wild
beasts and resolutions were actually
passed offering bounties for killing
wolves, -bears, lynxes ana pamners,
but far more lively In the minds of
those who attended was the resolve
to organise an American common
wealth. With this end in view they
appointed the committee of twelve,
whose report was voted upon at Cham
poeg on May 2 of the same year. The
French people who occupied farms
north of the Salem colony were not
at all friendly to the project. They
were old dependents of the Hudson s
Bay Company, which had treated
them well and established them - in
comfort on their farms. At least Dr.
McLoughlin, the humane and en
lightened chief factor, had done so
and in the eyes of the simple settlers
he stood for the company. Nor were
all the Americans eager for the new
government. Some of them saw In the
proposal danger to the wild liberty
they had crossed the plains to enjoy.
From the accounts of the situation one
must gather that a kind of philosoph
ical anarchism mingled with the Ideas
of many settlers. They were perfectly
willing to let well enougn alone and
live on, as they had been living, with
out laws, prisons and courts. It was
for reasons like these that the com
mlttee's report hardly received a ma
jority on the first vote and might have
failed altogether had not Joe Meek's
timely enthusiasm turned the scale in
Its favor. Rough mountaineer as he
was, he preferred civilized government
to the untrammeled freedom which
had hitherto prevailed In the colony.
M'ild freedom, as many of the colon.
ists had learned, has its sorrows as
well as Joys. Even the most primitive
community must act together for many
purposes, such as road-building and
protection against savage beasts and
lawless men. Crime had been almost
ideally rare in the Willamette settle
ments, but It had not been unknown
Ewing Young had set up a whisky shop
In defiance of the community will, for
example, and was only Induced to
close It by a decided expression of
public opinion. It was from Ewlng
Young's affairs that the final impulse
came which moved the colonists de
cisively toward organization. Roads
they might do without, wild beasts
were vulnerable to Individual guns and
traps, but when it came to disposing
of Intestate property the law must be
invoked. In the state of nature when
a man dies his goods and land are
left without an owner. They belong
to the first comer and if two happen
to be first trouble is apt to arise. Ew
lng Young died rather suddenly In the
midwinter of 1841, leaving a goodly
estate, which became at once a white
elephant on "-lDlsts' hands. They
could not dispose of it without the
help of established law and law did
not exist among them.
So a public meeting was called at
the time of his funeral to provide for
initiating a constitution and laws. This
meeting named a committee, which
met on February 18 and began the
business of government by choosing
Ira L. Babcock Supreme Judge of the
settlement. From this point organiza
tion advanced steadily and perhaps a
real constitution might have been
adopted in the following October if it
had not been for the Opposition of
Lieutenant Wilkes. That officer had
so much to say against the project that
It was dropped for the time and only
revived when Dr. Elijah White's emi
grants made American sentiment
The Chinese have earned the reputa
tion of being the most ingenious peo.
pie In the world. If they live up to it
with the resources of science at their
command they may astonish their
competitors. There is a story that one
of their engineers In building a rail.
road came to a river difficult to bridge.
He met his problem by building a
bridge over the dry land. Then he
dug a new channel under. It, diverted
the river from its old course, filled It
up and went on triumphantly with his
road. What Westerner would have
thought of such a schemef China and
Japan seem to prove that nations need
never become really decrepit. When
they grow old they may renew their
youth and start all over again.
The swindle by which Mr. Shepler,
of Dallas, lost his hard-earned 35000
was so old and musty that he ought to
have seen through It. He must show
the rogues 35000 to convince them
that he could be trusted with 310,000
"to provide for their little niece." An
old, old game. The outcome is sad for
Mr. Shepler, but it may be utilized to
point a moral for others. That moral
Is "handle no large sums of money ex
cept through the bank. Have no cash
dealings with strangers and the fewer
with anybody else the better. As long
as you use checks you are compara
Nations differ In their attitude
toward trusts as much as In language.
