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-ni i in ' I'Krir.n.
V IV A?l 1 .-
W km &L y ,
OREGON CITY, OREGON, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 12, (873.
IL Mil !U I
Ytf PI'SIDEMT'S MESSAGE.
i rt .. f 1? ...-. i
V'lV,,,.. sVh vo.ir that has pasaod
... cni.t.iission of my hw. mes-
il, nl III"--'- "J
S1I1CJ l"' v ,
O-.DiVMilllv t IlO
lCir part of it, been an ev.-ntf nl one
13 Vie Wmutrv. In the innlst of
national u-.-rPrity a innm-ia
tuU has ,.,-..,rml that has brought
i ... furtillV
s of a urreat many
T;iti.Ml parnsaniu n.i- i"'"
c-Is.vl to exist, epeeially in the ag
fur. vin asirs.
The eaoture upon the high seas of
R VeU-l bear'.n our llag has for a
ti-ae threatened the most senons eon
m'aneuees an ugitate.l the pubhc
mili.l from one eml of the eountry
tthe other. This, happily, now is
in the r.inrso of satisfactory adjust
ment honond.lv to b..t!i nations eon-r.-nn-'l.
The relations, however, of
the United States with most of the
,hcr nations continues to be friend
ly :lnd cedial. With France, ( Jer-
, K 1--H. Italy ana ine minor
rs with "V;''il and most of the
, Vii.-ri'M It- jeiblics, and with
T.im an, nothing h n oeenrred laring
tae Ve:ir r 1 1 " " '
i) j.: t o-01 1
n-e bctwet-n tin J'e-
and tiu: various
diu'. 'm iti.- r
. transmitted lere- ;
i- i;: v s v i:xios?i i. :. ;
Tii , - ;iting ; i ' will of ('oiigresi j
its loint re-ioi m ion :
last, and in I
0;l... (,! 1 i-liv wit
Cue res .hl'h'!).
arti-ans and s:
i : no c-.trv Coiii
t;ie provisions oi ;
r ... ! '
llimiT'-l 'I Ola ii' :n ;
iti!i." iiica and of t laetnm, 1 believe, of both Goern
,siii!ici's were an- j i;H:i;ts.
the Exposition at claims or oxiim: aliiins.
ission..irs on t!e I recommend letrislation to create
tiioriz-'d to atte'
Yicaa '. as ( ' ':
jiarl i the Unit-.
It is b;
1 the o'!
o-d tint v." i
!i.. 1 in vie'V W !:en It
' c.'.t h-solnti ' in or-h'i;
h- ' f the United
in lie a ! vanfa-
ttionat i . . i 1 1 "
hie art-i held ;:"! !
1 i ;
held in Vienu;
i d ta t. o.i on 1 or
' rent conn- c!
inve.dors. i of
.giv from j
c.writ at Vi-
r I :ie pr.
i '. "d .i
i:i d id
:: .n of
1 i r:i
e.. a i a!
e.U- ' " I
a. r a -
' j ' -
v. ii. -n
this coi.f.-r- i
ihev. in or !er to '
v:d, in secnrhi.- j
ill ol pro; ee' iwi! i
ers in Jv.Si' : '.
a i 1 i'i
' ;il w t ('. ja .-1
-it? ' i
Tin: a t'i k y- y
O . J-.S i ION .
1 -t v t :-nm w
J'hilperoi of ( 'hi
ts ni. i o;-;tv, re
p w,'!-s in per
if the -e cc!" -mo-ding
U i :a
r riiui r
e West :
: he iut :
ceded t ii
o: t .
: l , w
. o ;.tt rial.''.
, i e i.
:l toe our
g tne pa.-t year
e i of t!.e iut'a
e trade. L ree-
inquire v. ie. t.i
ti.e.i be needed
on t!ie sabj.-et.
1UU AT. i: V7.J A CT
Th - u
'' av.ard-d to the United
Stit-s by tie' 'Pri'eoi tl of Arbit i atlo',1
at ' i was tr.t; I by Her M.tj-'slys
G . .a a ut a le v . s in a 1 v aico
"! t i - ti;:i - when it would have be
c '.ai ' p". va.!.; according to the terms
! t tr'-atv. I ri eo'.i ol i lie-o v i t ll
t 0 provi-d. ::.- of the act of Mirdi d, j
1 "do. it w.i ; at
might, the public debt of the
d Slat., ami the amount so re-
d was Invested in a live per !
rv -t'l.I y. . .1 b ri'iifiiii sn 1:1; i
1 bond of the U
, t,,, i
for si 7t)') :.(Ui) which is now
held bv the Socretai-v of State sub-
j"-t to th" finiiro di-ipositiou o
f c:- '
gress. i reiiew mv
commem iat i; n
; of the last ses
Qmaileat t!-.e assemb!
sio-a of Congress t!
d for the
I auili- I
ting and determining the amounts of
the several direct 1 ss"s growing out
of0the tlestruction of vessels and
UieuY t'tirgo.vs by th" Alal'-ama and
the Shenandoah after h aving Mel
bourne for which the sufferers have
received no eo'iiva'eut or compensa-
tion, and of ascertaining the names j
ot p-.-i-sous entitici t: re-'eive c"i:a
lanisation for the same, making th
I'oniput.it lo'i on the basis indicated
by the Tribunal of Arbitration -o
Geneva, and that payment of s-n-li
losses lo aiiihori.ed to an extent not
to exceed the award of the Tribunal
jit Gt ncva.
