Spilyay Tymoo Warm Springs, Oregon April 11, 1996 7 Arlene Boileau Bob Pawelek 4-H & Youth Livestock Clint Jacks Staff Chair, Madras Norma Simpson Home Economics Sue Ryan 4-H Assistant (503) 553-3238 The Oregon Slate University Extension Service staff Is devoted to extending research-based information from OSU to the people of Warm Springs i in agriculture, home economics, 4-H youtn, torestry, community development, energy ana extension sea gram program wnn uou, unnea aiares ,,,'.-m. .;, Department of Agriculture, Jefferson County and the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs cooperating. The Exenslon Service offers Its programs j'.,-" and materials equally to all people. ;' 4-H helps build valuable life skills A U CrrtC me sn tUtt nrMlftK anrl llf J1 1 - M ! n ft LavNaltAiiImnlii It - rr nlnn if !m TIiaij 4-H focuses on the growth and well-being of the whole child. What on the surface might appear to be a basic "hands-on" project is actually far more involved. 4-H activities teach young people to iden tify needs, set goals and plan how to ac complish them. They learn through their experiences and by seeing the results of their efforts. They become effective group mem bers. These are all "life skills" we need to live a healthy, fulfilling and balanced life. The philosophy and goals of the Warm Springs 4-H program focus on enhancing the lives of all youths. Today's young people need immediate gratification and entertainment. They have Put an end to slimy, creepy, pesky by Carol Savonen The Northwest is famous for its slugs. They are the critters we love to hate. We watch them with morbid fascination as they ooze along the forest floor. But if we find them in our gardens, most of us have no mercy. Before giving out strategies for de claring all-out war on garden slugs, Jack DeAngelis, entomologist with the Oregon State University Extension Service first wants to let us know that slugs are not all bad. "Most of the time slugs do beneficial things," said DeAngelis. "They cycle or ganic matter, contributing to our rich soils. They are an important food source for other wildlife. But when they get into our gardens and landscape plantings, they can be quite damaging." Home gardens are Edens for slugs. Full of food, regularly watered with plenty of cover, the home landscape often provides the per fect place for slugs to feed, grow, and re produce. Telltale slime trails and scraped or rasped vegetation are sure signs of slug residence in your yard or garden. Slugs glide over a slime trail they produce. Their mouths hold a horn-like rasping organ, used to scrape plant tissues off into their digestive tract. Year-round diligence is necessary to ef fectively minimize the number of slugs in your yard. A balanced control program in cludes not only eliminating the slugs them selves, but also their food and hiding places. DeAngelis offers some "least toxic" ways to reduce the slug populations: Stockman's Roundup OSU hires new agent by Bob Pawelek OSU Extension Agent Livestock and Range After a nationwide search to fill the vacant Extension position, we needed only to look in our own backyard. Bodie Shaw, son of Mavis and Nat Shaw, will join OSU Extension of Warm Springs in early June. Bodie's rare combination of ex perience and education, coupled with his knowledge of the Warm Springs Reservation will allow him to make an rapid and positive impact for OSU Extension's mission here. Bodie recently completed a Masters of Science in Forest Resources at OSU, with emphasis in Natural Resource Education and Extension. As an Extension Agent, Bodie's responsi bilities will be to provide delivery of natural resource management education, with em phasis in rangeland resources. Crop produc tion, home horticulture, grazing group lead ership, cultural plant protection, noxious weed control and 4-H are also assignments for the position. Currently, Bodie is committed to teaching a course at OSU, "Ecosystem Science of Northwest Indians." According to Associate learned to simply turn it on or plug it in. They may try to cover up their fears by complain ing. For many, the next step is numbing these fears with drugs and alcohol. Today 's youth must cope with issues adults didn't have to face as children or teenagers. 4-H helps young people feel good about themselves, feel comfortable asking ques tions, explore individual interests, belong to a group, learn a skill in a "fun" environment, and have positive adult role models. 4-H helps young people develop skills needed to make positive decisions in today's complex world. Child's garden should By Carol Savonen Oregon State University News and Communication Services Remember your childhood days when a backyard became a ranch complete with horses and outlaws? Or an old tree became an airplane? Try planting a garden with your child. "Environmental attitudes are formed at the pre-school age," said Ray McNeilan, home horticulturist with the Oregon State University Extension Service. "Kids need to understand how important plants and the environment are to themselves and everyone else. And they will carry these attitudes and this knowledge into their adult lives. Through gardening, learning about the environment can be lots of fun. "When you plan a child's garden, plan for the imagination," suggested McNeilan. "An adult may have a vegetable or herb garden, - Trap slugs under