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About The Oregon scout. (Union, Union County, Or.) 188?-1918 | View Entire Issue (Nov. 11, 1887)
Ad Epitome of the Principal Events Now
Attracting Public Interest
At Port Dalhousic, Ont., a barge in
tow of a propellor broke lier tow line
and sank witb her orew of five per
sons. Henry Arkors shot and killed Mayor
Finch, of Maxwell, Iowa, and then
killed himself. No particular cause ia
The schooner W. B. Tavlor, grain
laden, from Chicago to Kingston, is
now known to have been lost with all
On September 15th the Chinese
transport Wnylee was lost in the Pes
cadores, and 2S0 Chinese and five Eu
ropeans were drowned.
A battory of six boilers in the Law
rence Iron Works, at Trenton, N. J.,
exploded, killing four men and wound
ing twelve persons. Portions of the
boiler were blown half a mile away.
Advices from Mexico stato that a
locust cloud, three miles long and a
mile and a half wide, passtd recently
through the State of Chiapa, mow
ing a wide swath as it went. When
last seen it was moving rapidly in the
direction of San Bartholomew.
A Mexican Central locomotive ex
ploded twenty miles north of Jiminez.
The causo of the accident is unknown.
Just previous the engine seemed in
perfect order. Engineer Uarry Shep
ard was blown sixty feet into the air,
and fell back to the side of the track
A telegraph polo laid across the
Itook Island railro.ul, between Minoka
and Morris, Illinois, wrecked freight
train No. 1(5. Engineer John Mills
and fireman OrfT wee instantly killed,
and the head brakeman was fatally in
jured. The miscreants doubtless meant
to wreck the Kansas City express.
The passenger was fifteen minutes late,
and the freight pulled out ahead, to
run to Ninoka, Btriking the obstruction
with the result as stated. There is
great excitement over the matter.
It has been discovered that, a ferry
man on the lower Danube, near Vi
enna, who has been m the habit of
conveying across the river workmen
returning from Rouniania, who took
this route to avoid producing certifi
cates that they paid taxes in Ilou
mania, or money in default thereof,
has taken them to a small island, where
lie murdered and robbed them of their
savings. A judicial inquiry revoals
the astounding fact that hundreds of
workmen have been dispatched by the
fiend, and their bodies buried or thrown
into reeds along tho river bank.
PiTTHHUKG, Pa. The first serious
natural gas oxplosion in this city in
two years occurred in tho Hotel Albe
marle. The gas emanated from a
leak' main, where workmen had been
changing pipes. There wore three
terrific explosions simultaneously in
the cellars of D. T. Beed, tho Hotel
Albemarle and tho Bijou theater block.
Eire, which started, was soon gotten
under control. An investigation
thows that fifteen persons in all were
injured, five of them, it ia believed,
fatally. Others were only slightly
burned, and bruised or cut. The pe
cuniary damage by tho explosion will
reach If 50,001). The fatally injured are
employe of the gas company, who
weie making repairs.
Seven Mexican convicts attempted
to escape from the territorial prison at
Yuma, A. T. While the prisoners
waited inside tho main gate, previous
to commencing outside work, Super
intendent Thomas Gates passed within
the walls. When about thirty feet
inside Librado Pueblo throw an arm
about, him, at the samo tinio drawing
a knife. E. Bustamento at tho same
time grasped tho superintendent, while
other convicts silenced tho gate-tender
by threat. They Ihon marched him
out towards tho river. Tho suporin
tendenthung back, struggling violently
and calling to tho guards to shoot,
while endeavoring to bring tho con
victs in lino with tho guard's fire.
During the meleo four Mexicans were
killed and several badly hurt.
James E. Hamilton, mail carrier be
tween tho main land and Lake Worth,
on the south Atlantic coast, was de
voured by sharks while crossing Hils
boro inlet. Hamilton's route was
seventy' five miles long, and he usually
walked most of tho distanco on tho
beach. These inlets are dangerous,
because of cross currents and largo
and vicious sharks that abound there.
While crossing .tho inlet these sea
wolves attacked him, tore tho oara out
of his hands, bit huge pieces out of the
boat'5 gunwale, and finally ho was
thrown into their midst. A horror
stricken eye-witness at a distance told
tho story. The searching party found
nothing hut fragments of the boat. No
other residents thoro will volunteer to
carry tho mail as yet, as tho tragedy
was such a horrible one.
