Image provided by: The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs; Warm Springs, OR
About Spilyay tymoo. (Warm Springs, Or.) 1976-current | View Entire Issue (April 11, 1996)
Warm Springs, Oregon
April 11, 1996 7
Arlene Boileau Bob Pawelek
4-H & Youth Livestock
Staff Chair, Madras
The Oregon Slate University Extension Service staff Is devoted to extending research-based information from OSU to the people of Warm Springs i
in agriculture, home economics, 4-H youtn, torestry, community development, energy ana extension sea gram program wnn uou, unnea aiares ,,,'.-m. .;,
Department of Agriculture, Jefferson County and the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs cooperating. The Exenslon Service offers Its programs j'.,-"
and materials equally to all people. ;'
4-H helps build valuable life skills
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4-H focuses on the growth and well-being
of the whole child.
What on the surface might appear to be a
basic "hands-on" project is actually far more
4-H activities teach young people to iden
tify needs, set goals and plan how to ac
complish them. They learn through their
experiences and by seeing the results of their
efforts. They become effective group mem
bers. These are all "life skills" we need to live
a healthy, fulfilling and balanced life.
The philosophy and goals of the Warm
Springs 4-H program focus on enhancing the
lives of all youths.
Today's young people need immediate
gratification and entertainment. They have
Put an end to slimy, creepy, pesky
by Carol Savonen
The Northwest is famous for its slugs.
They are the critters we love to hate. We
watch them with morbid fascination as they
ooze along the forest floor. But if we find
them in our gardens, most of us have no
mercy. Before giving out strategies for de
claring all-out war on garden slugs, Jack
DeAngelis, entomologist with the Oregon
State University Extension Service first wants
to let us know that slugs are not all bad.
"Most of the time slugs do beneficial
things," said DeAngelis. "They cycle or
ganic matter, contributing to our rich soils.
They are an important food source for other
wildlife. But when they get into our gardens
and landscape plantings, they can be quite
Home gardens are Edens for slugs. Full of
food, regularly watered with plenty of cover,
the home landscape often provides the per
fect place for slugs to feed, grow, and re
produce. Telltale slime trails and scraped or
rasped vegetation are sure signs of slug
residence in your yard or garden. Slugs glide
over a slime trail they produce. Their mouths
hold a horn-like rasping organ, used to scrape
plant tissues off into their digestive tract.
Year-round diligence is necessary to ef
fectively minimize the number of slugs in
your yard. A balanced control program in
cludes not only eliminating the slugs them
selves, but also their food and hiding places.
DeAngelis offers some "least toxic" ways
to reduce the slug populations:
Stockman's Roundup OSU hires new agent
by Bob Pawelek
OSU Extension Agent
Livestock and Range
After a nationwide search to fill the vacant
Extension position, we needed only to look
in our own backyard.
Bodie Shaw, son of Mavis and Nat Shaw,
will join OSU Extension of Warm Springs in
early June. Bodie's rare combination of ex
perience and education, coupled with his
knowledge of the Warm Springs Reservation
will allow him to make an rapid and positive
impact for OSU Extension's mission here.
Bodie recently completed a Masters of
Science in Forest Resources at OSU, with
emphasis in Natural Resource Education and
As an Extension Agent, Bodie's responsi
bilities will be to provide delivery of natural
resource management education, with em
phasis in rangeland resources. Crop produc
tion, home horticulture, grazing group lead
ership, cultural plant protection, noxious
weed control and 4-H are also assignments
for the position.
Currently, Bodie is committed to teaching
a course at OSU, "Ecosystem Science of
Northwest Indians." According to Associate
learned to simply turn it on or plug it in. They
may try to cover up their fears by complain
ing. For many, the next step is numbing these
fears with drugs and alcohol.
Today 's youth must cope with issues adults
didn't have to face as children or teenagers.
4-H helps young people feel good about
themselves, feel comfortable asking ques
tions, explore individual interests, belong to
a group, learn a skill in a "fun" environment,
and have positive adult role models.
4-H helps young people develop skills
needed to make positive decisions in today's
Child's garden should
By Carol Savonen
Oregon State University News and
Remember your childhood days when a
backyard became a ranch complete with
horses and outlaws? Or an old tree became
an airplane? Try planting a garden with your
"Environmental attitudes are formed at
the pre-school age," said Ray McNeilan,
home horticulturist with the Oregon State
University Extension Service. "Kids need to
understand how important plants and the
environment are to themselves and everyone
else. And they will carry these attitudes and
this knowledge into their adult lives. Through
gardening, learning about the environment
can be lots of fun.
"When you plan a child's garden, plan for
the imagination," suggested McNeilan. "An
adult may have a vegetable or herb garden,
- Trap slugs under boards. Place scrap
board on the soil under plants and between
garden rows. Slugs seeking shelter under the
boards can be collected each morning in a
bucket containing soapy water.