boards. Place scrap board on the soil under plants and between garden rows. Slugs seeking shelter under the boards can be collected each morning in a bucket containing soapy water. - Drown slugs in (cheap) beer. Slugs love yeasty odors. Take a coffee can or plastic yogurt container with a plastic snap-on lid. Cut a hole in it about a half to a third of the way up. Bury the can to the level of the hole. Cover to reduce evaporation and to keep out pets. Check and remove slugs daily and refill with solution. - Use copper strips to blockade your garden patch. Copper barriers show promise as ef fective slug barriers. These materials are sold at lawn and garden stores. Take care not to trap slugs inside your garden plot. - Take advantage of slugs' natural enemies - raccoons, opossums, snakes, mallard ducks, bantam chickens and some ground feeding wild birds feed on slugs. - Eliminate yard debris. Mulches usually provide natural places for slugs to hide. Re move mowed or cut weeds, grass and spent perennials to help reduce slug refuges. - Pick slugs off plants after dark when slugs are active. Dedicated slug slayers stalk their quarry by night with a head lamp or flashlight. Pick the slimy critters up ( with tweezers if you prefer) and drop them into a jar of water with a little detergent or ammo nia. Do not put salt on slugs, as adding salt to Dean Mike Burke, the class has received extremely high ratings from the student evaluation process, and that Bodie's contri butions are largely responsible for the success of the class. Bodie himself feels there is an extreme need for quality resource managers and educators, and that this is extremely impor tant in terms of Native American resource use, where the environment is an integral part not only of culture, but of life as well. Reservation Agents to meet The 4th Annual Extension Indian Reser vation Agents Professional Development Conference will be held here at Warm Springs this year. Set for November 3-6, the conference will bring together about 30 Extension Agents from reservations across the country. AH Warm Springs Tribal Members are invited and welcome to attend the conference, which will provide training for agents to improve their Extension program delivery. Over the years, Extension has broadened in program scope and content to include programming on reservations where previ ously there had not been. Warm Springs has been fortunate for decades to have had an Extension program. Wood Chewing Horses When horses are kept stabled, one of the results is boredom. Chewing wood quickly becomes a symptom, especially in the win ter. University of Illinois researchers studied the behaviorof nine yearling geldings housed in individual stalls. They were exercised either in the morning, afternoon, or not at all. They were fed a complete ration in the morning with long-stemmed hay in the evening. Two untreated spruce boards were placed in each stall and weighed at the end of each two week treatment period. When not exercised, yearlings chewed 137 grams from the boards in a two week clover Speaks- by Sue Ryan It's time to sign-up for the Tri-County 4 H camp at Crystal Springs. That's right, the camp registration forms have arrived in the Warm Springs office. The Warm Springs 4 H program also has J.O.M. monies available to fund 25 scholarships to this camp for Warm Springs youth. The Crystal Springs Tri-County camp is for youth presently in 4th, 5th & 6th grades and will be held this year from June 17lh 21st. The camp takes 1 00 campers, first come first served. So its a good idea to sign up early. The cost is $80, with $40 camperships available from the Warm Springs office. spark imagination but a child might think of it as Alice in Wonderland's garden or Peter Rabbit's gar den. Think about the stories your child has heard or read to get ideas for their garden. A bean pole tepee could be a Jack in the Beanstalk garden or Cinderella's garden could have pumpkins and lady slippers. Or an A-B-C garden might be fun- if large enough, everything from asters to zinnias could be planted." A sense of personal ownership in the garden is important to a child." Adults may want everything in neat rows, but kids don't care and the things don't have to be that way," said McNeilan. "What is important is that the garden belongs to the child, and the child should be involved in the planning of it." Children should be encouraged to go into their garden and to visit it often. There should be no "NO" signs or negative attitudes. slugs- the soil makes it unsuitable for gardening. Not the least toxic, but the safest and most reliable method of slug control is placing poison slug bait around the garden, said DeAngelis. Metaldehyde is the most common active ingredient. Metaldehyde causes slugs to slime heavily, revealing their presence. Cereal-based metaldehyde baits tend to be more attractive to slugs. "Be aware that poisoned slugs can recover from metaldehyde ingestion if they have access to sufficient water," DeAngelis said. "Baits containing metaldehyde and carbaryl are considerably more effective, but are less common." A third type of poison bait, con taining methiocarb (Mesurol) is effective even under moist conditions. Follow label directions carefully when applying baits. "Do not apply to crops to be eaten or those to be grazed by animals," cautioned DeAngelis. "Keep pets away. If pets have