Gjsaxd B.u'ids, Minn. An attempt
to burn thirty Italians asleep in a
building in tho township of Paris,
Kent county, was frustrated by the
timely warning of one who awoke and
found the building in flames. Tho
lmilding was one uod by an Italian,
Santa Garfalo, who was keeping a sort
of store with rooms above for lodging
Italians at work on the railway south
of tho city, Thoro have been hard
feelings existing between this crow
and a crow of fourteen at work near
by, and who lived in tho city. An un
known man crept into a vacant room
and sot fire to tho house, and thon
joined a party on tho outsido who
harricftdod tho doors and used every
effort to keep tho inmates from escap
ing. Thoy, however, managed to gt
out, many lsayh'C tkir lthc.
Devoted Principally to Washington
Territory and California.
Hugh McLean, a brakeman, was
killed by a train at Silver Bow, Mon
tana. A grain warehouse at Hay woods,
Cal., collapsed, entailing a "loss of
The girls at tho Waitsburg (W. T.)
public school have organized a base
About 15,000 sacks of grain were
destroyed by fire in a Fresno (Cal.)
The courts have decided that J. N.
Fuller is the legal chief of police at
Seattle, W. T.
Isaac Hayes, of Yakima, W. T..
raised eight hundred bushels of sweet
potatoes this year.
In Oakland, Cal., Jack Falls, aged
15, was gored by a bull and died from
the injuries received.
George Gould, driver of an oxpress
wagon, was thrown from his vehicle at
San Diego, and killed.
John A. Grout, an old resident of
Monterey, Cal., was thrown fiom his
wagon and run over and killed.
Bill Bose of Bed Bluff was stabbed
in a row in a dance house at Sissons,
Cal., and he died during the day.
Mrs. E. T. Kellner, of Santa Bar
bara, Cal., was fatally injured at Plue
nix, A. T., by being thrown from a
The dead body of Dr. W. R. Hanna
was found in hit- cabin near Gera, W.
T. It is supposed that he committed
Philip O'Brien stabbed Thomas
ltosengrave four times in a saloon at
San Francisco, killing him almost in
stantly. At Hill's Ferry, Cal., Georgo Bird, a
resident of that place, accidently killed
himself by tho discharge of his gun
John T. Emerson, one of tho San
Francisco jury bribers, has been sent
to San Quentin for livo years, tho full
penalty of the law.
Anna Ivors, aged .'10, employed as a
domestic in the family of F. B. Wal
lace at Helena, Montana, committed
suicide by taking poison.
John Jacobs, a cook in a logging
camp at Seabeck, and an old rosidont
of Puget Sound, fell from a window at
Seabeck and broke his neck.
At Capitola, Cal., a turtle, woighing
1000 pounds and measuring eight feet
in length and seven feet in width, was
caught in a net by an Italian fisher
man. Dr. Win. Duth, a well known
dentist of San Francisco, committed
suicide by hanging himself to the tran
som of the door leading to his private
Twenty -two engineers in the employ
of the Seattle, L.iko Shore it Eastern
railroad are now encamped in the
vicinity of Lake Kicholas, on the east
side of the Cascades.
The body of Eihardt Zapf, a sailor,
was found in tho bay at San Fran
cisco. Zapf achieved much notority a
few yoars since by claiming he was a
former husband of Lotta the actress.
Richard Lirdes, head engineer at
Selby's smelting works, at Vallejo,
Cal., was killed by falling from an
elevated platform while engaged in oil
ing tho machinery. His neck was
broken by tho fall.
At present there are 52 prisoners in
confinement at McNeil's Island, W. T.,
15 being white men and the remuinder
Chinamen. Tho white men aro
mostly all serving eontences for sell
ing liquor to Indians.
L. R. Shaw, tho fellow who was ar
rested on complaint of his wife, charg
ing him with incest upon her 12-yoar-old
daughter, committed suicido in tho
county jail at Tacoma, W. T., by taking
a dose of prussic acid.