- Drown slugs in (cheap) beer. Slugs love
yeasty odors. Take a coffee can or plastic
yogurt container with a plastic snap-on lid.
Cut a hole in it about a half to a third of the
way up. Bury the can to the level of the hole.
Cover to reduce evaporation and to keep out
pets. Check and remove slugs daily and refill
- Use copper strips to blockade your garden
patch. Copper barriers show promise as ef
fective slug barriers. These materials are
sold at lawn and garden stores. Take care not
to trap slugs inside your garden plot.
- Take advantage of slugs' natural enemies
- raccoons, opossums, snakes, mallard ducks,
bantam chickens and some ground feeding
wild birds feed on slugs.
- Eliminate yard debris. Mulches usually
provide natural places for slugs to hide. Re
move mowed or cut weeds, grass and spent
perennials to help reduce slug refuges.
- Pick slugs off plants after dark when
slugs are active. Dedicated slug slayers stalk
their quarry by night with a head lamp or
flashlight. Pick the slimy critters up ( with
tweezers if you prefer) and drop them into a
jar of water with a little detergent or ammo
nia. Do not put salt on slugs, as adding salt to
Dean Mike Burke, the class has received
extremely high ratings from the student
evaluation process, and that Bodie's contri
butions are largely responsible for the success
of the class.
Bodie himself feels there is an extreme
need for quality resource managers and
educators, and that this is extremely impor
tant in terms of Native American resource
use, where the environment is an integral
part not only of culture, but of life as well.
Reservation Agents to meet
The 4th Annual Extension Indian Reser
vation Agents Professional Development
Conference will be held here at Warm Springs
Set for November 3-6, the conference
will bring together about 30 Extension Agents
from reservations across the country. AH
Warm Springs Tribal Members are invited
and welcome to attend the conference, which
will provide training for agents to improve
their Extension program delivery.
Over the years, Extension has broadened
in program scope and content to include
programming on reservations where previ
ously there had not been. Warm Springs has
been fortunate for decades to have had an
Wood Chewing Horses
When horses are kept stabled, one of the
results is boredom. Chewing wood quickly
becomes a symptom, especially in the win
ter. University of Illinois researchers studied
the behaviorof nine yearling geldings housed
in individual stalls. They were exercised
either in the morning, afternoon, or not at all.
They were fed a complete ration in the
morning with long-stemmed hay in the
evening. Two untreated spruce boards were
placed in each stall and weighed at the end of
each two week treatment period.
When not exercised, yearlings chewed
137 grams from the boards in a two week
by Sue Ryan
It's time to sign-up for the Tri-County 4
H camp at Crystal Springs. That's right, the
camp registration forms have arrived in the
Warm Springs office. The Warm Springs 4
H program also has J.O.M. monies available
to fund 25 scholarships to this camp for
Warm Springs youth.
The Crystal Springs Tri-County camp is
for youth presently in 4th, 5th & 6th grades
and will be held this year from June 17lh
21st. The camp takes 1 00 campers, first come
first served. So its a good idea to sign up
early. The cost is $80, with $40 camperships
available from the Warm Springs office.
but a child might think of it as Alice in
Wonderland's garden or Peter Rabbit's gar
den. Think about the stories your child has
heard or read to get ideas for their garden. A
bean pole tepee could be a Jack in the
Beanstalk garden or Cinderella's garden
could have pumpkins and lady slippers. Or
an A-B-C garden might be fun- if large
enough, everything from asters to zinnias
could be planted."
A sense of personal ownership in the
garden is important to a child." Adults may
want everything in neat rows, but kids don't
care and the things don't have to be that
way," said McNeilan. "What is important is
that the garden belongs to the child, and the
child should be involved in the planning of
Children should be encouraged to go into
their garden and to visit it often. There should
be no "NO" signs or negative attitudes.
the soil makes it unsuitable for gardening.
Not the least toxic, but the safest and most
reliable method of slug control is placing
poison slug bait around the garden, said
DeAngelis. Metaldehyde is the most common
active ingredient. Metaldehyde causes slugs
to slime heavily, revealing their presence.
Cereal-based metaldehyde baits tend to be
more attractive to slugs.
"Be aware that poisoned slugs can recover
from metaldehyde ingestion if they have
access to sufficient water," DeAngelis said.
"Baits containing metaldehyde and carbaryl
are considerably more effective, but are less
common." A third type of poison bait, con
taining methiocarb (Mesurol) is effective
even under moist conditions. Follow label
directions carefully when applying baits.
