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HAS THREE TIKES THE CIRCULATION
OF ANT PAPER IN THE COUNTT.
PUBLISHED KVERY FRIDAY BY
SLOAN P. SHU T T
Kdltor and Proprietor.
One half column..........
.......II 00 per month
....... 1 60 per month
, , 3 60 per month
....... 8 00 per month
10 00 per month
Business local) will be charged at 10 cent per
line (or first Insertion and 6 cent pet line there
alter. Legal advertisement will in all case be
charged to the party ordering them, at legal
rates, and paid for before affidavit la famished
One yenrfln advatuwl II 60
If not pKlci In advance ,., , , 2 00
Hl mniithi , 1 00
'Hi r ci mimtlia... , , , 76
Hiiigla copies , 10
VOL. '4. CONDON, GILLIAM .CO.. OREGON, FRIDAY. APRIL 20, 1894. NO. 5.
THE OFFICIAL AND LEADINQ PAPER
OF GILLIAM COUNTT.
Knitted at tht Pnatofflct at Condon, Ort.gon, at
Hamd-eUut mail matter.
United State. ,
Prcslrtuwt ..GllOVR ni.RVItl.AKD
Vine-President Adi.ai K. HtkvknwiN
Seeretary of Mate .....Wai.tk O. (Jkpjiiiam
Heeretary of t reasury...., John 0. Cabmsi.k
tteoretary of Interior lioaa smith
Meeretary of War Da mm, tt, I,amont
eeuretsry of Navy Hii.akv A. IIkhhkkt
Postinasler-Ueueral Wiuhjm H. Hihskll
Attorney-UeHeral HicHaho OI.NKV
Secretary of Asrleullure J btekumo MoaruN
State of Oregon.
Ooyemor., , fl. PitxrfoYKit
Hmiretary of Htate J W. M Hkid
Treasurer Hint MktskhaH
AtUiruur-tleueral (lao. K (Jhamdkhi.aii)
Bupt. of ruullo lustruoilou. R. H. Uv.KlstHl
- ) j; , iUtl,fH.
Con,rre.smen . jUr.'M?,.
Prluter .... Khans: O. Haksm
(K. A. MouNS
Supreme Judge W. p i.
Seventh Jadlelal District.
Circuit Judge m..... W. h. Bhadsiiaw
PrMnoutltig Att4irney ....W. 11. Wilson
Member (Hate Board,.,....... i, 1 Lvcaar
O I II lam County.
Joint rtonator ...W. W. Btiw
Kei.reseutatlve .....I J. 1ooikii.h
Judge. W.J. Mahimrb
,,...,. ... JW. J. Kowariis
Commissioner.. R ttAUnon
OsOrk iinilllMIHMHIIMINHIIIHHHMIljAV J KUt'AB
HherlrT. -.,......, W. h. WIIXOI
Tn-urur. Hrrhkht If amitkao
Aswmsnr........... ............ ..Vai, Wiirrlkr
Hurveyor W. W. Kknksky
fcVboui HHperluteatle'it ...I.iiria ParkkR
Sloe Inspector Uwis A. Millm
Union Faelfle Hallway Time Card.
Tralus arrive and leave Arlington ss follow:
Train Ne. 2, fast mall, arrives at Arlington at
1 :26 a.m.
Train No. 1, fast mall, arrive al Arlington at
gW Only one train a day.
llnppnnr trains No. 9 and 10 hive dUeontln
' tied the run to Arlunilou, but mnko close eon
me tuns with No, t and '2 at Willows Junction.
Tlir.)iita tu kou sold aud ImgKiKu tliwsiwl
throiiKb to all poluta lu lb Uutud Htate aud
8. COLLINS Ticket Agent.
. A A. M. MT. MUKIAII LOIMIK. NO. VV-
Mtnted commnulfatlou ou Hsturday even-
Tiia on or btfore lull moon of each monto. Ho-
Inurulugbreiliren in gnodeiaiMl'iigare cordially
luvltIU.aiu u(l. W L. WUXJOX, W. M.
J. 11. lluueoN, BorreUry.
A RI,I NOTON-KOHMl I, HAII.Y BTAOR USE.
K, A. N'l.on. TroprUtor.
