Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972 | View Entire Issue (May 12, 1907)
THE OREGON SUNDAY JOURNAL, ' rORTLAM?, SUNDAY MORNING, - MAY i2, i9$7
. ; ; . u- .
5 ' . '
make elf-fertilization possibleand then It wee no with. It objectionable fibrous husk'a'nd hairy fnnr her-''
difficult matter to apply to the plants the propagating , pel; tba Oar ton oat, huskless, hairless, proline, then the
parta of other plants. . , ' ; ' j ' '-, c English Wild oat to Impart hardiness, and Anally secured
i It wasn't enough to make photographa-enlarged 1000 J tea triumphant Garton oat Itself with ita Inherited hardl-times-ehowing
the course of embryonlo development , of ness.' loose cuticle, hairless kernel and prollflo charaoter. '
a, . aeif -fertilised - plant; Mr, Garton went iurther and
showed by tha camera that wind and Insects cannot and
never do effect re-fertlllratlon or destroy tha effects of
the first fertilisation after It has taken place. ..' . .
Now, another instanca m which this man has over
turned tha accepted authority of tha whole world, . ' Ha
has proved that many weeds. Instead of being pests.
'NJZnglandiheycall him the "Rural Edi-
son because his wizard touch has
called into being new forms of plant
life of es practical benefit in their way as .
" electricity in America he will suggest to the '
average person' another wizard whose trt-i
:-jumphs have been in the domain of the plant
'om Luther Burbank.: But: he's just
plain John - Garton, , merchant, farmer and ;
amateur scientist, and , he has taken up . the ,
task of revolutionizing Great Britain's plant
:, life as a side diversion..
That did legend about applying- the
"' multiplication table toa blade, of grass in '
, a small way is too archaic to fit this man, for
he Mas made six rows-of grain grow on a
head of barley where buj two grew before!
1 ' . - Anything lset Well, he has created
few new plants made i blades spring - vp
- which had never existed before.
He has increased the produce of fields
over $o per cent. He asserts thai plants are I v
not fertilized by the wind or insects, but fer- .v.
'tilize themselves. 'J He has taken a good-for
-- nothing miser of a whsat plant from ' Asia ,
i set him to work in 'England, ' and made '
flim a right useful citizen; "
He has shriventhe barley of its beard;
1 has produced 'an oatmeal which ' gives yojt t
4 meal of. oats for breakfast, not meal of cais I
and oat husks. '-
These are Just. a. few samples of what '
he has done. . , - ' J
':-;m, : . V ,,
ITHOUT in the least intending to hurt any
: one's feelings, or to. "run in with' tha learned
' professors, this English farmer. John Oat-ton. '
has found 'It expedient necessary. Indeedto A
overturn to a considerable extent tha existing science of . ' '
. Impossible t . No. , See what the "Rural Edison" baa
dona. ; . ; " V'.V': '. "' v'-V :"rr.; ,
' He started out with the fact that certain weefla Sr4
ao well fitted by Datura to maintain life that they thwart
tha moat Ingenloua devices of men tha elements an4
animals In getting rid of, them.
Very well Let them Impart to soma of the useful j fcreir bafora..
; - Take barley.,' ElrsU Mr, Garton atarUd wltn tha ,
original type on the head of which ara two rowa of
grain. Up between thenv ona eoticea two rowa of
chaffy scales. What would -this suggest to tha ordinary
observer T :, Nothing. -, To Garton It ' brought thla bill-
Uaot thought! ",.' ' - 1 . V
, , "Tha bajley really wants to have six rows of grain
Instead of two, and these scalea ara florets which It baa,
been unable to fertilise. , ,
PoetloT ; Tm, but Garton proved It practical as wall '
Well,' he baa takea young barley plant at tha proper
period and baa fertilised thosa parta for than, by ln
Jectlng pollen from oppoalta sources, and baa actually
caused them to- produce six grains of barley where twa '
Tood planU thla attribute. Then tha food planta will f ;r Of oourae, thla will not ba of general benefit unta tha
crowd the noxious weeda out of tha soil or oonvert them . seed from those new plants shall be ' oultlvated yaaf '
to tna ranaa oi tna rooa pianos, xma waa flona by after year and a oonslderabla stock secured.
eroa-rartUlsatii)n. - J : V
, That Is, cross the food oat with a wild oat, er weed,
, and you have tha original food value combined with, tha
..hardihood of the wild oat To ba sura, tha raln may.
ba smaller, but by. selection. , of seed it may toon be
'-, brought to satisfactory alsa.. y .' - .