pit: not npai:y oi ks riox.
ly tQ' net approved on the lith of
1-VbVuary lAst Congress made ir -vision
for comjdeting, jointly with
an oilier or CoKimissioner to be
named by Her liritanic ..lajesty, the
d. dilution of SO much of the
boundary line between the territory ,
of Great I.rit.im as "-us jeit incoiii
pl -te by t:ie Commissioners appoint
ed under the act of Congress of Au
gust 11, leod. Under the provisions
"f this act the iun thv. est water
i . -i ( :) ,'r.
i..Lv. ! t - -
i . .a,,!,. ;!,: p.ej.
S:at.-- to par-n-o-T.
.,f tii' hit -r 1
t : .; A- : -a:: e
t- '. ! a gcati;. i
j.! ia- an 1 rV-d.'.
biv.mdary of tho United htates has ; folvii;n llnver-i have' )vCn proehiim-'-u
.hurn.iued amlimar.ced m :c- j ( v naturalization convention
'vrd oi v. w,tJi tiie aw lid of tne Em- ! 1)c.nn3.ir.: . :1 convention with
p ' '.' r ( ; f (X i e r i a a n v
protocol and !
a oopv of t!i
0:1 whiih th:
ie was tuns marked are coiUamed i
n tne paper submitted here. I also j Stto;. an;i a naturalization con
msnnt a copy of the report of the , ' ;tjon ,vith EcUador.
onoaissionr.i- f.f .-b-.i- tin. ' L'-11
loinil-,,.,. l.i ',.... T''.:oi0cl.a i
' "X- "eiw-een tne unitcii rstates
:m l th.-v JJritis.il )ossessious west of j
"- Of fl;i W,, .,. f,f tl' '
, " v 'iv . i iiv: -ls. iiii-4i..iL,-;4.i,v.i
operations of the Commissioners !
:. . i i . l . .
'ii'.- i;isl -e.-ison. Mirvcvii
iiiiu; ij:t-Li i:uuu in ;i )OTnl -I'J 4 inik-S
west of the Lake of the "Woods, leav
ing about ooO miles to bo surveyed,
the lield work of which can bo com
pleted iluring the next srason.
ANOLO-AMlinfOAX CLAIMS FOI! DA MA-
ons nv tiu: iir.m-.Lmos".
The Commission organized under
the provision of the Treat v of Wash
ington for the settlement and deter
mining of claims of citizens of either
power against either, arisimr out of
a-ts committed against their persons
or property, during the period be
tween April iy, IH.51, and Aril 4
IHC,.-), nuide its iin, l award on t!:e
2oth day of Sej tomber last. It was
awarded that the ( iovcrument of the
United States should pay the Gov
ernment of Her IJritan'm Majesty,
within twelve months from the dale
of award, tin sum of .l.IJ'.'.Tli) in
gold. The Commission disallowed
or dismissed, all other claims of
lUitish subjects against the United
States. Tin. amount of the claims
presented by the IJriti
-n iiovern- !
meni. our (.usanov.ea or ilism:sse. I
is un.ierstood to be about oo. ()!'!, -(')!).
It also disaihjws the claims of
the United States against Great Urit
ain whii-Ji w,re referred to in it. I
have caused to be; communicated to
Government of the K im of Tta-
tii til uucs ot tins (rovertuiK-nt for
tne eminent scrvii-i-s ren Ie;-.-d bv
C ::nt SeJopis as t'lird Commissioner
oi i.;:s ..oini.!is.-,:on. w.un Uignnv
ig and imiiartialitv lie Iis-
en:iige - i stniics reipiinng great iaoo;
'toil . uuKtitui j.iiriiee in ioe : ans-
i s;Kcial ( uit. to consist of three
.J u.tees. w no .i,u
e eiupow i-red to
alit ns upon the
"ng out of acts
hear t!:e claims of
United States, ari
J i ; er ; v
r iK'isatis or
during the insurrectiin.
at mft'renee under the
to tile e'u
shin-gtotj was coniined
Ot n'l 1MI S!i !:f-els :l!'iS- !
r the : riod !!:: : d in tl:e !
Treat v. but
j s . i . ; i . . .
rois:j el.iit'is 4 .-1 a
iug aider t ;e Hill i f
it is known that
I na t u re ar:
! ceo m
; el-:, it
; a re
or SU iijee
s of othe
T.1K V. AJ
( :Iicial inforn
..m th Dut.-h
: IS AC:It:"N.
atioti be-ing reeeive
(J o , eror.ient of tin
f. - om
stat - '
m King of ti:
-f the Unit:
lie seat of w:
,e an impa
o w ere n
v. e (.
. It i
ti.' i noritivdsty.
i.a". e d :.e so.
The Joint C
am in been h"'
AN 17.1 '
:mai i o-eon
s-, t :.: S .