Frank Croasman, a deserter from
tho army, has boon sent from Van
couver, W. T., to Alcatraz to serve
three years. John Johnson, a military
prisoner, has beon sentenced to livo
years in tho penitontiary for thoft.
An Indian named Hinock, sentonccd
at Happy Camp to sixty days in tho
county jail for misdemeanor, presented
himself to tho sheriff at Yreka, Cal.,
for admission to that institution, bring
ing with him his commitment. Ho
traveled sixty miles unattended and
bore his own expenses.
Tho three-year old daughter of John
Loumister was burned to death at Los
Angeles by her clothes catching fire,
while playing about a lighted candle.
The mother was torribly burned in
trying to extinguish tho lliines, and is
in a critical condition.
Tho coroner's jury in the case of
Oscar Shay, who was killed by Pat
Flynn, at Burke, Idaho, brought in a
verdict charging the latter with tho
murder of the former. From all ac
counts tho murder was unprovoked
and cold blooded, and the testimony is
James Davis, an Alaska Indian, way
shot and dangerously wounded by
unknown man at Muckiltoo, W. T.
Davis had been left in charge of a
schooner by its ownor. Two strango
men attoinpted to tuko it from him
and when he rosisted one of thorn shot
Tho fatal results of tho Gould and
Curry firo at Virginia, Nov., have led
to the co-operation of tho manage
ments of all tho leading mines on the
Cometock loJo, in preparing bolter
exits from underground in caso of ac
cident. Thoro is now almost unbroken
connection on the upper levels of tho
mines from the Union Con. ou the
nvrtk to tho Potoiri on tho eouth.
Everything of General Interest in a
An attempt will bo niado to grow
cotton in Unipqua valley.
The Dallas city hall has been com
pleted and accepted by that city.
Al. Sherfin, who killed a man named
Pope, at Lakeviow, has been couvicted
A couple of buildings aro being
conntructcd at "Hay's landing to bo
used as car shops.
Many farmers of Calapooia aro lay
ing tiles in the bottom lauds as a
nieiiHs of drainage.
One hundred and sixty-nino indi
viduals and corporations pay tax as on
$4000 and over in Benton county.
A new postofliee has been established
at Sanger, and mail service has been
extended from Medical Springs to that
Tho President has appointed Win.
W. Dougherty, of Missouri, agent for
tho Indians of tho Warm Springs
The Oregon Pacific Bailroad Com
pany is repairing the docks, by re
moving track and planking and driv
ing new piling at Yaquina.
Gov. Pennoycr has appointed Wil
liam Galloway, of Yamhill county,
member of the State Board of Agri
culture, vice, J. L. Hallett, resigned.
Win. Barton has been awarded iff),
000 by the Indian Ofiico in settlement
of his chum for depredations com
mitted by Boguo River and Cow Creek
Indians in 1S55.
A Masonic lodge has boon instituted
at tho Cove, Union county, witli W.
B. Holmes, Mastor; E. P. McDaniel,
S. W.; Jas. Payne, J. W. There aro
thirteen master masons on tho roll.
That potatoes will grow in tho Wil
lamette valley, wo want no better evi
dence than to look at the one raised
by Mr. Georgo Taylor, near Lobanon,
weighing 7 lbs., says an oxchange.
Mrs. M. H. Surles, of Scio, has sued
tho County of Linn for $5,000, for dam
ages resulting from tho accident occa
sioned by hor team tumbling down an
embankment near tho Calipoola
Newpostoflices have been established
at the following places: Briedwcll,
Yamhill county, with John W. Bried
wcll as postmaster; Haynesvillc, Khun
eth county, with Joseph K. Haynes as
About sixty Yainnx Indians have
left Yaiuix reservation and retuso to
return. It may be necessary to use
harsh means to induce them to do so,
as they have ever been dissatisfied
with that particular locality.
The sheep-herder found dead near
Pendleton was discovered by tho
coroner's jury to bo one J. T. Prollit,
of Windsor, Henry county, Missouri.
The verdict of tho coroner's jury was
that he died of heart disease.