FAHR rKoM AHUMUTOM TO
Poss'l .......-.W 00 Return, $10 00
. Mayv II- .....,..., 6 00 Return, 00
Citiidou 00.... Return, 7 60
Clem.- 00..... Return, 8 00
Olea 2 00 Heturti. I 00
Lt-ave Arliiiglou every morning (Hunday ex
eentedat6ovlix.'k. is dee at Condon at tt. M
aud arrives at Kossll at 7 r. M.
j Cniniortable coaches aud Careful, experlenoed
AY P. tUCAH. County Clerk,
DOR U LIMO Or
LAND AND NOTARY BUSINESS
In a neat and careful manner.
p()Nl)ON-IX)SK ROCK DAILY STAG 8 LINK.
I. M. Kin. hart, Proprietor.
Iave Condon every morulng (Sunday
reptml) at :H0 o'clock, and arrives st Loue Rock
at li M., via Matney aud Lost Valley.
rare, 09.00. Bound Trip. 03 BO.
TR. J. J. 1100 AN
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON,
OflWe Oregon eve., between Catholic Church
and residence of . 1'. Blmlt.
Z. T. DOD80N,
Physician and Surgeon,
At present can be found on my ranch at Hay
Vrcea uuite, ten nines huivu
J. H. 1IV0H0N,
Physician and Surgeon,
Offlce and renldence in the Wiley Miller rest
drnce in Houth Condon.
Calls promptly attended to day or nlgbt.
Attorney at Law,
Notary Public and Conveyancer.
Condon, Or. r ''
Collection and insure w T'
Olllca in rear of postolilce -'
W. U. Kill'.
1 ' , '
J.1 Bold 0! A
to euro toy form
or any disorder of
the generative or
vhotlicr arisluK m
from thnmcciiuii ve
Tobacco orOriIuin,orthrouKh youthful imllscnv
tloo.ovcrlndiili'ciiro, Ao,,s'a'fia LomoI liruln
Power. Wukcftilncsn.lic'orliigdovvn fuluilutha
back, Hem lual Wcuk nor , Iiyttorla, Nervous jro
tratlon. Nocturnal Emlrwloiis, l.e::corrhira, !))
iIucm. Weak Memory. Loof I'owiwaml Lm.
.tiMicy.whlcblfncKlocteilortonlfail to prematura
vui n ;n aii'i innauuy. rnio f i.w a wix, ObOXCt
iir f ..(in. Hcnt by mail on rocrltit of price
A WBIX M.T.S litlAUANTlCK 1 given for
ery t.1.uiorilcrrto!lvcd,t'rcfmi'l tiietnoney if
a- 1'xrmnnent euro fa not Kltai-tptl. W h.
"YTinuxaiKliottestlmonlul fmmo'd and young.
by tbeuseof Apbrodltine. Circularfreo. Addrca
THE APHRO MEDICINE CO.
WesUiru Brauoh. Sox 27. rovTUtMit Oa.
. for RAi.a by -L.
W. DA Bill NO CO., Condon, Or.
18 THE BEST.
Tie OnlrM'Thlne that will lew BACKWARD
a well aaFOUWAKDwIlhotitstnppiug. Unlet,
Light-Running, ailjuslab.e in all Its parts.
WE SELL TO DEALERS ONLY.
UNION MANUFACTURING CO,
W.M. PETEIt, Owner,
SALT LAKE, DENVER,
Omaha, Kansas City,
CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS
the Quickest to Chicago
and the East.
Quicker to Omaha and
Through Pullman and Tourist
Sleeper, Free Reclining Chair
Cars, Dining cars.
i"( j .if Ti
Grass-Covered Vessel Sighted
by the Bark Almy.
THE COURT STREET CASES.
Good Shipped In Bond by the Way of
Kurope Can Come In Foreign Bottom
aud Are Free of Duty.
8a Fbancihco. The United States
Circuit Court of Appeals has affirmed
the decigion of the lower court in the
ouit of the government against Dunham,
Carrtgan, II ay den St Co. for the confis
cation of a cargo of nails. Two years
ago, when the Transcontinental Associa
tion of Railways, the Tac&c Mail Steam
ship Company and the clipper ship com
bine kept up rates from New York to
San Francisco, the firm of Dunham,
Carrigan, I lay den & Co. discovered that
it was cheaper to ship goods from New
York to Kurope and thence by sail to
Han Francisco than to ship by the com
bined railways or steamers direct to San
Francisco. Acting on this discovery,
they shipped a big lot of goods by a Bel
gian steamer to a consignee in Antwerp
in bond. They were put aboard a for
eign sailing vessel there and shipped to
this city. After much of the shipment
had been landed, Collector of the Port
Phelps seized the first lot that followed.