:.e.l, has r
o . -
: iroh i !: ;
snmed business, w aiicn n is liopeu
may be broug'iit to an early c.umlu
si :i. Tiie dist ngui-die 1 Eeprcsen-
tative f Ilea Ii: .tannic
i jest " at
:s kindiv const iited,
with tiie a'pprova
m ut to assume th.
ds Govern- I
'US and re- j
o :e:ii t mo weea.ni t t mi i ,.n - ,
i -f i t : .1 . . . f 1... j t i .. ?
mav not receive tin
th" arbitrators appointed
spoetive (be.t rmm nts.
ers appoint! tl pursuant to au-
ihority of Congress, to examine tne
nature and extent of Ha' trespass
from that, country upon the Siate of
Texas, have made st report, which
will be 'handed to you for your con
sideration. Tin: claims AowNsr vr.Ni zri'J.A.
The Yone.u -Ian (iovernment has
been apprneii ot the f-.enso oi i. on-
. , . i : 1 .. i ! ,.
in regar.i to io" awaio a u
Itommission nn.'ter the ('mi-
.-. - i? i . ... I TNe;: ....
expressed in the act ot t ue '.n.i a),
February hist, it is apprenemled
that that Government does not real-
",!," w w-' "
tze - i.:e enar.tcier oi 1 1 - o. m i .i i e ..is
under the Convention: As there is
to believe, however
the hesitancy in recognizing these
art at hast, from
the real difhcalty in discharging ob
ligations to other Governments, the
......... 1 .. ..... y-.t 1 tl i . TH t '
' on- o "t
mi our part is believed to be worthy
of your consideration.
coNsrii Vi: i'owi:i:s i; Tt'i:Tir:Y.
The Ottoman ( iovernment and that
of Egypt have lately shown a dispo
sition to relieve foreign Consuls of
i thi- indie'-d iiic.ee'-s M ideh heretofore
t!:ov hilV(. iXelv;SOli in the Turkish
ilominions by organizing other tri
bunals. A Cengi-ss, however, has
by law provitled for the discharge of
judicial f unctions by Consuls of the
United States in that ouarter. under
! the treat v of l.sd.i). I have not felt at
liberty formally to accept the pres
ent change without the assent of
Congress, whose decision upon the
...i i i , .
saojtci ;u as eariv a Period as m av
be convenient is earnestly requested.
l'iarKcroi.avTi-: ivlj: sax j-mjiixuii.
I transmit, for the coa.-.idersitioii
i and dete'-minat ion of t'omare
i'lic:tio'i of the ltcpublie of so
piimin,;(1 ti, ti,js (b.,Vornmnt, to ex
! ercise a protectorate over that lto-
niEATii-s with rov.rgoN rowr.ns.
Since the a.'journment of Con-
the following trt-atk-s with
yi.-wo for renewing the c.iin
convention of eommen-e ami ar, ex
...v11t- ,vithin the ramr- of
COMMISSIONS TO OFFICIALS.
I renew the reeommemiauou m;uit-
. piv -,-.! gr of 1-ecooiber 17 ft.
that Congress at
ithorize thn T',wf.
master General to issue all commis
sions to ofiioials aip-nuted through
t T . . . . .
-arziest attention oi
Congress to the existing laws of tin
United Staiesrespoeting exlraditioi
i invite tlio earnest nf,mi;n,, ,.r
1 1 ini
and the meliioiiiu- nf n itionalitv bv
manv individuals. :llJV ,.itj;:tM;:, ()f
tiie United States n.side pernianentlv
abroad, with their families. Under
the provisions of the Act approved
February 10, 15, the children of
sucli persons are to be deemed and
taken to be citizens of the United
States, but the rights of citizenship
are not to tieseend to persons whose
father never resided in the United
States. It thus happens that persons
who have reside,! within the United
States have been em bled to put for
ward pretentions to the protection
of the United States ugainst the
claims of military service of the
Government, under whose protection
they were born and have been reared.
In some eases nnnaf 'l!-:di:-e.l l ili-pns
ot the Liu'ei! -.t.-it.--v I-um v,.f..
to the land of their birth to remain
tm.re, and their children the issue
of a marriage contraeted there, after
tlejir return, and who have never
been in the United States have laid
chain to oar protection, when the
Iaps,j of many years have impo-od
upon them tie.- duty of military ser
vice to'tiie only Government which
has" ever known thc-m personally.
Until the year l-sf.'.s the ( Jovernmeiit
was left embarrassed by conJlicting
opinions of Courts and' of jurists to
determine how far the do t i ae i'
perisetiial allegiance derived from our
former colonial rehdions with Great
Jiritaiii was applicaldo to Ann rie.in
citizesns. Congress then wisely
swept the doubts away by . leeting
that any declaration, instruction,
ojiinion. order or decision of any
oilh-er f Goverr.moiit which denies,
restricts., imoairs or questions ti;e
ngnt of expatriation is iuc-onsistent
with the fundamental principle of
i !iis ( i.e. n
ni"ut; but Congress did ! lsoiclion ot t.;e oumry to ) hn-n
in that statue, nor has it ; they belong, and theref.r.o any mo
;o. what .-ts are dee, ;,,.. , k-st.it iu of or interference wiui sueii
to we-rk .-xpatriation. "r my o :. u !
guidance, in determining cacti ones- i
t oti requ.ivd und--r the pro v is io-j s of j
t;i- Co.istit vdion, r a- keil tiieopinioii !
in v. riiim f the orinei a! ; d-icer in '
each of the Executive departments
on ceres ni eUessions to tins suoject.
result satisfies me that turt'"-r
!:.c');i.e -S;li-V. i.j
c. m : i ii - nd
! t ie. ,- i;-i.!"
eons id i. ;
. -s I'! ; i 1 1 ;
s of l i ;
O . ; ! I,:
c;'d i e
: ri- pondr-nei.'