It is currently reported that the
railroad company will enlarge their
roundhouse at Grant's Pass, to tho ex
tent of eight more stalls. Also that
they will erect a brick foundry in
connection with their machine shops,
which already have a good outfit in
tho way of fine machinery for repair
A few days ago a man was found
dead at Randolph, in Southern Ore
gon, ou tho mud fiat. Ho was drink
ing heavily the night before, and as
ho had no maiks of violence upon his
person, and had money in his pockets,
it is presumed ho accidentally fell into
the river. Ho still had his pipe in his
mouth when found.
D. G. Boss, who lives on Gray's
river, has a sheplierd dog and a
hound that go out occasionally and
havo great fun running door into
camp. Becently thoy started as usual,
tho hound showing up at night, but
tho dog was missing. For throo days
tho poor brute was gone, and a search
for him found him caught by his bushy
tail in a vine and unable to move.
Particulars of tho horrible death of
John Hadley, the well-known stock
man of Baker county, Or., are just re
coived. Hadley caught a half broken
horse with a rope, when tho animal
took fright and started to run. Hud
ley's foot caught in a noose of the rope
and tho unfortunate man was dragged
a long distance, sustaining fearful in
juries, from the t-llects of which he
At Pendleton, W. N. Wells died
very suddenly on tho streot while tak
ing part in the lire department drill.
Wells was islanding at the foot of a
ladder, and suddenly fell to the side
walk and immediately expired. A
physician was summoned, and when
lie arrived ho at onco pronounced
Wells beyond earthly help, and that
ho had died from a paralytic stroke.
This was tho third stroke deceased had
Tho latest news rogarding tho dis
covery of tho body of a woman in the
Willaniotto at Evan h landing, above
Oregon City, would indicate without a
doubt that a foul crime had been per
petrated. From all appearances the
woman was murdered and tho body
thou thrown into tho stream. Tho
body was found completely enveloped
in a quilt and wrapped with ropos.
Under tho quilt and attached to the
woman's body was a bag of sand and
several beavor traps. Thoso of course I
wero intended to sink and firmly an
chor tho body at tho bottom of tho
river. Had tho water been deop at
tho place, tho body would probably
have novor beon discovered. But it
had evidently beon cast into tho
stream whon tho stago was quito low
and the water has beon falling stoadily
ever since, and thus it lmpponed that
the body came to humau view.
Devoted to tho Interest of Farmers
There is little doubt but soaking tho
beans in warm water a day boforo
planting is a good practice, for tho
water tends to start thoni into growing
quicker than if put in tho soil in a
dry state. Tho ground is almost
moist, and every condition is favorable
for a rapid development of the plants.
In soaking tho beans, however, tho
danger is run of having tho wholo
crop rot in tho ground. When a
heavy rain falls after ttio seeds aro put
in tho ground, there is always a chance
of many of tho beans rotting, but this
itanger is doubled whon tho seeds aro
soaked beforehand. All those risks
can be guarded against only by plant
ing immediately after a rainfall.
The cultivation of beans as a field
crop should be low ami level, and no
heaped-up hills of rows made in the
field. Tho object is to lot the plants
take full possession of tho soil, which
can be done only by keeping tho lot
comparatively level throughout, with
no rain-ditchos or sunken places in it.
After tho seeds havo beon put in it is
woll to roll tho field level, and then
leave it alone until tho beans have
reached maturity, and they can bo
cut with tho mowing machine. The
first few days will decide tho fato of
tho crop. If the plants got a favor
able start, and come up evenly
throughout tho lot, there is little
chanco for tho weeds to choke them,
or oven to get a foothold. Tho beans
will thrive rapidly, anil tako possession
of tho wholo soil.
In ordinary soasons the beans ma
ture and are ready for harTcsting fiom
eleven weoks to two months from
planting. Tho labor spent on tho
crop has only occupied about a week's
time, and, if the plants are cut with
tho ninchino, thoy can bo quickly
carried ofi' tho field and placed under
shelter. Thore they can remain until
tho summer and fall work on tho farm
is over, and bo threshed on somo clear,
cold day in winter. The land from
which tho beans have boon harvosted
can bo sown with rye, without ad
ditional cultivation for tho purpose of
turning under to enrich tho soil. It
wheat is to bo planted tho land neods
no extra plowing, tho work of tho cul
tivator or borrow answering all pur
poses, provided tho weeds havo been
kept down. If tho land is oxaminod
the soil will bo found to pulverize very
easily wbero tho bean plants havo been
glowing, and other conditions are
favorable for a crop of wheat.