The lower court decided that Dunham,
Carrigan, Ilavden & Co. was lawfully
entitled to ship as it had, and that such
shipments did not violate the letter of
coastwise laws, which require trade be
tween American ports to be conducted
in American vessels. The United States
Circuit Court of Appeals finally upheld
the lower court. Judges McKenna and
Gilbert rendered the decision.
THE COCKT 8THEKT CASES.
Declared Illegal After the
Tas Was raid.
Astoku. The news that the Supreme
Court has reversed the decision of Judge
McBride in what is known as "the Court
street cases," suits brought in the Cir
cuit Court for. Clatsop county to enjoin
the city of Astoria from collecting cer
tain assessments for street improve
ments, and in which Judge McBride de
cided in favor of the city, caused no lit
tle surprise here, not unmixed with dis
satisfaction. Many of the property
owners interested refused to pay until
the case was heard in the lower court,
but as soon as the decision was learned
a majority of the assessments were
promptly paid, the opinion being pretty
general that Judge McBride's ruling
would hold good. Those who took the
case to the higher court were only inter
ested to the extent of a few hundred
dollars, and in consequence the loss to
the city will be small, as none of the
nroDertv owners naid under protest.
The grounds upon w hich the ruling of
the uircuit court was reversed nave not
yet been learned, but it is surmised that
the ordinances providing for the im
provement of the street were illegal, by
reason oi uie iaci mat mere was no
Mavor. the President of the Council
having signed all measures passed after
the resignation ot mayor urosoy in is:u
and until the election of Mr. Elmore by
NEW BOARD OK DIRECTORS.
Annual Meeting of the Southern Pacific
San Fbakcisco. The annual stock
holders' meeting of the Southern Pacifa)
Railway Company has just been held,
and a new Board of Directors elected as
follows : C. P. Huntington, C. F. Crocker,
T. H. Hubbard, Russell J. Wilson, S. T.
Gage, N. T. Smith, W. H. Crocker, H.
K. Huntington, T. E. Stillman, A. N.
Towne and J. C. Stubbs. The new names
in this list are Russell J. Wilson and W.
H. Crocker, the latter replacing his
brother George. The election of Russell
J. Wilson and the re-election of 8. T.
Gage and N. T. Smith, all represenatives
of Stanford, seem to refute the recent
statements that Mrs. Stanford designs
an early withdrawal of her proprietary
interest in the road. The annual report
for 181)3 was submitted, and made the
following showing of totals: Receipts,
148,708,168; expenditures, t47.913.801;
balance. 1794.367 ; income from invest
ments, $311,439; total net income, $1,
106,796. The totals for 1892 were: Re
ceipts, $49,605,900; expeditures, $49,
357,288; balance, $308,612 ; income from
investments, $211,932; total net income,
The Strange Report Brought In by the
Helen W. Almy.
San Francisco. The bark Helen W.
Vltny, which arrived here Friday from
fining Island, brought a strange story.
v nan. . r r""
Sire Cream of Tartar
fllions of Homes
-aeB , - - E
J3Bf JI&MEW2 tfl IIV
When off the island February 26 she
sighted a small schooner, which after a
great deal of effort ran under her lee
and showed a flag of most peculiar de
sign, the like of which was never seen
before. It was in two pieces, and the
lower half was from the American flag,
while the upper half looked like a black
pennant. The vessel had been white
once, but her sides were covered with
grass. Tiie mainsail appeared to be new,
and as for the foresail there was only
half of one, and that was all patches
and holes. The name of the little craft
could not be made out, as she kept a re
spectful distance from the bark. Cap
tain Luttrell thought he recognized in
her the twenty-five-ton schooner Ebon,
whose skipper, Captain Cameron, disap
peared from the Gilberts early in 1893,
ii.aving some heavy creditors. Cameron
and his schooner were afterward heard of
in the Marshall Islands.
Krng'e Bondsmen Declared Not to be
Guilty of a Crime.