Ti.e I ;::ted State,;, who led the way
;n tne o rthrow of tiie feudal doc
trim of p. ipetual allegiance, are
among the lasi to indicate how their
own citi.'i ns mav elect anot eer na-
t iOtaol i .
here-.', it:! i
to -laci' u
nest ii n .
ou a par with
iher lead- ;
intermit iom-d I
re-idv in our
to the principles
1 be embodied in
kiws ititend.ed to accomplish such re- 1
'rei-o tiiat ciiizens !
United States mav et-a.se to be j
citizens, and m
i : . . i
a l ie:; ia : ice io o; uer j. ow (
We have !
I that resident-" in a foreign
1 1 : o I i i
intent to reir.rn.
:a j l
ltsell woiai expa
ion. and we
hav(. agreed, in some ii
ihe h-ngtil of tilae Ili iV
.irv lor sn
intent. I invite Congress n-ow t'
mark oat ami ih tino when and how
expat rial ihui can be ttccomplishetl,
and to regulate by law the condition
of American women marrying for
eigners; iix the status of children
born it; a foreign country of Ameri
can parents re-iding more or less
permanently abroad, mid to malm
rules for do termining such other kin-
rm: stantsii mau nmo
in compliance won ine icquesi ;i ,
, . . . ... t . r i
C ongress 1 trausmiueo io i,,e ;.u,,n - j
can .uiiiiMi'i at .ii.ni i ut, j i it iiisn.iv ,
tions to present to the Spanish Gov- ,
eminent, the joint resolution approv- I
ed on the :id of last ,uarc!i .tendering
to the people of Spain, iu the name
and on behalf of the American people,
the oonirr.'tuhttions of Congress upon
the efforts to consolidate in Spain
- . i i i .
he principles of universal lioerty m
reiiubliean form of Government.
Tie cxi.-tenc-o of Uiis new republic
. ... ,.i....ili.,1 bt- slrdnii"- Ihe
tv,rt ma-.ie-u rated bv striking In.
fetters from slaves in i'orto liieo.
THK SiT OA MOTS' IN CC!5A.
This bonelieial uif-asure w as follow
ed bv-tlie release f several thousand
oersms illegallv held as slaves in
Cuba. Next the Captain General
w-as deprived of the power to set
aside the orders of his superiors at
Madrid which had pertained to the
oisice since IS-Jo. The sequestrated
estates of American citizens w inch has
been the cause of long and frequent
correspondence, were ordered to be
restored to their owners. All these
libm-al steps were taken in the lace
of violent opposition directed by Cue
reaetionarvViave holders of Havana,
who are vainly striving to stay the
march of ideas in the extermination
of shiverv. Unhappily m Cuba this
baneful iidlnence has thus tar suc
ceeded in defeating the edorts ot ail
the liberal-minded men in Spam to
abolish sju-verv there in preventing
the promised reform m that island,
'the struggle for political supremacy
continues.0 The pro-slavery aristocrat-v
in Cuba is gradually arraying
itseji" in more open hostility and de
tiance of the home (Jovernmeiit, while
it still maintains a political connec
tion with the Kepuhiie in the Penin
sula and although usurping and de
fying the nuthoiity of the homo
(Jovcrnmeut whenever such usurpa
tion or defiance tends iu the direction
of oppre-ion or the minb? nnm'" of
abuses, it is still a owcr in ladrid
and recognizetl oy tne uovrrnment.
It is thus an element more daugerous
to the continued colonial relation
between Cuba and Spain than that
which insjiired the insurrection at
Yarra an element. opposed to grant
ing any relief from misrule and abuse,
with no aspiration after freedom, and
commanding no sympathy, but aim
ing to rivet stronger the shackles of
sla cry and oppression. Their power
in Cuba, under professions ofc lovaltv
to the mother country, is exhausting
the resources of the island and is
resulting in acts which arc at variance
with those principles of justice, lib
erality and of right which give nobil
ity of character to a Republic. In
the interests of humanity, of civil
government and of progress, it is to
be hoped that this evil in future may
be soon broken.
THE CAl'TfllK OI' Till" Vila US UTS.
The steamer Yirginius was, on the
20th day of J'-ioptcmbor, INTO, duly
registered at the port of New York
as a part of the comm. rcial marine of j from all sources for the last fiscal
the Unite. States. On the 1th day " year were .f-.':':5,7:,S)-Ji)l; and expeudi
J October, 1S70, having the. ( rtii'i- ' tares lor ad accounts, .j:)!),:,.it),-J b".,
cute oi her register m the usual legal I
form, sin' sailed from the port ol
New York, and has not since been
within the jurisdiction of the United
States. On the olst of October last,
while sailing under the llag of the
United States on the high seas, sdi ;
was foreibl v seized by the Spanish
gunboat Tornado, and was carried
into the port of Santiago de Cuba.
w! e.v m.;iiv ot
tier passengers ami
crew were inhumanly ami at least
so far as related to those who were
e iti -ens of tin' United Stab s without
due process of law put to death,
is a well established principle, as.