America abhors these artificial beings
and fulminates against them In courts
and Congress. Germany, on the other
hand, loves them. Her laws encour
age trusts as much as ours Oppress
them. But the German trusts are un.
der strict governmental supervision.
The law regulates them at every point,
fixes their prices and looks after the
welfare of their employes. Radicals
and conservatives alike approve of this
policy and all observers agree that it
has been serviceable to the country.
The Mexican Constitutionalists seem
to be trjing to find out how much
Uncle S.am will endure before inter
vening. We don t want the jod, dui
if we should undertake it, we shall
stay till It's finished.
No. Job, there's no way to stop the
Jabbering of ill-bred persons at the
theater. As you may have heard be
fore, it Is recognized as Impossible to
convert into a silk purse the auditory
organs of a porker.
A " prohibitive duty on hooks and
eyes would be unanimously ena-orsea
by those married male slaves whom a
novelist has satirically named "the
If the moral condition of Los An
geles be characteristic of all chem
ically pure cities, then save us from
that kind of purity.
Don't grumble if dinner is late to
morrow. Remember the .women will
be absorbed In the Intricacies of cast
ing their first vote.
John Wanamaker was moved to
tears by an itinerant evangelist.
Whether he was moved to contribute
Is not revealed.
Montenegro having grimly refused
to be coerced, the powers announce a
postponement of the coercion pro
Man will eat no meat in the next
century, says a dietetic expert. It's
almost beyond our reach now.
Evidently the country isn't quite
saved yet. So Mr. Bryan will stay a
little longer at Sacramento.
TTln bavins- finally landed a Job,
reneral relief will be felt, even If it
isn't an extra big Job.
Portugal Is as productive of revolu
tions as any Central American re
The peace delegates are a success as
provokers of strife.
Win the beat-looking man win?
RECORD OF CHAMPOEG MEETING
Interesting Phases of Public Meeting
Revealed by Official Document.
The official record of the "public
meeting at , Champoolck, on May 2,
1843." Is as follows:
"At a public meeting of the Inhabi
tants of the Willamette settlements.
held in accordance with the call of the
committee, chosen at a former meeting,
for toe purpose of taking steps to or
ganize themselves Into a civil com
munity, and provide themselves with
tha protection secured by the enforce
ment of law and order. Dr. L L. Bab
cock was chosen chairman, and MesBrs.
W. H. Gray, LeBreton and Willson sec
"The committee made their report,
which was read, and a motion was
made that It be accepted, which was
lost. Considerable confusion existing
In consequence. It was moved by Mr.
LeBreton, and seconded by Mr. Gray,
that the meeting divide preparatory to
Being counted those In tavor of the
objects of this meeting taking the
right, and those of a contrary mind
taking the left, which being carried by
acclamation, and a great majority being
found In favor of organization, the
greater part of the dissenters withdrew.
"It was then moved and carried that
the report of the committee be taken
up and disposed of article by article.
"A motion was made and carried that
a Supreme Judge, with probate powers,
be chosen to officiate In this commun
ity. 'Moved and carried that a clerk of
the court, or recorder, be chosen.
"Moved and carried that a Sheriff be
"Moved and carried that three Magis
trates be chosen. '
"Moved and carried that three Con
stables be chosen.
"Moved and carried that a committee
of nine persons be chosen, for the pur
pose 01 orarting a code or Jaws, lor tne
government of this community, to.be
presented to a public meeting to be
hereafter called by them, on July S
next, for their acceptance.
"A motion was made and carried that
a treasurer be chosen.
"Moved and carried that a major
and three captains be chosen.
"Moved and carried that we now pro
ceed to choose the persons to fill the
various offices by ballot.
"A. E. Wilson was chosen to act as
Supreme Judge, with probate powers.
"G. W. LeBreton was chosen to act
as clerk of court, or Recorder.
"J. L. NMeek was chosen to fill the
office of Sheriff.