'".By bringing Into being neW Wheat, one of whose
parents la tha wild whee) of Southern Asia, larking com-
v. uu thud, iuu tu. viwr we onunarr cngiisn wnaax, ; xnree tnousana of mora farmers every year Tlslt
Mr. Garton has given Uia farmer a wheat that la hardy, ' Acton Grange to sea tha results of Carton's twenty-live
ivm i ion nrangm ana aoes not snea years of labor, and ara astounded and helped, t
it seed until tha opportune time. , , v , , v : rrom flgufee gleaned from those farmeri wto hara
r Bd ,0 C0me4 but. t In thosa hof'eountriea . been Wing his seeds Is developed set avereg Increased
, ' Tbara'a a hewhlakarad harlcv nn, in V.nwmnA rtil.h
i la of ery little food value. Tbere'e another kind tha
Nepaul barley which has no auch beard. ;
, By combining the two, Mr. Oarton has secured tha
- whlakarlaaa barley, which England has hailed as a great
'boon.i ' -;.' -r v:-
' i X other cereal ha baa secured Just as) notable ra-
,: BUIt.'- Y
tu,i,i.h... ; . wess stfitl.VnMi,
!' W" MM : :
V- y,f v vo I ; ' stirs II k .v .: i.. t
.; tus v.. . rr ii -.i r m iv. n ir ji . a .
ty - -n
pi r r i fSn sjjWSjm , Ll ,
yield forslx yaara of over 0 per eent la favor of tha
new breeds of oats, and W par cent. In tha new breeds of
. corn. ' . , -
And Jiara la what Mr. Garton says of the past and
tha future :
Twenty-flv years ago seems five to me, tha work -Is
so. Interesting. It gets my life over, and X enjoy It,
"With ma Ufa -doee not hang. . Twenty-four houra
ara not long enough. . A week la soon over.- If t have
tha pleasure of watching tha results of thirty or forty .
harveata thla la all I sea Ufa la given for. r " s
"It haa takea fourteen years to produce progeny from .
species. I am as full or fuller' of Interest In my work .
. "The work I have dona during the last twelve months
will not ba of any national utility for fifteen or twenty
. years. - After success has been attained on a small
scale the field crops for sala as seed have to be produced.
"But what I did twenty and fifteen years ago Is max-'
Ing Its Impression. . It is tha Start. It la difficult to 1
speak of eventual possibilities. ', -
"It would eeem that there la practically no finality to
tha evolutionary changes and developments wbloh tha
continuation of tha work which I hava begun might '
brlg about in tha food-producing planta of tha world."
. --v X
r www ' sfk TffWfTSa. M. SBk. . W MM
- -- - - - -. nam)
.x - ix - . if. y -
''?fe.',SsaSSS,': ? .
'l ; ," STA 3&r073 5 turfy tt? ,
, Curious Facts' Prom All Over
- the World , 1
SIBERIA, says an English geographer,, contains ono
ninth of all the land on tha tlobo. Great Britain
and all Europe, except Russia, together with Uia
whole of the United States, could be put fnto Siberia.
Ores, In Sweden, has, in the course bt a generatlott,
sold 5,KO.0OO worth of tree, and by means of. Judlcloni
replanting has provided for a similar income every thlrtj
or forty years. In consequence of the . development of
this commercial wealthr there are no taxes. Railway
and tetephonea are free, and so are the achoolhouses.
teaching, and maf.y other things. 4 -
In Persia the man who laugha is considered effemi
nate,, but free license la given to femal merriment.
In Madagascar every ona wears silk, as It is cheapeg
there than . linen, -i '4 Ift!,1.-''?. .-vv;
.Reindeer hair Is much used In Norway tor filling m
Ufebclta. ; Its buoyancy la said to be greater than that ol
the hast ' 'cork, i.A ' iU;": '"' v'-.?-"t. -
Moat persons employed in the Venetian glass Indus
try begin to lose their sight when they are between
and 50 years of age, and in a short time become blind.