( 1 1 bv national independence, rce g- j
i ri i ine
Great Rritain and other
po.-,-er.:, and declared by
reso!;;iiou passed r.miai-
ou the Ifdh ilay of JuneJsOS,
vessels on the nig.i
se;;s in time of peace, bearing
American dag, remain under the
ve-sels by for-" on the part o: a
foreign pe.ver is m deiiaiice. o! tne
sovereignty f the I iutel St-tbv-..
In a'-cord .nee with this principle. the
restora t i n u' the 'irginias a'ii the
siureinler of the survivors a!;!o;ig her
j'iissenge.v an i crt-w. :u.it dtn
tion b tne Jiag and pf.m.di
tllC a I U i'U i i" WiiO ll.li IV
of t he iH"..".-d acts d' x. ee;
il. ma:.ded.'TueS;':u d.-l- (:,.,
has recov nh-.'-d the jn -tie- t the d.
maud and has arrange.! IVr iie imme
diate deliverv of lli-'j es-
a r.ai .! te to
t'n-tlag: for roceedii.gs lool.ing to
th- punishm.'nt of tho ie who mav be
d to have been eaiiltv of ii!e-"a!
i-; ami also 'oe.vatid
maemmt v t , tn ;-
who mav be
wu to be
d to it. A copy
on ferenee 1 a-t wceii
date and tiie Span-
a pr: a coi i
ish ?.Jini. h-r in which
this arrangem-.-ut wen
ie terms of
a'i'e -1 to lie
omh-nce this subiect . itli th '
f the United States is in.
eyid.er and by cable, and needs the
ven heat ion of ihe act ual eorroapon- j
dem e. It has seemed to me to be
one to toe importance of the case not- !
no.mit tins coi ri-sponoenee until ,
i no at
urate text can be received oy ,
nail. It is expected shortly and will ,
e submitted when received. :
In taking leave of this subject f
t.ie present, l v.m h to renew the ex
pression of my co:iIetion that the
existence of African shu.ery in Cuba
is the principal cauee of the lamenta
ble condition oi the island. I do not
doubt that Congress shares with me
the hope that it will be soon made h
disappear and that peace and pros
perity may follow its abolition. The
embargoing of American estates in I
Cuba, cruelty to American ehk-.eiis j
detected in no act of hostility to th - j
Spanish tiovcriiment, the murdering I
" I -' - .i ........... - ...
it lii-inTii:l'.: t-i'.-e-l li-i T !i r ill f 'l-iiw 111
t!u.;r !1:x:ids, and the capturing upon
the high seas of a vessel .sailing under j
jlt, nito-i rstates ni
jjui0i States registrv, lias eulminat-
iu .,n oapint of indignation that j
s!XM:-:i foi: a tivti: to thnd to wai:.
Ponding negotiations between the
United States and the Government of
. ii i , rit i.
S-ain on tlse subject oi this capture,
I have authorized the Secretary ot
the Xavy to put our navy on a war
f, .of inir f o t he evteiit at least, ot the
least, of t!
entire annual appropriation of that
branch of the service, trusting to
Congress and the public, opinion of
the American people to justify my
Assuming from the action of the
last Congress, in appointing a Com
mittee on Privileges and Elections
to prepare and report to this Con
gress a Constitutional Amendment. to
provide a better method of electing
President and Vice President of the
United States, and also from the
neeessitv of such'an amendment, that
there will be submitted to the State
Legislatures for ratification such an
improvement I surest two others will result, To hold what we have : " 1 "ii "!" mousines or me
for vour consideration: First, to an- and to appreciate our currency to country and pre vent such in nut ion
thorize the Executive to anprove of t that standard, is the problem for the , as vl!1 l!llt c' indefinitely tne re
so much oif anv mensnro passing the most serious consideration of Con- I sumption of specie payment an ol
tw o Houses of' Congress, as his judg- j gress. The experience of the pros- j JJ vont!y to be wished for by all,
ment mav dictate without approving I cut panic has proven that the eafren- ; 'g-'l 'v !iniie more earnestly than the
the whole, the disapproved portion j cy of the country, based as it is, up- ! t-iass of people most directly interes.t
or portions to be subjected to the ! on the country, is the best that has ' those v.h.o earn their bread by
same rules as now, to'-wit: To be ever b:-en devised. Usually, in the sweat of their brow. With the
referred back to the House in which : times of such trials, "the currency ': renewed cost of material which has
it originated, and if passed by a two- ! has become worthless, or so much ; ta.ien plaeo it may reasonably be
third Vote of the two Houses then to ; depreciated in value as to inflate the : hoped that this change may be main
become a law without the approval j values of all the necessaries of life, ' tainod and even increased. How
of the President. I would add to ! as compared with the currency, and ' ever, as wo pay about -sSOJJtiO.OOO per
this a provision that there should be j every one holding it has been anx- ' annnum to foreign vessels for the
no legislation by Congress during i ions to 'dispose, of it on any terms. ! transportation of our surplus pro
file la.-t twenty-four hours of its sit- : Now we witness the reverse. Hohl- (lnets to a market, this increases the
ting, except upon a veto.and in order ' ers of currency hoard it as they aid ' halance of trade -against us to this
to give the Executive an opportunity ' gold in a former crisis of a like na- amount. The subject is one worthy
to ovamint rv approve or di sip prove tur? of your consideration.