Seattle. The trial of Henry Fuhr
man, the rich broker, for using the city
funds as an accessory to Adolpb Krug,
the defaulting City Treasurer, ended in
a verdict for the defendant. The trial
lasted five days, and was closely conr
tested. The specific charge was concern
ing the $10,000 which Fuhrman was al
lowed by Krug to take. Krug was con
victed on this same indictment a few
days ago. Fuhrman's defense was that
be took the money on deposit the same
as the banks did. It was shown that he
returned every dollar borrowed and has
made up the shortages of several other
borrowers by putting up about three
times his proportion of the defaulting
Treasurer's official bond. Ex-United
States Senator John B. Allen and E. C.
Hughes conducted the defense, and
made eloquent pleas for the defendant.
The jury was out but little over an hour,
and returned a verdict of " not guilty.'"
Several other prominent citizen were
indicted on similar charges, and this ac
quittal is supposed to greatly relieve
A NEW SCHEME.
Chinese Deported to China Landed In
Victoria, B. C Yee Lee, Yee Chung
and Fong Chong Yuen, deported from
the United States and shipped to China
by the steamer Tacoma, have been land
ed here with a habeas corpus sworn out
by friends before Justice Drake. On the
arrival of the ship the bead tax of $50
was paid for each, and they presented
the receipts to Captain Hill. He re
fused to recognize them, holding that he
bad contracted with the United States
government to deliver them in China,
and that as such he was acting as agent
of said government. A writ of habeas
corpus was then obtained and . an order
for their release made. The steamship
was delayed nearly all day. This is the
firt-t case of the kind, and will either
lead to a speedy understanding between
Washington and Ottawa or to the depor
tation of all Chinese from San Francisco.
If a sharp lookout is kept, the three
Chinamen will probably be caught en
tering the United States again.
THAT NAUGHTY DANCE.
Jury of San Franciscan to Pas Cpon
the Question of Its Morality.
San Francisco. The trial of Eelle
Bava and a bevy of the Cairo street
dancing girls, instigated by the Society
for the Prevention of Vice for the pur
pose of securing a legal determination
of the question as to whether the danse
du ventre is immoral, was called this
afternoon by Judge Conlan. The de
fendants after their arrest several davs
airo demanded a jury trial, and the aft
ei noon was passed in a fruitless effort to
secure the jury. Nearly all those sum
moned confessed thev had seen the
dance, and because of previous bias of
mind or judgment already fixed or for
other sufficient reasons were dismissed
as incompetent. Alter much trouble a
jury was finally secured, and the case
went over till next wees, mere was a
great deal of disappointment on the part
of a large crowd which assembled at the
courtroom because the door was barred
nnoii them, the Judtre DroDosinsr to con
duct the trial onlv before the mrv. at
torneys and witnesses. It is probable
the young women will be called upon to
perform the dance before the jury that
the case may be determined upon its
The Alaska Surrey. ,
San Fbancisco. When the United
States steamer Patterson leaves this port
on the 21st of this month she will have
on board four parties from the coast sur
vey bound for Alaska. The parties con
sist of surveyors and astronomers, who
will devote themselves to making sur
veys on the boundary line between
Alaska and British America. These
surveys have been in progress for several
seasons, and are now completed from
the Arctic regions to Mount St. Elias.
This year work will be finished from
this point south. The United States
steamer, Captain Harber, will be placed
at the service of the surveyors for the
purpose of communication and the car
rying out ot the chronometers.
Honors World's Fair.
n s?s rra n
Powder. No Ammonia; No Alum.
40 Years the Standard.
SUPPLY OF WHEAT
The Notorious Bill Dal ton is
THE BREACH OF PROMISE SUIT
Why the Report of the Trial Should be
Culled of the Filthy Passages One
of the EIIs Exposed. '
Chicago. There is trouble brewing
among the students at the Woman's Col
lege, a section of the Northwestern Uni
versity in Evanston. The young women
are now allowed to read only those pa
pers from which- all accounts of the
Breckinridge-Pollard case have been
clipped, and as a consequence many
harsh things have been said and many
indignant tears have been shed. Three
weeks ago the newsboys in Evanston I
suddenly experienced a boom in busi
ness. Every morning and evening the
carriers staggered toward the Woman's
College under a huge pile of papers, and
returned empty-handed. Just what it
was the girls were interested in was lor
a time only surmised, but it has leaked
out that it was the racy accounts of the
lamous Dreach-ot-promise case that the
young women were after. Saturday
night the Dean, Emily Huntington Mil
ler, and an assistant surprised a roomful
of young women listening with bated
breath while one of their number was
reading the most sensational part of Col.