Thla blindness is caused by tha excessive heat and glare
from the furnaces, . , - 1
. The river "Jordan. makes the greatest descent m thai
shortest distance or any' stream. During ita course of
ISO miles It haa twenty-seven falls and descends 80O
feet -..-lii nXy ' - ,
When tha moon la full, in soma parts of Africa ob
jects ara distinctly visible at a distance of seven mlleaj
while print can be read with ease by etarUght .
Ostriches have the greatest contempt for Kaffirs and)
Hottentots, and attack them much mora readily thaq
they do white men. , '-".
Every gem known to tha lapidary haa been found 13
the United States. .
TheiGreat Barrier Reef, fronting tha coast of Norta
Australia, is tha largest eoral reef In tha world. It U
over .100J miles long, and' thlfty miles wide.
Many 'of the women of Poland 'are remarkable far
their beauty and gracd of iorm. Aa a rule; jthe PoUsI
girl haa oxquislte Ueta ' la drtss, .and, knowe how ta
But. then, It Isn't his fault If tha books ara
wrong." ' ' '
' :lt la' with reference to tha manner In which grain
r planta reproduce themselves that ha nas seen fit to upset ,
' the old teachings. - ; 1 ' -
How ara plants propagated T Turn to one of tha old - -:
Dtanlea. -. There you hava It, , The plant must be In
. tlon takes place, and there must ba Interference either of
wind or insects to carry the pollen from ona part of the '
bloom to tha other. That'a what it aaya -: -
Now hear this British farmer dispose of that theory -5
Willi UUI. "fWU,. IMWUMiBHi . ..V . 7 1; i . '
1 . For one thing, he declared It Inaccurate because, he
ays, ha hai found that tha fertilizing process does not
take place at the period mentioned at all, but at an
earlier' onal and, -in the seoond place, because tha plants
are not fertilized by one another .
That each bloom fertilises Itself Without the assist
ance of airs or insects Is certainly a radical, a remark
able, statement;' How does Mr. Garton know ltT
Well, in the use of a microscope with a camera at
the end of It he Is as adept as any man In England, and
It waa 'the photographic evidence thus seoured that con-,
vlnoed many leading professors and savants that ha waa
right. ' t-V---"-.--"' '.v-'P-v-i
For he showed by the camera the process of teg-
mentation going on before the planta. had-reached full
bloom, and that this waa done when there was no feos- :
slble manner of transferring pollen from another source.
There Is a difference which la by no meana senti
mental which effects the food production of the world
; as -perhaps nothing atoe..i. ;i;;,i .'Ir:-:
auch as India, Australia and Argentina, wheat produc
tion Is Increasing because of tha experiments of thla J
wonderful man at Acton Grange, England, . Even ta 1
North America In the northwest provinces . of British . '
Columbia tha results of his discoveries ara aiding farm- '
era to get larger and better crops. -y:";""" ::'
Mr. Garton combined a Chinese oat with, a British
cultivated oat and there has appeared a new breed of
oata which produces ten to twenty grains In each of tha
splkelet tn Its ear instead of the two' or three, which'
farmers had found in the old varieties, and these grains
all. appear-without, a..husk.'jl:':);w' fy:v'';''--':--!;'''S
. - nfk.i al..te.AA J &1 1. u 1. . 1..a .LI. .,
now wnea an ciigiiimuna ouys oauneai ne gets uie mew :..
k f rom pure bats, and: does not hava to consume. In addl- v
tlon. the busks around no with the oata' f
American Heroes Favorites "
a N INDICATION of what the Japanese In their own
Z country think f the United States waa given by
Z the result of a, stra vote taken among tha chil
dren of tha Xrlya primary school. In Toklo, not along
ago. 't)r. Tamakawa, formerly prealdent of the Toklo
University, asked the I4t boya to write down tha
names of their favorite hero.
, George Washington and Abraham Lincoln came at
the head of the Hat, with 61 and 5t votea, respectively.