COURTESY OF BANCROFT LIBRARY,
understandiugly. Second, to ap-
prove by amendment, that wiien an
extra session of Congress is convened
by the Executive' the Legislature,
during the continuance, of such extra
session, shall be' confined, to such
subjects as the Executive may bring
before it from time to time d nrii:g its
sitting. Thr? advantages to be gained
by these two amendments are ob
vious. One session in each year is
provided by the Constitution, on
which there are no restrictions as to
subjects of legislation. If more arc
required, it is always in the power of
Congress, during this term of ottice,
h provide for sessions at any time.
The first of these amendments would
protect the public against the many
abuses and waste of public moneys
which creep into appropriation bills
and other important measures pass
ing during the expiring hours of
Congress to which otherwise dire
consideration might be given.
I 1 : i : A SI J ; V DKI'A i :T ." ii;x r.
The receipts of the Government
tntis snowing an excess ot receipts
over expenditures of .si ,,;,'.)( ".,!!.
lint it is not probable that this favor
able exhibit will be shown for the
present ii.-eal voir; indee
doubtful whether, extvpt with great
economy on the part of Congress in
making appronrialion. ami th;; same
momv in administering various
department the Government revenue
wdl not lad short of making the an
nua! e.xpei. . s. s, including the interest
on the jmbii debt.
K'"o.;k stions OI-' r.ooXOMY.
I commend to C-aigrifs sneh econ
omv, and i. e.id iv,t two sonrcis
it seem.-, to n.e it might
i m. !)( !o-wit. ie. ti;e appropriations
i for jniblie l.-uihiiiigs in t!e many
cities w here work has not been com
' nit nc.l. and in '!.. appropriations
j for rie;s and harbor improv-iae;its
i in tloise localities when- ii.e imj.rove-
m 'ins ui'v' e
er.il com. in
There is u :
of ox pen
point out 1
rae. and in fort ideations,
-tid mole- fruitful sou re 1
liiures which J will
d.-r iii this mess a :v. i
i ivier io ii,e
1 f icturing ehi
easy mala, id of n
ims for losses ime
, duri:;g t he 1
: not be under.
: the erect i 'U (
. ei'ioeeil ; . w .a
! are :a . - led;.
: Govern;. ...i
a', e IX
go... i sa.edaut
lidings bv tii
the ( ;-e -!
. in fact I a
t i-..'ilo!g US Ouii btti.d
Sedioi;;; of the country,
the day is md f.ir distant
I oe-s in to
, and I ho; t
when it w ill
livd otdv J ,t;s .ess t tiOnj,
but will erect in the Capital suitable
lv-idc.ices for all ersons wi:o now
j'eeeive commiitation lor onaite.-s (r
t:a! at (be, . : ;:::k :A expen.-,e. and
tin- Cabinet- thus setting an ex
e to the States, which may in
e theia t elect iiuihiings for thi ir
ad os, but I would have this
cououcted at a itme lien tno
aonn.ianl! v j ustit v it. a I
i' . . . i
ba'e m.iteiu. d:y iailen
past five months of the pre
vear from wia'd tiie" wane
to product.', owing to the g
name now prevail i:i'r, which
meuce i ioo.ii me u: si ot rii-po inot-i
last. '.Clie full eitvet of this tiia.der,
if it should n.t prove to be a bless-
-I ... .- . J- t - . . L . . 1 .
in:' in disguise, is vet to o a
; r: ) , i.
ri; .a'ed. hi either event it
datv to heed the lesson and
by wise and wi II considered legis-.
I dion. as f..r as it lies in vour power, :
against its ret-n rrence, and take a I- 1
vantage of all benehts that may have
si'i:ciu i'AV.tr.XT. I
Jly judgment is that, however ;
much individuals have sulVered, one I
long step ha4! been taken' tov.rl :
sjiocie jovim ut: that we will never j
have permanent prosperity until an l
entire ne w 1 a.-is is reached, an i a j
soecilii" ba.'-'-is cannot- be r ached a:d i
.-jve of g
until our exports, exclu-
pay lor our imports.
The interest dm
ibroao and other
heavv as to leave
,1( aporaisable accumulation of thes,
lm-t.,ls in the country from the pro-
ducts of onr mines.
,,;ents in tl
J lie oeveiop-
he m: ne.s ot
during the past vear. and the '
i i-e ;i i.'i-t e d eve I oo: n en f I tle-oi tor I
years to com", are gratifvim- in the
' . . a -a . . .