access to baits, substitute flaked baits or liquid for larger cereal chunk baits. Evening is the best time for application- just after a rain shower is best. Or apply bait on warm evenings after heavy watering. Late summer and early fall is a good time to bait because many slugs are about to begin egg laying". A free fact sheet on slugs is available from the OSU Extension Service. Request "Slugs"(FS 277) from: Publications Orders, Extension and Experiment Station Commu nications, OSU, 422 Administrative Services, period in each stall. Those exercised in the morning chewed 95 grams, while those ex ercised in the afternoon chewed 63 grams. By using videotape, it was noted that most wood chewing occurred at night, and that horses not exercised chewed the most. It's obvious what these researchers' con clusion was - boredom is a significant factor in wood chewing. Other researchers at Colorado State University observed that horses chewed more wood when it was cold and wet. It has also been suggested that horses chew wood due to a lack of chewable fiber in their diet. Wood chewing can be decreased by feeding a complete ration and long hay. Once a horse has developed a bad habit, such as wood chewing, it is difficult to get them to stop. It is advisable to not keep horses stabled during the winter, if possible. If they must be stabled, plenty of exercise, especially in the after-noon is helpful. Feeding some long stem hay helps. So does feeding several times a day. Feed ad equate hay at the last feeding so horses have hay most of the night. It will help their digestion and they will sleep better. As a last resort, a dose of dried red pepper on the posts should cure a chronic chewer. Brucellosis Found In California Herd There are two cattle herds in California known to be infected with field strain brucellosis, which automatically triggers a Federal Administration Filing downgrade from "Class Free" to "Class A" status. The downgrade took place in September. For Oregon, this means that eligible cattle originating in California shall be tested negative to brucellosis within 30 days prior to entry into Oregon. Therefore, all eligible cattle entering the state from California must be tested. Pasture permit cattle are not affected by this change and can return to their home ranch without testing. Crystal Springs camp's theme this year is "Beam Me Up Scotty to 4-H Camp". There will be a chance to make new friends, attend campfires, scavenger hunts, crafts, games, singing, skits, fun, classes and much, much more. The registration deadline is May 31. The "Week of the Young Child" is April 2 1-27. One event will be the Penny Carnival, set for the evening of April 24th at the Community Center. Arlene and I want to invite all of you to stop by the 4-H fishpond at the Penny Carnival. Clubs are busy, busy, busy. Both the 4-H Coed Basketball team and 4-H Timberwolves & Timbercubs are playing hard in tourna Gerontology conference set forApril 16, 17 in Corvallis by Tom Gentle Oregon State University will host its 20th annual gerontology conference April 16-17 at the LaSells Stewart Center in Corvallis. The conference is intended for professionals in the held, including doctors, nurses, social workers, nursing home administrators, fos ter care providers, home economists and others who work with the elderly or have an interest in the scientific study of aging. When you look back 20 years, it s amazing how much we have learned about the aging process and how the field of geron tology has changed," said Jan Hare, OSU Extension family and adult development specialist. Presentations at the conference will explore those changes, discuss the cur rent situation in the field of gerontology and Prepare for shock of color.... Now's the time to by Carol Savonen Do you suffer from post-spring bulb bloom letdown? Planting summer blooming flower seed into spring bulb beds can keep beds colorful throughout the entire growing sea son. Seeds for hardy summer flowers can be sown directly out in the garden after the danger of frost is past and the soil is workable, usually about mid-April in most regions of the state, said Gail Gredler, home horticul turist with the Oregon State University Ex tension Service. Or seeds can be started indoors, following packet directions. Columbine, dianthus, larkspur, lupines and poppies all hardy summer bloomers are good candidates for direct seeding in springs. Perennial varieties of larkspur and columbine may not bloom until the second year if seeded outdoors. Alyssum, baby's breath, butterfly flowers (Schizanthus), cosmos, forget-me-nots, morning glories, nicotiana, salvia, snapdrag ons and verbena and wall flowers are a little less hearty and benefit from protection from a cold frame or cloche or covering on cold nights if planted early. It is best to direct seed these outdoors mid-May to mid-June or start indoors early, said Gredler. Tender summer annuals such as asters, bachelor buttons, clarkias, marigolds, stock, and zinnias are best started indoors then planted outside in mid to late spring. Or seed outdoors after May 15. Others, like sun flowers, nasturtiums and poppies, don't transplant well and should be directly seeded outdoors. Use a soil mix that is well-drained, moisture retaining and has small quantities of nutrients. Prepared germination mixtures are offered at garden centers or make your own by