"W. H. Willson was chosen Treasurer.
"Moved and carried that the re
mainder of the officers bo chosen by
hand ballot, and nominations from the
"Messrs. Hill, Shortess, Newell, Beers,
Hubbard, Gray, O'Nell, Moore and
Doughty were chosen to act as the
"Messrs. Burns. Judson and A. T.
Smith were chosen to act as Magis
trates. "Messrs. Ebbert, Bridges and Lewis
were chosen to act as Constables.
"Mr. John Howard was chosen Major.
."Messrs. William McCarty, C. McRoy
and 8. Smith, were chosen captains.
"Moved and carried, that the legis
lative committee make their reDort on
July 6 next, at Champoolck.
"Moved and carried, that the serv
ices of the legislative committee be
paid for, at 31.25 per day. and that
that money be raised by subscription.
"Moved and carried, that the major
and captains be Instructed to enlist
men to form companies of mounted
"Moved and carried, that an addi
tional magistrate and constable be
"Mr. Campo was chosen as an addi
"Mr. Matthleu was chosen as an ad
"Moved and carried, that the legis
lative committee shall not sit over six
The meeting was then adjourned.
"The question having arisen, with
regard to what time the newly ap
pointed officers shall commence their
duties, , the meeting was again called
to order, when It was moved and car
ried, that the old officers remain in
office until the laws are made and
accepted, or until the next public meet
ing. Attest: G. W. LEBRETON."
NEW CITT CHARTER. IS FAVORED
Inquiry Convinces Rev. Mr. Eliot Thai
It Is a Good Measure.
PORTLAND, May 1. (To the Editor.)
A clear and vital Issue Is before the
voters of the city May 3, and I can only
regret that so much has been doneby
those who are capahle of better things
to stimulate confusion, to foster doubt
and to rally the forces of laziness and
'When In doubt, vote no, is good
counsel in less Important questions, but
It may become a slovenly pretext In
matters of real Importance.
L Is the proposed new charter of
the commission form, or Is it not?
stake any reputation I may have for In
telligence and veracity upon the posi
tive assertion that no first-class author
ity on municipal affairs anywhere In
the United States would deny that the
proposed new charter is a commission
charter. Whether or not It is a good
charter, it is undoubtedly a commis
2. Is It in fact a good charter? I be
lieve most earnestly that it Is; and
have come to this conclusion after a
most careful and. as I believe, dlsin
terested and Impartial inquiry.
In the city government of SO .years
ago it was impossible to fix responsi
bility, and the legitimate powers of the
officials were circumscribed. In our
present charter, the officials have
power, but the responsibility is easily
shifted. Under the proposed new char
ter a comparatively small group of of.
flclals have both responsibility and
power, subject to popular check, and
this is as it ought to be. And while it
is doubtless a mistake for the friends
of the proposed new charter to expect
too much from Its adoption, I for one
do not doubt that the results of the
proposed change will be favorable, lm
mediately and In the long run.
W. G. ELIOT. JR.
SLOT MACHINES USED 125 B. C.
One Dispensed Holy Water la a Temple
at Alexandria, Egypt.
Henry E. Dudeney in Strand Magazine.
Hero of Alexandria (about 125 B. C.)
was an ingenious Inventor of mechan
ical toy a In his works, "Pneumatics
and 'Automata,' he describes some
hundred small machines that he prob
ably never carried beyond the "model
stage. These Included a steam engine,
which Is said to be of the form now
known as Avery's patent, and a double
forcing pump to be used as a fire en
gine. Hero was also the inventor of the
automatic delivery, or penny-in-the-
slot machine. He describes "a sacrifi
cial vessel which flows only when
money Is Introduced." When the coin
is dropped through the slit it falls on
one end of a balanced horizontal lever,
which, being depressed, opens a valve
suspended from a chain at the other
end, and the water begins to flow. When
the lever has been depressed to a cer
tain angle the coin falls off, and the
valve, being weighted, returns to its
seat and cuts off the supply. The
mechanism is practically identical with
the present system, and the ancient
Invention is, if anything, more ingen
iously simple than the modern.
