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About The Plaindealer. (Roseburg, Or.) 1870-190? | View Entire Issue (Sept. 5, 1895)
ISSUED KVtr.Y TI1UCSDAY BY
THE PLAINDEALER PUBLISHING COMPANY
W. F. BENJAMIN,
a Y. BENJAMIN,
One Vcar payable In advance ......
Mouths," " "
Months. " "
A frieuil has scut tho Plaindealu
a copy of tbo "American Sontincl"
published at Kow York iu tbo inter
est of a class of Christians who ro
nrl tbo Sabbath ns tbo day they uro
required to fceop as n holy day by
command of God and not Sunday
which has bwm sot apart by man as
tbo day to bo observed. In this pub
lication it is stated that men iu the
state of Tennessee havo been ar
rested, tried under tho laws of that
stale, convicted and are now toiling
in a chain Rang for working upon
Sunday, tho commonly accepted Sab
bath by most of other Christian sects.
If such be a fact and it appears
by notices in tbo secular press uf tho
county that such is tho fact it
shows that religious tolerance in
America is not the rule, but that, in
its stead, religious bigotry has again
i aised its standard of persecution in
this boasted free country whose con
stitution declares that every man
shall be guaranteed the right to
worship God according to tbo dic
tates of his conscience.
It appears that these imprisoned
men did not interfere witn any per
son's rights or privileges in tho least,
except by observing what they con
sider tho true Sabbath Satutday
and not also observing Sunday as the
Sabbath. Historically considered
these people are correct. This view
of tho case is amp ly shown by the
Jew's custom. They too, i. e, the
orthodox Jews, observe Saturday as
tho true Sabbath.
We of Oregon are not disturbed by
this observance by Jew or Seventh
Day Adventists. Wo get along with
out any unnecessary friction. If any
complaint is made of Saturday ob
servers by Jew or Adyeotisls it is
on other grounds.
lint Tennessee has a law, making
it a crime to work on Sunday; and
in lihes county eight of these zeal
ous Seventh 3y Adventists are now
doing penal servitude iu a chain
gang. Such condact justly deserves
tho severest condemnation by not
only tho Sentinel but by the secular
papers also. Such intolerance is
diabolical and worthy only of tho age
when the auto do fe, tho fagot and
torturing rack, were doing their
hellish work, for Christ's sake.
What is our country coming to?
All sorts of rascality are being re
sorted to. Holdups by highway
men are frequent, End murders are
on the increase, theft, arson and of
ficial defalcations are numerous.
Tho staid members of society in
many places have, as a means of self
protection, taken tho law into their
own hands and have meted oat
justice with a vengeance.
Tho law's delay, and tho frequent
acquital of criminals reeking with
crime and the unequal apportion
ment of penalties for crimes by
juries and judges havo so violated
public sentiment that the people
hare become desperate, and have in
several places taken tho law into their
own hands. Only a few weeks ago
two murderers xn Ellensburg, Wash,
weie taken from the sheriff by force
and hnng, and but a few days ago at
Yreka, Cal, four more murderers
were taken out and hung. Tho peo
p!o generally are law abiding and
patriotic, bnt these outrages upon
them, which they regard as being
largely instigated and encouraged
by tho laxity of enforcement of law,
have aroused public indignation and
led the peoplo to believe their only
protection lies in meting out sum
mary justice, by leas tedious process.
It is a deplorable state of affairs
when public sentiment becomes so
arroused as to break over legal re
straint and inflict punishment upon
offenders with such drastic measures
as mob force.
There is no more thought of over
production of fruit. A few years
ago, when several hundred acrea had
been set out, wo heard of tho danger
of over-production. Hundreds andj
thousand of acres havo sinco beenj
set ont. and this year somo of tho !
growers are getting returns. ISut wo
uro only giving the world a taato.
When every tree now growing comes
into full bearing, and tho product
goes to tho hungry markots of the
world, they will only !egin to be
bupplied. Half the world is our
. market for green fruit?, and tho
olbcr half for tho canned and evap
orated product There is no such
thing ua over-production of tho fruits
of tbo Willcuiolfo valley. Thu world
will havo a "coming" appctito for all
wo can raifco on every aero of our
great valloy. Statesman.