Admiral Togo earn third, with 18 votes, and Nmomlya
Sontoku, 4 famous Japanese philanthropist, came next1
1 Then followed Benjamin Franklin. Florenoe Night
ingale, four Japanese, Admiral Nelson,, six Japanese,
then Bismarck, two Japanese and Napoleon, .. .;
Among tha scattered numbara wara President'
Roosevelt Oallleo.VColumbua, Socrates, Peur the Great
y.. Japan's Fhenomenal Frogre ss
SINCE her war with Russia, Japan'a progress has
- been phenomenal Tha merchant tonnage, since tha
end of tha hostilities, has increased from 160,000 to
. 1.000,000, And what haa marked tha astuteness of the
government Officials haa been their alertness la forming
, a great trust "of and by the people," rather than allow
ing small ones. Tha government has gained control of
Mio cjunpnor. sail ana totjaooo Industries, besides inaugu- bIt(n(( coiora artistloallv "''
rating a movement naUonaJixing the . raUwaya of Xha S Dl"1. li
To purchase private railways, tha government has
floated, a bond Issue of 80,000,000 yen, or 115.000.000. It
SrWnfWfor each IU SZlr" tract of public land, containing 6000 acrs. 1, divided :
. tai f fhe-Toklo Railway Is to ba Increased 130.000.000 for six moder farms, to one Of which the person applying
TCSStf1 ce-i. from tiL X90 " P"lo nt- -' M b U agriculture, and
tonkin iSSTto W!A'twT- Mtg a5STotatn. la" subaeuenUy permitted to rent , a amalV holding fo
largest copper-produolng ountriee af. tha Eaaf the In- ; himself. HoUand also has a forced-labor colony, ta
SH!.!3 . .ln ,u fney, and the nperations are oon- j wnich vagranU are sent to-do farm and other woris,
ducted In a happv-go-luck manner. The home consump- l"5" , , ,! j. , , - ;i ;
tlon of copper la fooa toss a year. - whether they Uk it .or not. n-'CiZ'::-(.
In Corea, Japanese enterprise has' manifested Itself In " y-. ' '-'.."'' 1"" ' ''" c' ;'' .''-',
the application for 175 charters to work coal mtnem. In f : .vANCIENT th&XSto Xlti&S ; I 1
Oiokkaido, a new coalfield waa discovered recently, tha" '' . ' .', . rT v . ... . '
, vein covering an area of 1S97 acre jv : ,. . "Tha'aaerad flraa f India have not' all been exthw
On September 29. 1406. the Bank of Japanl which con- , ,n !! .LwVXh -.hi lWi waa con.,
ducts the government ; banking business, reported cash gulshed The TOost ancient which still exiata was con-.
on hand of I7i.0o0.000. an lncraasa of 121.ooo.ooa over thav twive centuries aao in commemoration of tna
preceding year; The note, tseue was $139,000,000, against ..,nvt mud h the Parsces when they emigrated from
In lSTS, the number of clgarettea smoked per head eg
the population In.Auatria waa twa In 1504.it yas 140.
. There are few able-bodied paupera in Holland X
which tha government bond debt to the bank waa $48,000.
000. The amount at credit of the government's current
account was $228,000,000. an increase In the year of $51,
000,000. -; There waa an increase of $7,000,000 In private .de--poslta
Advances on stocks were $243,000,000, an Increase
. 01 fo.wu.uum 1 no capital or tne Dank is 116,000,000.
Again, ha haa re-crossed the Improved varieties until
he has secured varieties Infinitely superior to any of tha u..and Admiral Mak.haroJtof,JRuala.iJrha hamaalofi tha
originals.1 "., V , ;-'" latter two aaam to show tha Japanese are not actuated
. For instance, he took the ordinary commerclaL,oat, by bitter national feellnga .
"- ' ' - ' ' n - " . -.---j---.-.-.
THE STARTING POINT
Take a etartina noint the fact that corn la the
staple from which the world Is drawing the bulk of Its ''
food. Now, on the face of It It might seem Inconse-
queafsw whether corn is leriuisea rrom an outside
nice,- or oy liseu. cut 11 is ui inmnsub
Knowing- that corn Is susceptible of -"In-breeding."
ane can easily see the nosaibllltlee that lie In cultivating v
a better grade of corn, In keeping the stock up to the '
highest standard. ' . ' ' . 1
- But before going further into his work, who la this j
man Garton, anyway T . .''' "
, - He and his brothers are grain merchants In Che- 4
' shire, England,' and his experimental work has been
carried en as a aide diversion. 'As fast aa ha- learned
: anything of value," he gave It ' gratia to the farmers.