...... , ...
extreme. Could but one-half th
gold extracted from our mines be
reiaini.'ii at innii'', onr aovauee it--
j w.,V(l itf , vn.cnt -.von Id be rapid,
fnr cunv.lu.v is required to keep all
; o i,.,iUstriert of ihe countrv em-
i . , . - - ,
retained at houn
D ove. V. ! .out. l Ills n.-monio as
well as individual hatikruptev, must-
ensue. Undue inllation on tho
other would onlv tend to lead to an
inllation of prices. To give olastiei-
tv to tear circulation, aud thercbv
have enough of it to transact the
legitinutte business of the countrv
and to keep all industries emt-loved,
is w hat is most desired. The exact
medium is specie the recognized
medium of cxVhane-e all the Avorld
Tlint obtained, wc shall have
.d .st.citv Tf there be too much of
! it for the legitimate purpose of trade
! aud commerce, it will Mow out of
j the country; if too little, the reverse
It is patent to the most casual ob
server that much more eurrencv or
money is required to transact ' the
legitimate trade of the country dur
ing the UkII and "Winter months,
when vast crops are being moved,
than during the balance of the year.
The amount in the 'country remains
the same throughout the year, re
sulting In the accumulation of all
the surplus capital of the country
when not employed in moving the
crops. Reing subject to call, this
money can be loaned only in part, at
best, to merchants or manufacturers,
for a tixed term. No matter how"
much currency there might be in the
country, it would be absorbed
prices keeping pace with the volume
and stringency of the panic, and dis
asters would ever be recurring with
the elasticity- of our money system.
To prevent the use of money in stock
and other species of speculation, it
seems to me that a judicious step
would be taken by prohibiting the
National R inks from paying interest
on deposits by requiring them to
liold their reserve in their owu
hands, and by forcing them to re
sumption, though it would be only
m legal tenders. For this purpose I
would suggest the establishment of
"uses' t; vour considera-
start . the former many
' been suggested, most of
woica jOok tome nae mnation. on
l11(" hand, or compelling the Gov
ernment on the ;im-: to pay inter
est, without corresponding benefits,
upon the sui. his iiiiids of the coun
try during the seasons when other-
considered ion whet li
la'nity might iu-t be overcome by
authorizing the Secretary of the
fro tsurv to prevent National Ranks
i-suiug aav amount
below a iixed percentage of their is
sue say forty 2er cent. np n the
b ink d'-positing with itie Th e. '.surer
of the United States ;eti amount of
mdt.-s demanded, the banks to for
feit to the lovernment' say four per
c nt. on the interest accruing on
the bonds so pit iged tin ring the
d:ao iii;-v remain with the Treasurer
as s-reurty lor the increased t ircnla
t :on. the bonds so . hedged to be re
deemable by the banks at their
t ! a'-ae. either in whole f.;- in paid,
bv returning their own bills foreir-
!;en to an uniouitt
ml to t!
fi.ee of th- bonus withdrawn. I
would i'ui'tiier sagged, for vonr eou
seh .-ration t the propriety of tuikor
i.'tng .Vitior.al ji.iitks to diminish
this outstamling issue :d pleasure by
ia turning-for eanct-liation tlieir own
bids and Withdrawing so mau-" Uni
ted States bonds ;
the bill- returned
great actual eoutrnctio:) -which has
taken place in tae currency, and the
comparative co itraetion constantly
g-.c.ng oi). duo to th" increase of
manufacturer-., and all the industries,
1 do not be!iee that there is too
much of it now for the dullest period
of the year. It i- a question for
ciusidercti.'n v. hi f her banking
should imt be in the main free, re
taining all the safeguards now re
quired to sec are bili-hohb rs in any
modification of the pres nt. laws reg
ulating .SatioTial T'.ar.ks. And as a
i'urth"r step toward the resumption
of specie payment, I invite your at-t'-ntiou
to a consideration of the ro
piieiy of exacting from the retention
as part of their reserve either whole
or part of the gold interest accruing
upon the bonds pledged as security
for tlieir issue. 1 have not reflected
enough on the bearing this might
have in producing a scarcity of coin
with which to pay duties on imports
to give it my positive recommenda
tion, but your attention is invited to
the subject. During the last four
years the currency has been con
tracted decidedlv. The withdrawal
of the throe per cent, certificates.