Wbilo Tcnnesbco is filling her jails
with Seventh-day Advcnlisfs for
working on Sunday, Montana jails a
citizen who for conscience sako re
fused to work out his road tax on
Sunday. Wo havo a broad country,
and onr laws are made to fill nil lati
tudes, but tho citizen of ono latitude
somstime3 mnkes tho mistake of gel-
ting in ono not adapted to him. Salt
Smokers' articles of every description
and the best brands of tobacco at tiio
My heart is llko a singing bird
Whoso nest la In n watered shoot :
My heart is llko an apple tree
Whoso boughs arc-bent with thickset fruit;
My heart is llko n rainbow shell
That paddles in n halcyon sea;
My heart is gladder than alt these
Because my love Is come to rue.
Raise me a dais of silk and down:
Hang it with vair and pnrplo dyes;
Carro it in doves and pomegranates
And peacocks with a hundred eyes;
Work it in cold and fdlvor crapes.
In leaves and silver fleurs-de-lis.
Because the birthday of my llfo
Is come; my lovo is oomo to mo.
-Christina O. ltosxtti.
A CRIME TO LAUGH.
Queer Sunday Law or 1781 That Still
Govern England' Lord' Day.
Tho introduction of tho Sunday bill
by Lord HoMiouso brings up tho fact
that wo aro governed in respect to Sun
day observations by an act of tho year
It seems tlutt a Sunday lecture can al
ways,bo mado tho subject of prosecution.
Somo timo ago a Sunday lecturer at
Leeds was actually sacrilegious enough
to inako his audience laugh. Tho pro
prietor of tho lecture hall was thereupon
prosecuted for keeping a disorderly
Music can now bo given in tho open
air on Sunday, but if it is given in a
room nothing must bo charged for
chairs. In other words, it will bo possi
ble for any body of xneu and women to
run Sunday concerts and Sunday lec
tures with, tho view of making them pay
expenses, but not for their own profit.
In tho years 1200 and 1201 cue Eus
tace, abbot of Flayo, preached through
out England tho observance of tho Lord's
day. Ho enjoined that no land of work
should bo done after the ninth hour on
Saturday until sunrise on Monday.
According to tho manner of tho times
his preaching was backed up by mira
cles. At Beverly a carpenter persisting
in finishing a wedge after tho ninth
hour fell down in paralysis. In the samo
town a woman went on with her weav
ing after tho ninth hour. Result, par
alysis, with loss of voice.
At Rafferton a man made a loaf and
baked it on Saturday evening. When ho
broke it on Sunday morning, blood start
ed from it. At Wakefield a miller,
grinding after hours, ground out blood
instead of flour.
In Lincolnshire a woman made a loaf
and put it in the oven. It remained
dough! In the same county a pious
woman, finding it was tho ninth hour,
set asido her loaves. Lo! On Sunday
morning tho loaves were beautifully
baked without any fire at alL
And yet, the chronicler adds, in spite
of these miracles the people have re
turned to the holding of markets on tho
Sunday! London Queen.
The Birds Serrico to Men.
Before many years have passed the
legislatures of our states and nation
will bo forced to some action on the
needless destruction of birds. The robins
and bluebirds and wrens and the hun
dreds of glad little singers of tho woods
and fields Lave been driven away net
merely from the cities, which they vised
to inhabit, but from the villages on the
outskirts, end in some cases from even
the isolated hamlets. The increase in
insect pests within two or threo years
betokens a gravo danger, and the cheap
est and surest way to meet it is to stop
killing the birds and let them return and
dine upon the moths and caterpillars
and the rest of the evil tribe that strip
our trees and gardens. It will take many
years, at best, to restore them iu such
numbers as they could bo reckoned by a
dozen or 20 years ago, but people by
ceasing to Lo sportsmen, or at least by
ceasing to kill the birds that aro of no
use as food, can bring good times back.
The Ad. T!rouht the Cat IVxck.