A Business Tip for Him.
"Papa wanted to know whether you
were a good business man," she con
fided. Have you any idea why he asked?"
inquired the young man, who had been
calling for a long time.
I guess it was because you never
talk business." -
I CLRTAIL RIGHTS OF OUR STATES
Best Interests of Country Demand As
sertion of National Authority,
PORTLAND, April 24. (To the Edi
tor.) The pending difficulty about the
anti-Japanese legislation in California
demonstrates that we have not yet set
tled all of the difficult problems that
arise out of our dual system of gov
ernment. The situation presents an
anomaly whichever way you look at 1L
The state, California.clalms the right
to legislate with regard to its local
affairs wlthdut any interference on tne
part of the National Government. This
seems perfectly reasonable and in ac
cordance with our cherished theory of
The National Government claims (al
though pretending not to at times) that
since it is charged with the conduct
of the foreign relations and the respon
sibility of a war in case one should be
brought about, the state has no right to
do any act that will involve the Nation
In war. That is, that the National Gov
ernment should have the power to pre
vent any such state action.
The National Constitution provides
This Constitution and the laws of the
United States which shall be made in pur
suance thereof, and all treaties made, or
which shall be made, under the authority of
the United States, shall be the supreme law
of the land; and the Judges in every state
shall bs bound thereby, anything In the
constitution or laws of any state to the
If the power of the National Govern
ment to interfere is to be found any
where, it is under this treaty-making
But let Us see the difficulties which
arise from either construction. If we
concede the power of the state to do
whatever It likes along the lines of
local legislation without the right of
any Interference on the part of the Na
tional Government, then any state can
take action that might plunge this
country into war, and the burden of the
war will have to be born by the whole
people, .'99 of whom, perhaps, had no
part in bringing about the war, and
may have utterly disapproved of the
action of the state which brought It
about. It is easy to see that this situa
tion may become Intolerable.
On the other hand, suppose we con
cede the right of the National Govern
ment to Interfere, in the present case
for instance, and to say to California
that she shall not enact anti-Japanese
Legislation because the Japanese have
treaty rights which prevent It and
which the National Government must
maintain. It is conceded by every
body that the state might, as pertains
to its own citizens, enact any legisla
tion that it chose with reference to the
ownership of lands or the classifica
tion of Its schools. Hence, it follows
that if we recognize the right of the
Government to interfere with such
legislation in favor of the Japanese
under the treaty making power of the
Constitution, then the Government can
Interfere and it is its duty to do so in
favor of a foreigner when it has no
right to interfere for a citizen of the
state in question. A foreigner may
complain and get relief as against a
law when a citizen of the state could
not successfully object to the same law
anywhere. The treaty making power
of the Constitution, therefore, gives the
foreigner greater rights than the Con
stitution gives to the citizen of the
United States, and still the treaty
making power arises solely under and
by virtue of the Constitution. This
looks like a case of the stream rising
higher than its source. If this Is cor
rect, it is very curious. Is it not?
How are we to reconcile these con
flicting theories? It is easy to prophesy,
but the prophecy is only guess after all.
The probabilities are that the question
of power will not be oeciaea ior a
long time, but will be left as an open
question. We will temporize with it
and conciliate conflicting interests and
avoid It as long as possible. The
chances are that when the next treaty
Is negotiated with a foreign country
there will be a strong etrort on tne
Dort of the Senate to Insist upon a
clause reserving to the states the right
to legislate In local matters. But no
self-respecttng foreign nation would
enter into a treaty or that Kind, we
would not do it. If the people of
Barcelona in Spain, or of Yorkshire In
England, should trespass upon the
rights of the American people and the
government of Spain or of England
should undertake to put us off by
saying that "we can't control these
people," we would not liBten to it for
a minute, me only people tnat we
would recognize in the matter would
be the National Government of the
So It seems to the writer that when
the time does come, as it must and
probably will, that this question can
not be longer evaded, we win be com
pelled to take the theory of National
sovereignty by the stern mandate of
necessity. S. E. HUSTON.