-oT.ip.ound interest notes, and seven
thirty bonds outstanding on the 4th
of March, lsi.), all of which took
the place of legal tenders in the
During the same period there has
been a much larger comparative
contraction of eurrencv; the poioila-
tion (;! tho ''ivy is largely increas-
etijmore tnan e.),ooo miios ot raii-
ro:l'1 "nvc )!,1b, requiring the
.,..;...,. . ...... a i .. i . tie
d'.titi- us.- oi t .tuuti to ojieiaii" i-iem;
i millions of acres of land have been
i ii i - ,- --
.t , - - - -i n--j-
i ll;U to remove the products; mauu-
i f;-'tnres liave multiplied bevond all
U,n ll--' T-t in the rame period of
1 f i-... i-t.-bor t.. ...... ,.e
openen to cuitnation, requiring caj-
i , " ,,- ,t t.i! su amo.iui 01
j ;Mbii weekly for the payment of
w' f-v the purchase of ma-
I h'ml. aud probably the largest of all
! tho t-omparativo contraction arising
from the organization of free labor
j n t5i" southern States. Now, every
' l il' there receives his wages, find
1 -r v;int "f wivm.g banks the greater
i l1;irt ui wages is earned in the
: PvKet or hoarded till required for
i 'iSi'- --'t-so suggestions are now
; llirmv!i l!r vonr consideration,
-t i ill
f : witnout any r!common tution mat
! th( sil:J" ' adopted literally, but
j hoping that the best method may be
j "rnyeo at. so as to secure sue., an
elastm-ty of currency as will keep
is a subject that has attracted the at
tention of both producers and con
sumers for tho past few vears, and
laws of Congress on this subject will
have the hearty support of the Kx
ecutive. In previous messages I
have called attention to the decline ia
AMlTilCAX S 1 1 1 V -lit" I LD TNO ,
and recommend such legislation as
would secure to us onr portion of
the carrying trade. Stimulated ly
higher rates and abundance of
freight the progress for the last year
in ship-building has been -eerv sat
isfactory. Congress at its last ses
sion appointed a special committee,
to investigate this whole subject dur
ing the vacation and report at this
session. I have nothing to recom
mend until their report is ready.
There is one work, however of a Na
tional character, in which the great
er part of the East ami "West, the
North and South, are equally inter
ested, to which I will invite your at
tention. The State of New York has
a- canal connecting Lake Erie with
the tide water on the Hudson river.
The state of Illinois lias a. similar
one connecting Lake Michigan with
navigable waters on the Illinois riv
er; thus making water communica
tion inland be tween the Last, "West
and South. These great artificial
water courses are the property of
the States through which they pass,
aud they pay toll to these States,
"Would it not be wise statesmanship
to j dedge these States aid if they
will open these canals for the pas
sage of large vessels? The Govern
ment will look after and keep. in nav
igable condition the great, "public
highways with which they connect,
tt wit. the over slough in the Ilud-
s an, the St. Clair Flats and the Illi
nois and. the "Mississippi rivers.
This would be a National work, and
one of great value to the producers
of the West and- South in giving
them cheap transportation for their
pro bice to tiie seal otird and a mar
ket to the consumers in the East,
giving thorn cheaper food, particu
larly of these articles of food which
to not lii.d a foreign market, and
the prices' of which, therefore, are
not regulated bv foreign demand.
advantages of such a work are
too obvious for argument. I submit
the subject to you therefore without
1 Xri.Pi TioN TO THK AMAZON.
In at;e:i-pti:ig to regoin our lost
commerce aud carrying trade, I have
horetoioro called attention to tho
State'- south oi ihe United States as
olier i iig a held where much might be
accomplished to farther this object.
I suge-i that a small appriation be
made, accompanied with authority
for the Secretary .of the Navy to fit
out a naval vessel to ascend the Am
azon river to the mouth of the Ma-
i. thence to explore that river
and its tributaries into Lolivia; to
report to Congress at its next session,
or as soon as practicable, as to the
accessibility of the country by water,
its resources mid population. To be
reached, such an exploration will
cost but little. It can do no harm
and may result in establishing a
trade of value to both nations.
In further connection with tho
treaty department I would recom
mend a revision and codification of
the tarill' laws, ami the opening of
more mints for coining moneys with
authority to coin for such nations as
Tin: WAR Iil-r.UiTMT.XT, G
The attention of Congress is invit
ed to the recommendation in tho
report of the Secretary of War. The
apparent great cost of supporting
the Academy is fully explained in
his report, and will receive your at
tention.. "While inviting your general
attention to all the recommendations
made by the Secretary of "War, there
two in which I would generally invito
your consideration: First, the im
portance of preparing for war in
time of peace, by providing for a
proper armament of our sea coast
defenses. Proper armaments are of
vastly more importance than fortifi
cations. Tho latter cai be supplied
very speedily for temporary purposes
when needed; the former cannot.
The second is the necessity of reopen
ing promotion in the staff corps of
the army. Particularly is this neces
sity felt in the Medical, Pay and Or
dinance Departments at this time.
It is necessary to omjdoy contract
snriroons to supplv-the neeessitv of
medical attention required by the
army. "With the present force of the
pay department, it is now difficult to
make the payments to the troops
provided for by law. Long delays
in payments are productive of deser
tions and demoralization, and tho
law prohibits the payment of troops
by other than the regular army pay
masters. There are now sixteen va
cancies in the Ordinance Department,
thus h aving that branch of the ser
vice without suliicient officers: to
conduct the business of the different
arsenals on a largo scale, if ever re
quired. THE 7NAVY DEr ART MENT.
During the past year our navy lias
boon reduced by the sale of vessels
n longer lit for naval purposes, and
by the condemnation of others not
v't disposed of. This, however, lias
been more than compensated for by
the repairs of six of thn old wooden
ships, and by the building of eight
new sloops of war, authorized by the
last Congress. The building of these,
latter hr.s occurred at a doubly for
tunate time. They are about being
completed, when they will possibly
lo much needed, and the work upon
them has not only given employment
to thousands of men, but no doubt
has been the means of keeping open
the establishment- of other works at
a time of great financial distress.
Since the commencement of last
month, however, the distressing oc-rnrrvrcr-
""rhich have- taken place ii