Sib I lost a valuable cat lost , strayed
or stolen. I advertised for it in a prom
inent newspaper, but didn't get tho cat
back. Then I tried The Xcws. You told
me, as you put tho cash for the adver
tisement in your money drawer, that
you had no doubt tho cat would seo the
ad. in Tho Xews and come back of her
self. Within 30 hours from the appear
ance of tho advertisement the cat ap
peared at my window and scratched to
come in. I am not prepared to say
whether the cat saw the ad. herself and
acted on it or whether some one found
her, picked her up and dropped her in
my yard after seeing the ad. At any
rate the cat came back, and I feci grate
ful to The News. Letter in Providence
A ProgTtMlrc Princess. 1
Mrs. Weldon, tho wifo of Mr. Frank
Weldon of the editorial staff of tho At
lanta Constitution, is in correspondence
with the Princess Xazle of Cairo, Egypt,
with a view to securing an exhibit of
tho work of tho women of Ecvpt in tho
woman's exhibit at the Cotton States and
International exposition. The Princess
Nazle, though a Moslem, has abandoned
the veil and enjoys more freedom than
most Mohammedan women. Sho is re
garded as tho most enlightened and pro
gressive woman in Egypt and has many
friends and correspondents in America.
He seemed preoccupied.
"Why so thoughtful?" she asked,
while with dignity born of womanly re
serve and consideration of a drug store
complexion she did not come too near
"Is it true," he said, directing an in
tense gaze upon her, "tliat yon have al
ready had 12 husbands:"
Throwing her nhyiiess to thev. iuds she
came and kixscd him.
"yes, but I am not a bit hupersti-
tious." Detroit Tribune.
However rich or elevated we may be,
a nameless something is always want
ing to our imperfect fortune. Horace-
Coal gas was described and manufac
tured by Dr. Clayton of England as
early as 1739. '
K. W. Jor CoxrAXY Gentlemen I have
suffered Jrotn kidney trouble for two or three
years. I would have to set up in the night to
void my urine Irom ten lo fifteen times. My
sirarp was umurMni, anu i became very imn
and nervous. No api-cllte: bowels conalliatcd.
i nave uscn two (mines anu camui nut-en
pounds. Sleep well. Have to set up about
three times during night, and am very much
better in every reelect. Will continue to take
jour vegetable earsanamia, lor believe It will
entirely cure me. (Ktencd.l
ill., cuwaku w. HtKSUH,
JOY'A KOI: THE JADED.
JOY'3 VEGETABLE BARSAPAKILLA.
Parties desiring monumental work
will do well to call on D. Looncy, at the
Itoseburg marble works on Oak street
opposite tbo hardware store of Churchill.
Woolloy & McKenzic. Tlicae. works are
turning out some fine specimens of ir.on
Frank Bigger, the genial proprietor of
the Central Hotel, ia doing a flourishing
business notwithstanding the general do
pressioa. Ho Beta a good table, his
prices are low and ho makes every effort
to please his patrons.
For Salo" Old papers, at this office,
at 25 cents per hundred.
BATTLE OF RIYOLI.
NAPOLEON SAID THAT HIS LIFE REAL
LY BEGAN THERE.
Tho Short Campaign Was the Turning
rolnt of the War and Shaped tho His
tory of Europe For Twenty Tear The
Austrian ITIvo Minutes Late.
Professor Sloano 's " Li f o of Napoleon ' '
in Tho Century describes tho masterly
Italian campaign, iu which Napoleon's
military geuius first won worldwide
recognition. Professor Sloano thus de
scribes tho battlo of Rivoli :
At early dawn began tho conflict
which was to sottlo tho futo of Mantua.
Tho first fierce contest was between tho
Austrian left and tho French right at
St. Mark, but it quickly spread along
tho wholo liuo as for as Cnpriuo. For
somo timo thoAustrians had tho udvmi'
tage, and tho result was in suspense,
since tho French left, at Caprino, yield
ed for an instant before tho onslaught of
tho main Austrian army mado in ac
cordance with Alvinczy's first plan,
and, as ho supposed, upon an inferior
forco by ono vastly superior in numbers.
Berthier, who by his calm conrngo was
fast rising high iu his commander's
favor, camo to tho rescue, and Massenn,
following with a judgment which has
inseparably linked his uaiuo with that
famous spot, finally restored order to
tho French ranks. Every successive
charge of tho Anstrians was repulsed
with a violence which throw thoir right
and center back toward Monto Baldo in
ever growing eoufnsiou.