Breckinridge's confession. When the
newsboys went heavily laden to the col
lege next morning they were unceremo
niously ejected by the janitor without
the sale of a paper, and the girls have
not since been allowed to see a paper
except those from which all reference to
the case has been clipped.
Wenatchee-Coneonnlly Mall Route.
Washington Crrr. Senator Squire
is working hard in the endeavor to se
cure a new mail route from W enatchee
in Kittitas county via Knapp's Ferry,
Lakeside, Chelaa, Methow river, Vir
ginia City, Ophir, Malott, Clover and
Kubv to Gonconullv. a service which is
greatly desired by the people living in
these towns and along this route, fet
ter mail facilities are greatly needed
throughout that section, and petitions
from that section have been supple
mented by one from the Seattle Cham
ber of Commerce. Seattle is the natural
base of supplies for Okanogan and Kit
titas counties, and many of her citizens
who are interested in mining and in the
development of the country would be
benefited by this service. All these facts
have been laid before the Postmaster-
General and, it is hoped, will have the
The 8upply of Wheat.
Washington City. The report of the
Secretary of Agriculture in reply to the
resolution of Senator Pettigrew, calling
for a statement of the visible and invis
ible supply of wheat, has been submit
ted to the senate, lne total supply
March 1, 1893, was 610,000,000 bushels.
Amount in farmers' hands March 1,
1893, and the visible supply March 1,
1894. amounted to 729.000.000 bushels.
which he gives as the total amount dis
tributed and available for distribution.
The apparent discrepancy is 119,000,000
bushels. The supply on hand March i,
1894. was 190.000.000 bushels. The prob
able consumption from March 1 to July
1. 1894. he puts at I2i.uuu.uuu bushels.
leaving 69,000,000 bushels available for
export from March 1 to July 1, 1894.
Bill Dalton Fatally Wounded.
Gcthrie, 0. T. A dispatch to United
States Marshal Nix states that Marshal
Carr met Bill Dalton and several of his
gang of outlaws near Sacred Heart Mis
sion in the Pottawattomie reservation,
and a pitched battle with revolvers en
sued, mil Dalton ana one oi his men,
named George Thorn, were fatally
wounded, but the others escaped. Dei-
uty Marshal Carr also received a dan
gerous wound. It was thought the Dal
tons were preparing for a raid on the
banks at Purcell and iecumseh. Bill
Dalton is the last of the notorious Dalton
brothers, and ia said to have been a
member of the California Legislature at
Kearsarge'a Commander Convicted.
Washington City. The court-martial
in the case of Commander Heyerman,
commanding the Kearsarge, found him
guilty of negligence in suffering his ves
sel to run upon the reef and inefficiency
in the performance of his duty. He is
sentenced to be suspended from duty for
two years on waiting orders, but to re
tain his present number of commanders.
Because of his long and faithful service
all the members of the court recom
mended clemency by the reviewing au
Affecting Oregon School Lands.
Washington City. In the matter of
the appeal of the State of Oregon from
the decision of the Commissioner of the
General Land Office, rejecting its anpli
cation to select certain school indemnity
lands within the limits of the grant to
the Oregon and California railroad, the
Secretary of the Interior reverses the ao
tion of the Land Commissioner. The
Secretary's decision will affect numerous
similar cases before the department as
well as reopen others already decided by
To Prevent Poaching.
Washington City. The Committee
on Public Lands has agreed to report
the Lacy bill, which fixes a heavy fine
lor poacning in i euoweione rart.
NATIONAL CAPITAL NEWS.
The annual distribution of seeds by
the Agricultural Department is practi'
cally completed. The amount distrib
uted is 30 per cent greater than last year.
Each Congressman received 3,000 more
bags of seeds than in any previous year.
The appropriation for the present fiscal
year was $135,400.
The Committee on Indian Affairs has
decided not to move the Utes from the
Colorado reservation. A substitute bill,
which is a compromise, will be reported
to the House. It will not become a law'
until the Utes agree to its provisions. It
will provide for keeping them on the
western end of the reservation, giving
them one township in New Mexico.