"Do not apply to crops to be eaten or those
to be grazed by animals," cautioned
DeAngelis. "Keep pets away. If pets have
access to baits, substitute flaked baits or
liquid for larger cereal chunk baits. Evening
is the best time for application- just after a
rain shower is best. Or apply bait on warm
evenings after heavy watering. Late summer
and early fall is a good time to bait because
many slugs are about to begin egg laying".
A free fact sheet on slugs is available from
the OSU Extension Service. Request
"Slugs"(FS 277) from: Publications Orders,
Extension and Experiment Station Commu
nications, OSU, 422 Administrative Services,
period in each stall. Those exercised in the
morning chewed 95 grams, while those ex
ercised in the afternoon chewed 63 grams.
By using videotape, it was noted that most
wood chewing occurred at night, and that
horses not exercised chewed the most.
It's obvious what these researchers' con
clusion was - boredom is a significant factor
in wood chewing. Other researchers at
Colorado State University observed that
horses chewed more wood when it was cold
It has also been suggested that horses
chew wood due to a lack of chewable fiber in
their diet. Wood chewing can be decreased
by feeding a complete ration and long hay.
Once a horse has developed a bad habit,
such as wood chewing, it is difficult to get
them to stop. It is advisable to not keep
horses stabled during the winter, if possible.
If they must be stabled, plenty of exercise,
especially in the after-noon is helpful.
Feeding some long stem hay helps. So
does feeding several times a day. Feed ad
equate hay at the last feeding so horses have
hay most of the night. It will help their
digestion and they will sleep better.
As a last resort, a dose of dried red pepper
on the posts should cure a chronic chewer.
Brucellosis Found In California Herd
There are two cattle herds in California
known to be infected with field strain
brucellosis, which automatically triggers a
Federal Administration Filing downgrade
from "Class Free" to "Class A" status.
The downgrade took place in September.
For Oregon, this means that eligible cattle
originating in California shall be tested
negative to brucellosis within 30 days prior
to entry into Oregon. Therefore, all eligible
cattle entering the state from California must
Pasture permit cattle are not affected by
this change and can return to their home
ranch without testing.
Crystal Springs camp's theme this year is
"Beam Me Up Scotty to 4-H Camp". There
will be a chance to make new friends, attend
campfires, scavenger hunts, crafts, games,
singing, skits, fun, classes and much, much
more. The registration deadline is May 31.
The "Week of the Young Child" is April
2 1-27. One event will be the Penny Carnival,
set for the evening of April 24th at the
Community Center. Arlene and I want to
invite all of you to stop by the 4-H fishpond
at the Penny Carnival.
Clubs are busy, busy, busy. Both the 4-H
Coed Basketball team and 4-H Timberwolves
& Timbercubs are playing hard in tourna
forApril 16, 17
by Tom Gentle
Oregon State University will host its 20th
annual gerontology conference April 16-17
at the LaSells Stewart Center in Corvallis.
The conference is intended for professionals
in the held, including doctors, nurses, social
workers, nursing home administrators, fos
ter care providers, home economists and
others who work with the elderly or have an
interest in the scientific study of aging.
When you look back 20 years, it s
amazing how much we have learned about
the aging process and how the field of geron
tology has changed," said Jan Hare, OSU
Extension family and adult development
specialist. Presentations at the conference
will explore those changes, discuss the cur
rent situation in the field of gerontology and
Prepare for shock of color....
Now's the time to
by Carol Savonen
Do you suffer from post-spring bulb bloom
letdown? Planting summer blooming flower
seed into spring bulb beds can keep beds
colorful throughout the entire growing sea
son. Seeds for hardy summer flowers can be
sown directly out in the garden after the
danger of frost is past and the soil is workable,
usually about mid-April in most regions of
the state, said Gail Gredler, home horticul
turist with the Oregon State University Ex
Or seeds can be started indoors, following
packet directions. Columbine, dianthus,
larkspur, lupines and poppies all hardy
summer bloomers are good candidates for
direct seeding in springs. Perennial varieties
of larkspur and columbine may not bloom
until the second year if seeded outdoors.
Alyssum, baby's breath, butterfly flowers
(Schizanthus), cosmos, forget-me-nots,
morning glories, nicotiana, salvia, snapdrag
ons and verbena and wall flowers are a little
less hearty and benefit from protection from
a cold frame or cloche or covering on cold
nights if planted early. It is best to direct seed
these outdoors mid-May to mid-June or start
indoors early, said Gredler.