But he found that farmers did not appreciate that '
which they rot for nothing-, and so hit upon a system for ;
spreading hift knowledge which brought Detter results.
He decided to go Into the business of seed soiling. The
object of th firm, as he announced it, was not solely to v
' make money, but to Improve the standard of .corn-
Said Mr. Garton: "The experiments had become a
Frankenstein; they grew to be so- powerful over met that
f I bad to stop them or be stopped by them. I elected to
make money to continue them."
80 hla firm haa become a money maker; and he la
- spending a great portion of hla ahare of the profits on hla
' experlmenta. , - -- -. - : r
... Deciding that If cross-fertillltatlon la to be tarried out
It mu-t be done at an earlier atage than the' time when . .
the splkelets open, he took to preventing Self-fertilisation -,
at the logical time this by removing the parta, which
Malta to ascertain whether they -would, thrive a
this aide the Atlantic. ThU year'a crop of kida
-will ba-Tt-fnUlEeaeration removedlfcrfirlBurciiean
life and influences, bo that the real value L the
, animals may be determined,
The Maltese accredit the milk of their goats
with peculiar curative properties in eases of gas-'
" trio troubles, tuberculosis, diabetes, typhoid fever
And some of the ailments of children. ' ,t
Pnrsla ta India. ' Tha fire U fed 'fiv times very two
houra with: sandalwoods and ther fragrant materials,
eombload with very dry :,fiieL' ; 'y' ' .if- ;-.
- Visitors '.! to Japan : ara . usually R impressed , with the
A " For the nine months ending September, 1908, Japan's ' many curlou' uses to, which Jans ara pnt The umpira
foreign commerce amounted to $306,000,000. Thla was a. de- . wreatline: and fencing imatchea uaea a large fan," tha
crease of $3,600,000 from the corresponding period of 1906. A " wft-" mk iAAtituta a lanauaae that tha
Exports amounted to $143,000,000, an increase or $31,000,000;, ' various moUona of which constitute jangvafe inat m
Imports were $162,000,000. a decreaa of XM.Eoa.noo - MmWiuit indertand and promptly- heed. Men ana
inora of merchant ton- ahUdwa-aalweU a .MoimttkmJliLmitt
hag leading merchants nd capitalists recently, estab- u - .a.i- Mi,h wmoc. : to blow
, the charcoal fires with, or use aa a dustrpan. - The farmea
has a ewut fan to winnow his grain. Still another va
riety is made of waterproof paper, - which, dipped In
wat-,creates a pleasant coolness by evaporation wittioue
wetting the .CioUitS. m---.-j - :r
The best eyesight la poaseaaed by those people whose
"lands are vast and barren-,-and where obstactee endinrf
' to shorteft the sight aw few. . Eaqnlmaux will detect a,
white fox In the snow at a groat distanca away, whila
the Araba of the deserts of Africa have such extremn
n i,lnn that rn the vast ulalns of the dusert
thev will pick but objects invlefble to tha ordinary ey
nnmYram ona to ten miles distant Among clviliz t
lished a marine inauranoa company, with a cash capital
goat almost entirety for milk. . re0Di the Norwegians have better eyesight than most, i
Many ownera supplement the 1 scanty Sustenance or. . JJot sail others, as they moro generally fulfil the neces
fielde with a daily ration, of carob beans and mixad --j- "J tttona...x.-:.:,:.-.Li-ii.-.--t j-L'i.. .
ton" aesd and' bran.-the extra feed costing about T , f...ni . nunm- rleinar made In France. Manl' i
-cotton aesd and' bran,-the exfra" feed "oostiflg
cenis a aay ror eaca animal. ' - ; t . .
Visitors to Malta may nearly always see herds of
goats being driven through the streets. . The milkman
la on his rounds: instead of mllklna the ammaw s
.aairy establishment and delivering tna prouuui
iimnindt of naner re beln made In France. WanlT i
paper le cut in stripe equal to the length of the rt. 1
to be made. '5 These are Tthen placed In a receiver tu;. i
with meltvt asphalt and wrapped around a core of li .
until the desired thickness Is reached. -After twin
o .uuuya, uuuwu w w.- - -- Until tDO OCSireU UlICKneSB iwuin. rr wiihj i
dairy establishment and delivering the product in nMtA t0 ,trong pressure, the paper la coated with
wagons, he drives tha goats from door to door.-stopping coolm, tfte eorft withdrawn and the outer pipe surf
to milk them aa a customer is found. , -u.uL covered with a waterproof preparation. It Is sai t
Because of this custom the; housekeepers or fa'i these pipes ara a wd aa and more economist t
sA MAi lau Im VvIm Aav SBt mill lai Tt tha rT10lnllllK ' DU f,,' . . . . ' 1 . .. .'.