They will be given a quarter of the pres
ent reservation. ,
Secretary Smith aas transmitted to
Congress an adverse report on the House
bill providing for the restoration of 1,861
square miles of land in Yellowstone Na
tional Park to the public domain. The
Secretary says the segregation of the
land is the result of obstructing the en
forcement of -regulations of the govern
ment in the park, owing to squatting by
poachers, trappers and other undesirable
characters. The boundaries now fixed
are satisfactory to the department. No
good reason for the proposed change is.
Senator Carey is encouraged over the
prospects of the bill for cession of 1,000.-
000 acres to each of the arid-land States '
and Territories to be improved by irri
gation. The general expression of opin
ion Dy memoers iavors me Din. mere
is little doubt that it will be favorably
reported soon by the Committee on Pub
lic li&nds. Mr. Carey believes the bill
will receive the nnammous indorsement
of the committee. Senators Dolph and
Vilas favor the bill, and say it provides
for an experiment in the right direction
and may lead to a solution of the ques
tion of what is to be done to reclaim the
arid lands. .
Mr. Grosvenor of Ohio has introduced
in the House a resolution calling for a
special investigation of Governor Till
man's action in seizing railroad property
and telegraph lines engaged in interstate
commerce and with armed force and vio
lence establishing a censorship of the
daily and weekly press of the country
and prohibiting the transmission of news
dispatches to the newspapers. The res
olution directs the Committee on Inter
state and Foreign Commerce to inquire
by what law such acts had been.commit
ted and whether the laws of the United
States had been violated. In his remarks
on the resolution Grosvenor said this
was the first time in the history of the
government such a censorship of pre?a
dispatches had been established. The
resolution was referred to the House
Committee on Interstate and Foreign
Commerce, of which Wise of Virginia is
A bill introduced in the House by
Wolverton of Pennsylvania abolishes
the office of United States Circuit Court
Commissioners, and repeals the laws
authorizing appointments thereto. The
Attorney-General is authorized to divide
the States and Territories into as many
Commissioner districts as he may deem
necessary and change the boundaries of
such districts or create new districts
when required. The President is au
thorized to appoint on the nomination
of the Attorney-General a sufficient
number of Commissioners in the dis
tricts, to hold office for four years. The
Commissioners are to have the same ju
risdiction now conferred on United States
Circuit Court Commissioners, and will
be authorized to try with a jury of six
all offenses punishable with fine or im
prisonment and sentence the defendant
with the same effect as if the defendant
had been convicted in the United States
Three bills are now being considered
looking to the collection of $100,000,000
indebtedness of the Central and Union
Pacific Railroad Companies to the gov
ernment. Two of them are now bf fore
the House Committee on Pacific Rail
ways. One was introduced by Geary,
another by Brown and a third by Boat
ner. The Geary bill provides for the
foreclosure of the government's mort
gage on the two roads and the appoint
ment of a committee on the part of the
government to manage the roads. Geary
says his desire is to make the men who
have grown rich out of the railroads pay
the government what they honestly owe.
From what can be learned the Brown
bill is cot likely to be agreed upon, hut
after it Hnd Geary's bill have been thor
oughly discussed a new measure will be
reported embodying the featnres of one
or the other. The Boatner bill also pro
vides for judicial procedure to compel
the companies to make restitution to the
Caminetti has introduced a joint res
olution authorizing the President to in
vite all the nations of the Western Hem
isphere to a conference on the financial
question. The preamble of the resolu
tion recites the fact of the community
interests existing in the Western Hemi
sphere; the continued depreciation of
silver; the default by Guatemala; that
Mexico and the governments in Central
and South America may take similar
action, and asserts that the various in
terests of the United States are threat
ened with loss. Then follows the resolu
tion. By it the President is requested
to invite representatives of American
Republics to meet in Washington, whose
object it shall be to " obtain relief from
the conditions which have caused the,
demonetization of silver." The second
partis: "The convention shrill be for
the purpose of drafting a treaty or treat
ies on the subject, to be thereafter sub
mitted for ratification to the nations
represented, calculated to secure to
thein such recognition of silver from the
nations of the Eastern Hemisphere and
to provide regulations governing the pro
duction thereof and maintenance among
themselves of such a standard as will re-
store permanent financial conditions and
protect their common interests,"