Tender summer annuals such as asters,
bachelor buttons, clarkias, marigolds, stock,
and zinnias are best started indoors then
planted outside in mid to late spring. Or seed
outdoors after May 15. Others, like sun
flowers, nasturtiums and poppies, don't
transplant well and should be directly seeded
Use a soil mix that is well-drained,
moisture retaining and has small quantities
of nutrients. Prepared germination mixtures
are offered at garden centers or make your
own by mixing equal parts of garden soil,
peat moss and coarse sand or perlite. To kill
proposition for reservation ranchers
By Bob Pawelek
Many cow-calf operations have existed at
Warm Springs for decades, having inherited
over several successive generations. During
the past ten to twenty years, land to hold
cattle over for the winter (home bases) have
become major investments primarily because
of the expanding population and limited fi
nancial resources. Thus, often the price of a
home base exceeds its ability to be profitable
under many phases of agricultural production,
including the production of beef cattle.
Cost of a commercial cow-calf operation
can be evaluated on a per-cow basis. This
would include the costs of the cow, build
ings, equipment and other expenses. It is not
uncommon to have investment costs of $ 1000
to $2000 on a per-cow basis. With an interest
cost of 1 0, this amounts to an annual interest
cost of $ 100 to $200. Thus with interest cost
and a $300 annual cow cost, the annual
production cost would be approximately $400
to $500 per cow. Even when calf prices are
high, they will not cover all of these costs.
For example, if 450-lb calves sold for $ I per
pound, a $1000 investment cost per cow
would require $400 to break even ($300
annual co w cost plus $ 1 00 interest.) Producers
cannot plan on high calf prices to continue
for long periods of time.
Nearly half of the beef producers in the
ments, Search and Rescue and Public Safety
cadets continue their trainings while the
Rainbow Dancers are filling their calendar
with dance performance dates. The Warm
Springs Livestock Crew are touring member's
swine pens at each other's homes in March
and April. I'd like to remind all current 4
H'ers and if you plan to sign up for 4-H-plcase
turn in an official 4-H registration to
the Warm Springs Extension office. It's
important that you be counted as a 4-H
Finally, we would like to extend get well
wishes to 4-H member Jesse Wolfe-Esquiro
who was involved in a recent car accident.
consider what the future may bring, Hare
The keynote speaker is Clara Pratt, holder
of the OSU Barbara Emily Knudson Chair in
Family Policy. The title of her address will
be: "Recalling the Past, Envisioning the
Future." Among the 29 workshops to be
presented are "The New View of the Aging
Mind," "Looking Back: The Value of
Reminiscence," and "The Politics and Eco
nomics of Aging."
Presenters at the workshop include fac
ulty from OSU, Portland State University,
the University of Oregon, Oregon Health
Sciences University, Willamette University,
and the University of Southern California, as
well as professionals working in the field.
Registration for the conference is $90.
Continuing education credits are available
for an additional fee. Registration forms and
information about the conference are avail
able from county offices of the OSU Exten
sion Service or from Pat Mohr, conference
coordinator, LaSells Stewart Center,
Corvallis, Or 97331-3101 (telephone 541-737-2402).
The conference is sponsored by the OSU
Extension Service, the OSU Program on
Gerontology and OSU Conference Services.
pathogens before making your mix, pasteur
ize soil by heating it in the oven in a shallow
pan at 1 80 degrees for 30 minutes.
Most seed packets carry instructions on
planting depth and spacing. A gardener's
rule of thumb is to plant seed to a depth 2-3
times the diameter of the seed. To make
planting tiny seeds easier; such as those of
nicotiana, petunia or begonia, try mixing the
seeds with sand before planting. Plant larger
seeds such as nasturtium in individual holes.
Seeds and young seedlings need plenty of
water. Sprinkle or mist carefully often enough
to keep soil moist, but not soggy. When the
first true leaves appear (the leaves that appear
after the seed leaves), thin plants to the dis
tance recommended for that variety. In some
cases, some thinned seedlings may be care
fully lifted and transplanted elsewhere.
Dr. John Buckhouse
OSU Dept. of Rangeland
"Good Neighbors in
Thursday, April 18 12 Noon
Fire Management Training
Room Bid. T-51
Bring your own lunch
could be iffy
United States are 55 years of age or older.
The primary reason for aging ranchers is that
younger people do not have the capital or
cannot determine how most beef operations
could be profitable even if the capital was
There are certain times when cattle op
erations can be purchased on an economi
cally sound basis. These purchases may be
made by new producers or by established
producers seeking to add to an existing op
eration. An assessment of economical cow-calf
operations show that a large number of
ranchers across the country do not depend
primarily or even substantially on beef cattle
for their incomes. They have other, more
important sources of agricultural income or
they have off-farm jobs. They are not pro
ducing cattle for significant income purposes
but as a means of maintaining a lifestyle
outside of the big city or of using marginal
crop land. These ranchers are not as likely to
make production and marketing decisions
based on the same economic considerations
directly affecting other beef cattle producers.
Information is available at OSU Extension
to help the prospective rancher become a
profitable one. You are welcome to drop by
to visit anytime.