mixing equal parts of garden soil, peat moss and coarse sand or perlite. To kill Cow-calf operation proposition for reservation ranchers By Bob Pawelek Many cow-calf operations have existed at Warm Springs for decades, having inherited over several successive generations. During the past ten to twenty years, land to hold cattle over for the winter (home bases) have become major investments primarily because of the expanding population and limited fi nancial resources. Thus, often the price of a home base exceeds its ability to be profitable under many phases of agricultural production, including the production of beef cattle. Cost of a commercial cow-calf operation can be evaluated on a per-cow basis. This would include the costs of the cow, build ings, equipment and other expenses. It is not uncommon to have investment costs of $ 1000 to $2000 on a per-cow basis. With an interest cost of 1 0, this amounts to an annual interest cost of $ 100 to $200. Thus with interest cost and a $300 annual cow cost, the annual production cost would be approximately $400 to $500 per cow. Even when calf prices are high, they will not cover all of these costs. For example, if 450-lb calves sold for $ I per pound, a $1000 investment cost per cow would require $400 to break even ($300 annual co w cost plus $ 1 00 interest.) Producers cannot plan on high calf prices to continue for long periods of time. Nearly half of the beef producers in the ments, Search and Rescue and Public Safety cadets continue their trainings while the Rainbow Dancers are filling their calendar with dance performance dates. The Warm Springs Livestock Crew are touring member's swine pens at each other's homes in March and April. I'd like to remind all current 4 H'ers and if you plan to sign up for 4-H-plcase turn in an official 4-H registration to the Warm Springs Extension office. It's important that you be counted as a 4-H member ! Finally, we would like to extend get well wishes to 4-H member Jesse Wolfe-Esquiro who was involved in a recent car accident. consider what the future may bring, Hare added. The keynote speaker is Clara Pratt, holder of the OSU Barbara Emily Knudson Chair in Family Policy. The title of her address will be: "Recalling the Past, Envisioning the Future." Among the 29 workshops to be presented are "The New View of the Aging Mind," "Looking Back: The Value of Reminiscence," and "The Politics and Eco nomics of Aging." Presenters at the workshop include fac ulty from OSU, Portland State University, the University of Oregon, Oregon Health Sciences University, Willamette University, and the University of Southern California, as well as professionals working in the field. Registration for the conference is $90. Continuing education credits are available for an additional fee. Registration forms and information about the conference are avail able from county offices of the OSU Exten sion Service or from Pat Mohr, conference coordinator, LaSells Stewart Center, Corvallis, Or 97331-3101 (telephone 541-737-2402). The conference is sponsored by the OSU Extension Service, the OSU Program on Gerontology and OSU Conference Services. think summer pathogens before making your mix, pasteur ize soil by heating it in the oven in a shallow pan at 1 80 degrees for 30 minutes. Most seed packets carry instructions on planting depth and spacing. A gardener's rule of thumb is to plant seed to a depth 2-3 times the diameter of the seed. To make planting tiny seeds easier; such as those of nicotiana, petunia or begonia, try mixing the seeds with sand before planting. Plant larger seeds such as nasturtium in individual holes. Seeds and young seedlings need plenty of water. Sprinkle or mist carefully often enough to keep soil moist, but not soggy. When the first true leaves appear (the leaves that appear after the seed leaves), thin plants to the dis tance recommended for that variety. In some cases, some thinned seedlings may be care fully lifted and transplanted elsewhere. OSU EXTENSION PRESENTS: Dr. John Buckhouse OSU Dept. of Rangeland Resources "Good Neighbors in Ecosystem Management" Thursday, April 18 12 Noon Fire Management Training Room Bid. T-51 Bring your own lunch could be iffy United States are 55 years of age or older. The primary reason for aging ranchers is that younger people do not have the capital or cannot determine how most beef operations could be profitable even if the capital was available. There are certain times when cattle op erations can be purchased on an economi cally sound basis. These purchases may be made by new producers or by established producers seeking to add to an existing op eration. An assessment of economical cow-calf operations show that a large number of ranchers across the country do not depend primarily or even substantially on beef cattle for their incomes. They have other, more important sources of agricultural income or they have off-farm jobs. They are not pro ducing cattle for significant income purposes but as a means of maintaining a lifestyle outside of the big city or of using marginal crop land. These ranchers are not as likely to make production and marketing decisions based on the same economic considerations directly affecting other beef cattle producers. Information is available at OSU Extension to help the prospective rancher become a profitable one. You are welcome to drop by to visit anytime.