The proper feeding of the orohard
is yet a matter not generally under
stood. Circumstances, in this matter,
as in all others, alter cases, Somo
soils contain a largo amount of vege
table matter. Tho trees make a rapid
growth and an excess of wood, but
boar no fruit. Stop feeling thoni with
stable manure. Mineral fertilizers and
perhaps root pruning aro needed to in
duce' the trees to yield fruit instead of
wood. Phosphorous and potash are
tho great remedies. Wood lubes con
tain both, and its application, even in
largo quantities, is always safe. Thin,
hard soils, which contain little vege
table matter and produce only sickly,
yellowish-looking trees and a small
annual growth, aro generally improved
by tho application of stable manure.
An ovon coat of this should bo spread
over every foot of tho orcluud, and
will have tho best effect if thoroughly
mixed with tho surface soil. Even if
left on top, however, it will improve
tho texture of the soil and stimulate
tho trees to more active growth.
Tho hilly should bo hollowed about
tho caulillowor liko a shallow basin, to
retain moiHturc. Tho head may be
blanched by bonding the leaves and
confining thoni loosely with a string.
Theso will hoad in succession during
tho autumn. When a cauliflower has
reached its full size, which is shown
by tho border opening as if about to
ceod, tho plant should be pulled, and
if laid entire in this state in a cool
place, may bo kept several days. It
should bo pulled in tho morning, for if
gathered in tho middlo or evening of
a hot day, it boil tough. Whon thoro
ih danger of sovoro frost injuring the
cauliflowers that havo not already
headed, thoy may bo protected by pino
boughs or ompty boxes or barrels
where they stand, or pulled up with
the earth attached to the roots and re
moved to a cellar or outbuilding,
whero they will flower in succession.
Milk that is cooled to a low temper
ature will sour very rapidly whon the
temperature is raised again.
Ezra Meokor has taken tho editor
ship of tho agriculture department of
tho Seattlo J'ost TntelliyrnMr.
Havo good stalls and warm quartors
ready for tho fall colts if you wish
t hem to grow fast during tho winter.
Although it is supposed' that tho
hog eats anything, yet it rejects many
grasses and weeds that aro readily
eaton by shcop and cattle.
Sovonly-livo yours ago tho first to
matoes grown in this country wore
cultivated as a strange and showy
horticultural curiosity in Salem, Mius.
Farmers find loss damiigo to thoir
stacked grain than thoy anticipated,
says tho Walla Walla Juurnal. By
throwing off tho wot tops moat of it
will bo saved.
Sixty to soventy corn stalks yiold on
an average about a bushel of corn.
Two hundred weeds on tho sanio
ground uso all tho materials that are
needed by corn stalks, enough to pro
duce a bushel of corn. Ho must bo a
poor slow worker, indeed, who cannot
with a hoe out and kill 2000 weedi in
a iny, if ha takei thm when Mnall. t
TVIint Sum I Nonlril to Scud a noi
To those who Intend or desire to send
their sons to college some of tho most
Important questions are: How much
will it cost? What are the necessary
expenses of a college education? And
I what sum is needed not only to send a
I boy through college, but also to main
tain a social equality with his mates?
At the last commencement of Harv
ard t'uiver.dty one of tho professors
undertook to answer these queries, as
far as that institution was concerned.
He asked each member of tho senior
class to write to him what the college
cour.se had cost him. The analysis of
the replies received which comprised
live-sixths of tho class enabled tlin
professor to form a good estimate of
the sums spent. One-quarter of tho
class replied that they hail spent be
tween four hundred and six hundred
dollars a year; another quarter spent
between six hundred and nine hundred
dollars; a little over a quarter spent
twelve hundred dollars a year, or more.
The smallest amount spent was four
hundred dollars; the largest, over twelve
hundred dollars. The average sum
spent was about seven hundred and
fifty dollars a year.
It mut be remembered that these
figures relate to the largest of our uni
versities, one .situated in a city, and
eloe by a yet larger city, where the
oidinary expenses of living are much
higher than in those colleges which are
situated in country towns or villages.