Tho battlo waged for nearly three
hours before Alviuczy understood that
it was not Joubert's division, but Bona
parte's army, which was nbovo him. In
his zeal ho then pressed forward on tho
plateau beneath tho height to bring
more of his troops into action, and Jou
bert somewhat rashly advanced to check
tho movement, leaving tho road to St
Mark unprotected. Tho Austrians,
prompt totakcadvautagoof his blunder,
charged up tho hill, and seized tho com
manding position, but simultaneously
thero rushed f rem the opposite sido three
French battalions, clambering up to re
trieve tho mistake. Their physical
strength and nervous activity brought
them first to tho top, and again tho
storming columns wero thrown back in
At that instant appeared in Bona
parte's rear an Austrian corps estimated
by him as 4,000 strong, which, having
conio down the valley on tho left bank,
bad now crossed the river to take tho
French right at Rivoli in its rear. Had
they arrived but a minute sooner tho
hill of Rivoli would havo been lost to
tho French. As it was, instead of mak
ing an attack, they had to await one.
Bonaparte directed a galling artillery
firo againt them, and thus gained timo
both to reform his ranks and hold tho
newcomers in check until his own re
serve, coming in from tho next hamlet
westward, cut them entirely off" from
the retreating columns of Alvinczy, and
compelled them to lay down their arms.
Thus ended tho worst defeat and most
complete rout which tbo Austrian arms
had so far sustained. Such was the ut
ter demoralization of the flying and dis
integrated columns that a young French
officer named Rene, who was in com
mand of 50 men at a hamlet on Lako
Crania successfully imitated Bonaparto's
ruse at Lonato, and displayed such an
imposing confidence to a flying troop of
1,500 Austrians that they surrendered
to what they believed to Lo a force su
perior to their own. Next morning at
dawn Marat, who had marched all night
'to gain the point, appeared on the slopes
of Monte Baldo above tho pass of Coro
na, and united with Massena and Jou
bcrt to drive tho Austrians from their
last foothold. Tho pursuit was contin
ued as far as Trent Thirteen thousand
prisoners were captured in those two
This short campaign of Rivoli was
tho turning point of tho war, and may
bo said to havo shaped the history of
Europo for 20 years. Chroniclers dwell
upon those few moments at tho hill
abovo the plateau of Rivoli, and wonder
what tho result would havo been if tho
last Austrian corps had arrived five
minutes sooner. But an accurate and
dispassionate criticism mustdecido that
every step in Bonaparte's success was
won by careful forethought and tho
most effect ivo disposition of tho forces
at his command. So sure was ho of suc
cess that even in tho crises when Mas
sena seemed to savo tho day on tho left
and when thoAustrians seemed destined
to wrest victory from defeat at tho last
moment on the right, ho was self reliant
and cheerful. Tho new system of field
operations had a triumphant vindication
nt tho hands of its nuthor.
Tho conquering general meted out un
stinted praise to his invincible squad
rons and their leaders, but said nothing
of himself, leaving tbo world to judge
whether this was man or demon who,
still a youth, and within a public career
of but ono season, had humiliated the
proudest empire on tiro continent, had
subdued Italy and on her soil ha1 creat
ed states unknown before without tho
consent of any great power, not except
ing his own. It is not wonderful that
this personage should sometimes havo
said of himself, "Say that my lifo be
gan at Rivoli," as at other times ho
dated his military career from Toulon.
"Yes," said tho practical politician,
"it is true that I havo mado $200,000
in tho last ten years, bat I worked for
"Of conrso you did," replied tho cpi
grammatical, if tingranimntical, lawyer,
"bnt tho question tho people arc asking
each other now in, 'Whodidyou work?' "
Soir.crville (Mass.) Journal.
Alum as a mcdicino has been in com
mon use for nearly 800 years. It is
found iu many quarters of tho world,
and several varieties are known to com
merce Portugal is a corruption of Porto Cale,
the Roman namo of tho town of Oporto.
It May Do As Much For You.
Mr. Frcil Miller, of Irving, III., writes
that he had a Severe Kidney trouble for
many years, with severe pains in his
back aud also that his bladder was
affected. He tried many so called Kid
ncy cures but without any good result.
About a year ago ho began use of Electric
Hitters and found relief at ouco. Elec
tric Hitters is especially adapted to euro
of all Kidney and Liver troubles and
often gives almost instant rcjiof. One
trial will prove our statement. Prico
only 50c. for large bottle. At A. C.
Mareters & Co.'s Drug Store.
Knights of the Maccabees.