PROPOSED CHARTER CONDEMNED
It Is Autocratic and Denpotle In Form,
Says W. H. Odell.
PORTLAND, April 30. (To the Edi
tor.) After a somewhat careful study
of the proposed charter for the City of
Portland to be voted on Saturday I am
forced to the conclusion that it is
autocratic and despotic in form,
utterly at variance with the prin
ciples of a Republican form of gov
ernment, and potent for personal ambi
tion and graft.
The draft submitted is not only a
charter, but a code of enactments or
laws as well, a combination more
elaborate and Intermixed than the Con
stitution of the United States or the
Magna Charta of England. In my
humble Judgment the charter should
be limited to the establishment of a
form of government consisting of ex
ecutive, legislative and Judicial depart
ments, each with separate and Inde
pendent functions, yet co-operative in
workable parts. The Mayor should not
be a member of the legislative depart
ment except in an advisory way with
a veto power subject to a three-fourths
majority vote of the Council. He should
have the appointing of all the ad
ministrative officers, subject to ap
proval by advice and consent of a
three-fourths vote of the Council and
should be held responsible for a strict
and Impartial enforcement of all oral
nances or laws of the city.
The legislative department should
consist of a given number of Coun
cilmen or Aldermen elected from the
different wards of the city with no
powers or duties other than legislative
except as advisors in the matter of ap
pointment to office by the Mayor. The
meetings of the Council should be held
upon stated occasions, limted as to
time, except on emergency calls by
the Mayor. All meetings should be open
to the public and all proceedings mat
ters of record, with executive meetings
only for private consideration of ap
pointments, but all votes of approval
of appointments or legislative measures
should be open and of record.
The Judicial department should con
sist of a municipal Judge-or Judges for
the adjudication of legal disputes, or
criminal charges arising under the laws
of the city government.
The charter therefore should be
limited to the establishment of the sev
eral departments of the city govern-,
ment. fixing their salaries, defining
their functions and limiting their
powers, leaving the laws and ordi
nances subject to exactment, amend
ments or repeal to the legislative de
partment as the needs and emergencies
The administrative department, to be
effective, should be concentrated - and
personally responsible, while the legis
lative should be representative of the
different sections of the city and in
touch with the consensus of public
opinions and needs of the city in all
of its municipal obligations.
The foregoing Is but a very brief out
line of the proper functions of a city
charter under the American system of
government. W. H. ODELL. I
Twenty-five Years Ago
A Senatorial hornet Ingalls pitiless
ly dissects the war record of Voor
hees. Pendleton, Or., May 1. The Henri
etta flour mills at Echo burned yester
day morning. The mill was built by
J. H. "Koontz In 1886.'
Pendleton. May 1. Today Governor
Pennoyer addressed quite a large audi
ence at this place.
Multnomah County Democratic legis
lative ticket: State Senators, J. H.
Steffen, Thomas A. Davis, O. P. Lent,
Preston C. Smith; Representatives, Cass
H. Humphrey, John Montag, William A.
Daly, Charles T. Smith, Thomas X.
Strong, J. D. Meyer, Peter Wagner, E.
A. King, E. S. Edwards.
The annual meeting of the Ladies'
Relief Society was held yesterday in
the lecture-room of the First Presbyte
rian Church, Mrs. Burrell, vice-president,
in the chair. The election of offi
cers resulted as follows: President, Mrs.
M. H. Holbrook; vice-president, Mrs.
H. F. Suksdorf; secretary, Mrs. Cleve
land Rockwell; assistant secretary, Mrs.