The professor who made the statements
referred to, added: "If your son is
very economical, he can live at Har
vard under six hundred dollars. If he
is able to live closely and carefully, he
may accomplish it by spending bet ween
six hundred and eight hundred dollars.
If you wish him to live here at ease,
gaining the many advantages which
motley can purchase, eight hundred to
one thousand dollars will ho well ex
pended." Of course, at Harvard, as at many
other colleges, the poor hoy who is a
bright and assiduous scholar may, by
gaining scholarships, or taking advant
age of the loan funds, relievo his
parents to a large degree of the cost of
keeping him in college. It is safe to
say that a very large number of the
students in the smaller New England
colleges of the best class, such as
Amherst, Dartmouth, Bnwdoin, go
through their course on an expenditure
of four hundred dollars or less a year.
Such expenses as the college fees,
room rent, hoard and clothing can be
easily estimated by any individual
parent. The other expenses of stu
dents, such as the eost of membership
in college societies, social demands and
the extent of pocket money, are the un
certain ones, not so easily determined.
They are necessarily larger in a city
like New Haven or Boston than in a
country town like Amherst or Hanover
The professor who has been quoted
declares that the college authorities
can not check the extravagances of
students, or regulate their expenditures
for them. This must bo done by the
parents; and the best way of doing it
is. after pitying the regular bills for
tuition, room and hoard, to give the
son a lixed allowance for clothes and
all other matters, "and oblige him to
stick to it."
While this is strictly trito at Harvard
j and other very large colleges, it is not
j so accurately said of the smaller col
leges, where the supervision of students
by the faculty is more easily exercised.
We know of eases at some of the insti
tutions where the number of students
is small, in which, without inquisitorial
watchfulness, a tendency to extrava
gance has been healthily cheeked. Hut
wherever the young man is studying,
let the parent decide what he can
afford to give his son; whether he
wishes him to live economically, and
not take advantage of social opportu
nities or expensive college associations;
or whether he is able to give him these
advantages at a larger cost to himself.
It is foolish, oven for the richest p i
rent, to give his boy an unlimited e ill
upon his purs That not only eiieo ir
iges extravagance in the boy hiuisc'f,
but makes him an example of extrava
gance to olh irs. A lixed allowance,
large or small, according to the father's
means, rigidly adhered to, is the wisest
plan which the father can adopt.
A PRECIOUS NUGGET.
Story of a VhIiiiiIiIi Spi-ulinmi In I ho Mill--rloi;lciil
Oiliini't of Auttrlu.
Herr Julius Fisehhof, a loading mem
ber of the Vienna Stock Exchange,
known for his philanthropy, who re
cently died, prided himself on the pos
session of a diamond breastpin which
was given to him by the Emperor Fran
cis Joseph for the following reason:
More than twenty yoars ago Heir Fisoh
hof befriended a poor young student
who. unable to earn a living in Vienna,
finally emigiated to California through
Herr Fiseiihof's assistance. The latter
had long forgotten his protege, when
suddenly he received from an American
who visited Vienna a Inrg.i nugget of
gold which the former student and now
rich merchant of California had sunt ,o
his benefactor. Tliediruetorof the Im
perial Mineralogioal Cabinet of Vienna,
who heard of the affair, oll'ered Herr
I'ihchhof a large amount for the nug
get, which weighed twelve pounds and
Aits considered one of tho most valua
ble in existence but he declined the
oiler, remarking, however, that he
would gladly present It. to the cabinet
if the Kmporor would consent to accept
iU His donation was gruciouslv nc
epteil and the Emperor presented him
in turn with a precious diamond pin.
l'lie nugget remains one of the most in
infesting curiosities of the Imperial col
lection. -V. Y.l'oit.
IN COLONIAL TIME
Two Sj-iitrim or Wlilto Slnvcry Oliwo !
viilllnc In Till Country.