Tho Stato Commander writes us from
Lincoln, Neb., as follows : "After trying
other medicines for what seemed to bo a
very obstinate cough in our two children
wo tried Dr. King's Now Discovery and
at tho end of two days tho cough entirely
left them. Wo will not bo without it
hereafter, as our experienco proves that
it cures wncro nil other remedies (ail."
Signed F. W. Stevens. State Com. Whv
not givo this great mcdicino a trial, as it
ib guaranteed anu trial bottles aro freo at
A. C. Maretors & Co. 's Drue Store. Reg
ular size 50c. and f 1.00.
his is the
C. W. PARKS
&42& 332cB5 SS3-SS -SsSSS2S53
A SQUARE DEAL-
. I . I
and 32b Jackson St.
tK rn T D n OL7D Largest nd Best Assortment cyer
VYVLrtL. I il l2k brouiht to Southern Oiegon, and
A Large and Klegant Line ol
We call the attention of our
friends to onr beauti
ful stock of
Our Stock is
Unexcelled by Any House
South of Portland.
ALEXANDER 5 STRONG HOME FOKNiailKKa
Supply all parties
A full aud complete assortment
of all goods usually kept in a first
Everything offered for sale is.fresh;
aud sold at very reasonable prices.
We have a very choice stock of
canned goods, including both fruits
and vegetables, to which we invite
your special attention.
Our line of Olives, Gherkins, Pick
els, Sauces, etc., is also complete.
We carry the largest stock of to
baccos in Southern Oregon.
& CO., Grocers, i
I i I j , . I . I i I . , . I .
4 5 0 7 8 "J 10 It VI
Is what we give to every cus
tomer, for we believe the best
advertisement possible is a cus
tomer pleased with what we
'have sold them, they will come
again and again, and their friends
will come too.
We are not here for a day
or for a month.
We are Here to Stay.
& Stroug j
Bet. Oak and Washington.
Bed Room Sets
Parlor and Dining Chairs
f Rugs and Carpets
And all Household
NO TROUBLE TO
MANUFACTURERS OP, AND
FIR AND CEDAR LUMBER.
Board LoJglng $3.50 per Week.
.tilve ac a CalL-.
The Roseburg Laundry,
202 31 a I ii Street, opp. Hotel Van Houtcn.
pZJ RST-CLHSS ALL O WORK 0 GUARANTEED
At Itcnsounblc Prices.
The City Meat Market,
And Dealer in
PRIME BACON, HAMS, LARD,
AND FRESH MEATS OF ALL KINDS.
Orders taken and Delivered Free
lo anjr part of the City.
TpE MlTtJpLL, LEWlp dO.
A FULL LINE OF
Plows, Harrows, Wagons & Buggies
AND HARVESTING MACHINERY.
BEAN SPSAY PUflPS ARE THE BEST.
WAUKEGAN BARB WIRE.
-rm- HUNTER & HUME.
r ROTTING AND RUNNING PLATES A SPECIALTY,
KEVAIKING OK ALL KINDS FKOMPTLY DONE.
Shop on Corner WaMHtiKtou null Kane SIh., Rosctaurn.
Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights.
HORSE SHOEING A SPECIALTY.
AH Work Warranted and Cheaper than
O.KXiJ23D, - OREGON-
BOWBN & ESTABROOK,
Blacksmiths and Machinists
Stephen Street, between Oak and Cass,
aiaclilue Work a Specialty
DEALERS IN ALL KINDS OP
t-iancK x DKiAn, proprietors.
Poultry, t'lsli and Game,
G. W. SOAII,
r A ATUC f
MRS. IV. BOYD,
DEALER IN CHOICE-
Books and Children's Toys.
A FULL LINE OF-
l'ruit8, Xnts, French Candies, Confectionery
Canned Goods, Coffees, Teas, Etc-
IMP0RTED KEI WEST CIGAKS.
CHOICE BRANDS OP CIGARS
We arc always in tho Lead, and mean to
Tlio Golden Harvest b non ns, and farm
ers are smiling becaoao Woodward
looia to their interest.
These ore all I-eather and Warranted.
At Kedaced Prices.
Consult your parse "coil bo sure and see
Woodward lwfore baying.
W. 0. WOODWARD
EAST AND SOUTH
THE SHASTA ROUTE
Southern Pacific Co.
Expre traina learc Turtland daily.
Lt. - Portland - Ar.