F. Allyne Beck;, treasurer, Mrs. Theo.
Hon. M. Wllklns, of Lane County,
president of the Oregon Pioneer Asso
ciation, came down from Eugene City
The resolutions passed by the Demo
cratic brethren censuring Collector of
Customs Abraham and Postmaster Ro
by for retaining Republicans in their
employ have got there as far as Mr.
Abraham is concerned, for yesterday
Mr. W. G. Ott, as successor of M J.
McMahon, assumed his duties as clerk
in the Custom-house and F. A. Notz as
day inspector in place of A. W. Church.
nhnrle.a W. Frush. ex-deoutv United
States Marshall, has just returned from
a three-months trip to the mast. y
fiunei-lnteririent Whillnsr. of tha Port
land Mechanics' Fair, says that quite a
number of applications have been re
ceived for space.
The Rev. Mr. Costello, of Green Bay,
Wis., arrived in Portland this week to
take charge of Trinity Church during
the temporary absence of the Rev. Mr.
Half a Century Ago
From The Oregonlan of May 2, 1863.
The First Union League In Oregon
Forest Grove. April 28. A meeting to
aid the Sanitary Commission and to
form a Union League was held last
evening in the Congregational Church,
and Rev. E. Walker was appointed
chairman and E. A. Tanner clerk. Dr.
Wilson Bowlby was appointed to solicit
The grand Jury at Salt Lake has In
dicted the Governor, Stephen S. Hard
ing, as a nuisance, "refusing his as
sent to wholesome and needed legisla
tion, treating nearly all the legislative
acts with contumely and turning loose
upon the community a large number of
Fortress Monroe, April 23. A flag of
truce boat has arrived from City 1'oint.
Richmond papers of today contain tele
graphic Information from Port Hud
son of the loss by the Rebels of the
steamers Queen of the West and Diana.
Chicago, April 24. A Vicksburg let
ter of the 17th says on the subject of
the running of the batteries by eight
gunboats, as each rounded the point
within easy range of the rebel batteries
they opened fire with bow and quarter
,n,g thriwine- nercusslon shells. Com
ing Into close quarters, they fired broad
sides of shrapnel and grape, tne reoei
guns fired a mile in length and every
battery was fully manned and rapidly
served. The whole, mingled with the
musketry fire, was sublime. There were
over 200 guns of the heaviest caliber
worked to the utmost capacity for over
two hours. General Grant was In the
Vonkhule, near a point above General
Mr. J. W. P. Huntington, superin
tendent of Indiar affairs for this state,
and Mr. Benjamin Simpson, Indian
agent, advertise for proposals for fur.
nishing goods of all descriptions for
the Alsea'and Slletz reservations.
Tonight is the last night of the sea
son in the engagement of the brilliant
American actress, Miss KOitn aiucnen.
The observations of an Ore
gonian correspondent at fleet
maneuvers araf set down in a
page of great interest in The
Sunday Oregonian. He gives
you an insight into the effi
fiency of our Navy and the men
behind the big guns that form
the first line of National de
fense. Illustrated in colors.
Our Market System "What is
wrong with it? asks an eminent
authority who proceeds with a
keen analysis of the whole
Wilson a Puzzle An intimate
study at close range of the new
President of. the United States,
who is proving a puzzle to the
The Ideal Lover What is his
age? asks Laura Jean Libbey,
who suggests that past 40 is the
very best age.
Women Civil Engineers Why
certainly women can make good
in this trying field. A Chicago
woman is making the biggest
kind of success at it. f
Theodore Eoosevelt Do not
miss this installment of his
"Chapters of a Possible Auto
biography." Important political
revelations are forthcoming
Stolen From Coxey Some of
the modern political thunder is
made of his ideas of twenty
years ago, says "General" Cox
ey in an interesting interview.
Revelations of Liszt's Diary
This wonderful little book is
owned by a Portland woman. It
reveals many interesting and
intimate phases of the master's
An Array of Other Features.
Order today of your newsdealer.