OME TIME this year .Uncle Sam will prob
ably deeido whether, m- his opinion, his '
new , animal '.wards frofflEnrope-i-Maltese
oata poasess the many eood Qualities that
have been ascribed to them." ! ' J : ' : ' '
. Jn the latter "part ef 190i the Agricultural
Department imported . sixty-eight goats from -
OT of much value, aa a rule. Is the common
American goat . for milking purposes. . , It has
not been bred with that object In view. ,.
, a ' 1 m jenrope, nowever. ecienunc goat nreeaera
. .' hava been trying to nr this trait for years. Just as cattle
' raisers In this country have been developing especial
Strains for dairy purposes.
. . For many years the goat of Malta has been regarded
as one of the best milk producers, and as valuable lq
tner- -ways, , "
The animals hava made this reputation for them
selves In the face of natural disadvantages, for pastur
age in the islands Is scant and goats have to find nutri
ment In 1 placea where an ordinary cow would nearly
Twice a day tha goats are driven out Into tha fields,
to grasp. The herds ran pre from six to thirty animals,
and each herd is In charge of an attendant.
There are few rows on the Inlands, and the Maltese
population of something aver 2u0,0u0 must depend upon
" do not lay in their day's supplies to the morning, out
uuy several times a aay, aa occuiuu rwuuc.. .
Two or three times a day goat herds may J '
. wandering about the streeta ln charge of their keepers.
.The milk ta sold from l ",centl!, 'na5CiA ht.h
The email quantity of cow's milk .sold Ml JM"
brings about the same price, and Is purchased mostly
by the English redenta. Because f the acanty pas- ;
turage. the milk of cowa la of nJerto(l"a"t1y-
Cheese and butter makers Of Malta do not use tha
milk of goats. For both purposes they supplement tha
small quantity of cow's milk with that of, sheep, but
tha sheep, too. are limited ih number. . , ,
For thatreasoii butter and cheese making Is not a
' flourishing- industry In: Malta. ' .,,. . 11
The Importance of the goat lo the Maltese ca.t
r appreciated. The best care is taken of the herds; In
fnK there are stringent laws requiring cleanliness and.
' attention to the welfare of tha anlmala. . - ' , .
Maltese goats are of two vartetlea, tba long-haired
and the short-haired. They ara usually brown or white,
' being about equally divided. - .
Most ownera dehorn the animals at an -af!y age. The
"average goat weighs nearly luO pounds, and is about two,
' and a half feet hijsb, , , ' ' v '
. Nothlnjr can be more delightful than a trip w
' Iceland. Tha traveler sees thousands of mountaina
ered with eternal snow, outrivaling the Alps Iri k n
' great geysers and Innumerable hot we!ls; wat-u .i;.
. of which the Gullfoss la second only to N.
.. size and beauty; crystal streams and "Ahi., 1
: lava beds of fantastic figures, covered win in
.. glistens in'the sun like hoar frost, ami. bj . n
glory, the- atmosphere is ao brilliant tit.it .
, fifty miles distant appear close at luni.
A lake Of quickellver, covering an r-a of r
, three cores and havlnst a depth rarn it-r ti. . t
. fifty feet, ha bfon Uncovered In th 1
Btate of Vera Cruz, Mexico. TtiR v !:
Is estimated at millions.' This lako i 1 1
the Indiana far 'many generations. It :
j In the mountains In an almost i
v BUTlace Is partly covi-ipI t-v t----i-.
volcanic -.-action tn it, ntii;iH 1
1 Qinckstlvor out of tliH oturat-.r i.n- t
. -snd filled this ltir ..n. A 1
. through tha ba. f tl-e rr "i-'
.Mlil ba-bfwuLt Cowu If ii .... .4 . . i i,, .,