Ly. - Rosotmrs - Lt.
Ar. - San Francisco Lt.
6:00 r. M.
Above trains stop at East Portland, Orecon
City, Woodburn, Salem, Turner, Marlon, Jeffer
son, Albanr, Albany Jonclion, Tangent;
She Ids, Ilalscy, Uarrobnrfr. Junction City,
Irving. Eugene, Creswell, Drain, and all stations
bom Eoscburg to Ashland inclusive
Hoscbitrg Mail Daily.
8:30a.m. I Lt. - Portland
5rJ0 r. m. I Ar. Koscbarg
Ar. 1 4:) p.m.
Lt. ! S.1X) A. M.
Salem rassenijer Dally.
1p.m.Lt. - Portland - Ar. 1 10:15 A. M.
6:15 p.m. I Ar. - Salem - Lt. I SfO A. M.
DlXI.Xt; CAItS OX OGDEX IIOIJTC
Pullman Buffet Sleepers
MECOMJ-CI.A.NS SLEKl'irW; CA1U4
Attacked to all Through Trains.
West Side Division.'
IIclivccu I'ortlaud and Corralll.
Mail train daily (except Sunday).
7:30 A. M. i Lt. -12:15
p.m. I Ar. -
Portland - Ar.
Corrallls - Lt.
5:40 p. x
10 P. K
At Albany and Corrallls connect with trains
of Oregon Central & Eastern railroad.
Express train daily (except Sunday).
1:43 r.M. ILt. - Portland -75
P.M.j Ar. - JIcMinville
Ar. 9:25 a.m.
Lt. 1 5:50 A. m.
Thro ii cli Ticket to all Ioint In
the Eastern Mates, Canada, and
Europe can be obtained at low
ct rates Iroiu Ccorgc listen, Agent
B. KOEIILER, E. P. ROGEES,
Manager. Asst. U. K. & Pass. Agen
FK011 TERMINAL 0U INTERIOR rOLNTB
The) Northern) Pacific)
Js the Lino to Tate
To all-Points East and South.
It Is the DLNIKG CAR ROUTE. It runs through
VESTUJULED TRAINS EVERY DAY"
IK THE YEAR to
ST. PAUL and CHICAGO
(SO CUASGE or CABS)
Composed ol Dining Cars Unsurpassed,
. Pullman Drawing Room Sleepers,
01 Latest Equipment,
TOUItlSX SEEEP1SC CARS
Best that can be constructed and in
which accommodations are both FREE
and FURNISHED to holders of First or
Second-class Tickets, and
ELEGAXT DAY COUCHES
A Continuous Line connecting with All Lines,
affording Direct and Uninterrupted Service.
Pullman Sleeper reservations can bo secured in
advance through any agent ot the road.
THROUCH TICKETS To and (rom all Points in
America, England and Europe can be purchased
at any Ticket Office ol this Company.
Full Information concerning rates, time ot
trains, routes and other details furnished on
application to any agent, or
A. D. ClIAULTOrV,
Assistant General Passenger Agent,
No. 121 First St, cor. Washington,
TO THE UNFORTUNATE.
u-JO corner of Com
mercial, San Francisco,
CaL. Established in
1S54, for tho treatment
of Sexual and Seminal
Diseases, such as Uon
orrhea, Gleet, Strict
ure, Syphilis, In all Its
forms, Seminal Weak
ness, Impotenej, and
Lost Manhood perma
nently cured. The sick and afflicted should not
fail to call upon him. Tho Doctor has traveled
extensively in Europe, and inspected thoroughly
tho various hospitals there, obtaining a great
deal of valuable information, which ho is com-
ctcnt to impart to those in need of his services,
ho Doctor cures when others faiL Try him.
DR. GIBBON will make no charge unless ho ef
fect a cure. Persons at a distance CURED AT
HOME. All communications strictly conftden
laU All letters answered in plain envelopes.
Charges reasonable. Call or write. Address
DR. J. F. GIBBON. Box 1S57. San Francisco. Cal
Mineral, Railroad. Aricultural.
tf. G. POTTER,
ATTORNEY AT LAW,
1106 G St., N. W. Washington, D. C.
For many years In the General Land Office.
Examiner of Contests, Mineral vs. Mineral vs
Railroad and Agricultural claims, and Late
Chief of the Minera JDivlsIon.