Many persons who consider them
selves familiar with tho history of this
country are not aware that in tho last
century white men, women and chil
dren were held in bondage; that tho
colonial laws in favor of such servitude
were as explicit and severe as wore
those in support of negro slavery. Such
white persons owing a personal servieo
to individual masters were generally
known as "term slaves," though their
legal status was represented by tho
Isaac Weld, Jr.. in his book of travels
in America, published in the last
century, asserts that it was the custom
of shipmasters at Rotterdam and tho
llanse towns to inveigle the people on
to their vessels, under promise of frcu
passage to America. On reaching tlia
colonies announcement of the arrival
of mechanics and laborers wouhT bo
made, and persons in want of such
would llock to the ships, and the poor
Germans would be wild to the highest
bidder, the captains pocketing the pro
ceeds. Bedeinptioners constituted in tho
early part of the eighteenth century a
peculiar feature of colonial anxiety.
They were recruited from among- all
manner of people in the old world, and
through this channel Europe emptied
upon America not only the virtuous
poor and oppressed of her population,
but the vagrants, felons and the dregs
of her communities. There was thus
established among the first settlers a
society that, in many places, was al
most imbued with a moral pestilence.
Among the rcdoinptionor. however,
were a fair proportion of sturdy souls,
strong in purpose and endeavor, who
appreciated the great opportunity cre
ated for them by this complete change
of life and country. At the expiration
of their term of service many, by thrift
and industry, elevated themselves to
respectable positions, and were ab
sorbed in the middle class.
There were two kinds of redemp
tioncrs "indented servants," who
had bound themselves to their ma-sters
for a term previous to leaving tho old
country, and "free-willers," who.
being without money and desirous of
emigrating, agreed with the captains
of ships to allow themselves or their
families to be sold on arrival for tho
captain' advantage, and thus repay
costs of passage and other expenses.
The former indented servants were
often trapped into their engagements
by corrupt agents at homo who per
suaded them all under false promise!
of tender and humane treatment, and
assurances of remunerative employ
ment at expiration of service, which
would insure a competent provision
for the remainder of their days. Tho
emigrants often discovered on arrival
that the advantages to bo oLtained in
America had been painted by tho
agents in much too alluring colors.
Frequently their masters foiced them
to most rigid labor and exercised an
The free-willers suffered o en worse
treatment at the hands of shipmasters
and agents. They were led lo believe
that on arrival in America their ser
vices would be einerly solicited by
persons who would gladly paj tho cost
of their passages; which being only 'J,
the emigrants would soon be able to
repay, and thus secure their liberty
ami all the enjoyment and prosperity
that the new country atVordud to ad
venturers. Agreements were entered
into whereby these deluded ones bound
themselves that if, on arrival, they did
not succeed within a certain number of
days in securing employment on their
own terms, the' could be uold for a
term of years to defray the charges
for their passages. Alas! tho "free
willers," with rare exceptions, had a
rude awakening on reaching tho col
onies. Under their iigroemantH tho
captains had a legal lieu on tho per
sons of the emigrants until tho ship
charges were paid; consequently thoy
were not allowed to go on shore, but
were exposed to view on deck to the peo
ple who came on board in search of ser
vants. Except, in eases of extraordin
ary qualifications, very few of thoni
were happy enough to make their own
stipulations, and they found thcinscivoH
sold for several years of tedious labor
The terms and conditions of sorvico
differed in the ditl'ereiit colonies.
Among the archives of tho Pennsylva
nia Historical Society are .some origi
nal bonds, or agreements, between
ship captains and redemptlonerH.
From them we learn that the usual
price paid in that colony for three
years' service was '21 Is. and Gd.
When his time had expired a man wan
entitled to receive two suits of clothes,
a grubbing hoe, a weeding hoe, and a
new axe. Children sold for from 8 to
10, and their masters were required
to Mie that they were taught to read
and write, and had at least one quar
ter's schooling. Ar. V. Slur.
The naino of a village in Wales
containing seventy-two letters and
twenty-two syllables is Llaufairpwll-gwiigyllgertrobgllgorchwyrnbyligoorb-wll,aiittvsillogogogoch,
ami its mean
ing is literally: "St. Mary's whito
hazel pool, near tho turning pool, near
tho whirlpool, very near the1 pool of
Llautslllio, fronting ou the rock islet of
(logo.1' It must require an envelopo
of heroic size to carry the inscription.
A Chicago man is tho inventor of a
wh o chain in which tho wire is bent bo
as to form the link that gives it the full
strength of the iron. It Is claimed to,
bo four times utronger than tho welded
chain, and can be used for halters, tuga,
well ropi's, picketing vonos, oW.