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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
i - - " ' ...
Correspondent Argues It Is A Longer
Survival of the Fittest.
PORTLAND. Nov. 6. (To the Edi
tor.) A striking example of the er
rors one Is likely-to fall Into who mis
conceives a great scientific principle,
in afforded in the letter published in
The Oregonian and signed "American
Without the Hyphen."
The writer makes an argument for
war, based, by analogy, upon the
struggle for existence and the survival
of the fit two things surely going on
In the natural world, but after all rep
resenting only part of the process.
The scientific evolutionary biologist
toda-y recognizes that the primary
problem for him to solve is the ques
tion of the origin of the fit. How do
those variations arise among plants,
animals and men that are stronger or
more energetic or more skilful or in
telligent? Whatever the process may
be whereby this happens and prac
tically nothinjf as yet is known about
It it is of infinitely more importance
then natural selection. It alone makes
natural relectlon possible there could
be no evolution without variation. The
deepest problem in biology we now
know is not that which the phrase
"the survival of the fit" explains fair
ly satisfactorily, but "how do the fit
What lias war to do with this? Just
so much: there ls absolutely no evi
dence that the favorable variations re
ferred to are caused by war or the
struggle in nature. It is a good deal
more likely that Htrength. energy and
ihtelllger.ee appear in living things as
a. result of ample nutrition in a com
paratively peaceful environment.
Militarist apologists have pushed the
principle of survival of the fittest be
yond the point or reason. We must
lemember'tliat constant warfare in
nature does not really occur. It would
mean the general extinction or life.
There must be at least enough peace to
permit feeding and breeding to pro
duce the organisms fitted to maintain
themselves in any given environment.
Then, too. it must not be forgotten that
the "survival of the fittest" also means
a capacity to conquer adverse external
physical forces. That capacity and the
exercise of it, as far as the happiness
of man is concerned, is a great deal
more important than the mutual
"laughter called war.
Moreover, as Dr. H. B. Torrey. pro
fessor of biology of Reed College, so
clearly pointed out in his lecture on
"T War a Biological Necessity?" at
the Central Library two weeks ago, the
mothod of warfare today Is a mere
routine procedure, not necessarily
based on superior strength or intelli
gence at all. Modern warfare actually
reverses the process whereby the fit
survive by allowing- the sickly, the un
energetic, the mentally weak, the less
original, the less-brave to stay at home
and propagate their undesirable quali
ties, while the active, the efficient and
capable are selected to die by being
eent to the front.
Modern warfare is so different from,
the conflicts of primitive man. In which
Individuals had to resort to personal
combat and the defeated were gener
ally exterminated, that no real com
parison between the two methods holds
good. Your correspondent has quite
failed to grasp the mechanism called
"natural selection," or the "survival of
the fit" when he says that war- today
is merely "the same fight on a larger
scale." It" is an exact reversal of that
flgh. i. c, the survival of the unfit.
Does a shrapnel shell, fired by a man
five or ten miles off. who discharges a
Sun with the blind, unthinking, auto
matic regularity of a machine, dis
criminate, when it explodes 1n ftie
enemy's trenches, between a" dolt' and
a genius, between the strong and the
weak, butwnen a man of good stock
and a man of poor stock? No, it is all
a matter of chance. .
For war to be biologlcaly advan
tageous from the human standpoint,
we should have to go back "to primi
tive methods and have practically the
whole population get into the fight
with clubs or pikes or swords or bows
and arrows, including the leaders, who
now stay out of range of the big guns
and try to think cut plans so that the
fittest ot their own race and nation
may not be killed off in too great
May we not hope that mankind will
in lime have enough Intelligence to see
that modern warfare does as much
(perhaps even more) injury to the na
tion that wins, as to the nation that
loses? m that day we shall have re
course to fair and equitable compro
mise and tlie principle of reciprocity in
settling controversies. For these after
all are the two things which alone
innke possible any sort of civil sta
bility or social progress.
UK. VTRGIL MAC MICKLE,
807 Dekum Building.
DEATH 1IECAI.I.S INDIAN OATH
Pastor Wrltfs or fart Played by Sam
uel B. I-'IoYTcrs.
DALLAS, Or.. Nov. r.. (To the Edi
tor.) The rawing of Samuel B. Flow
ers. one of the oldest residents of Rose
burg, reminds me of an incident which
lie related while making a farewell
visit in my home 10 years ago. as we
were preparing to remove to Illinois.
Mr. Flowers at that time was a ven
erable man, i being about 85 yers of
age. He spoke entertainingly of pio
neer days In Douglas County. S01-.10
thins he related ought to be preserved
in the roCrd of the Oregon Historical
Society. 1 recall the following inci
dent: Many years ago an Indian village
nestled among the tall pines on tl.e
banks of the North Vmpqua. about CO
miles from Roseburg. Thev were in
their primitive barbarous condition, al
though they were not savages and thev
were on friendly terms- with the white
settlers of the neighborhood. The In
dians had their code of morals and
their forms of religi.iuB belief and man
ner of worship.
One day the great chief of the vil
iV8."1'1 Mr- lowers and informed
him the Indians would hold some kind
or a religious council or pow-wow at
the big pine on a certain e.-enlng and
invited him-to be present.
At the time appointed Mr. Flowers
and some of hi cowboys rode over to
the village. It was Just before sunset
the place was unusually quiet and an
Impressive scene met their eyes. They
found all the old men and the war
riors seated on the grass in a great
circle around the big council pine. The
chief sat with his back to the tree. All
sat in silence and with their heads
bowed low on their chests. They re
mained in this position for some time
w hen the chief arose and in a moment
wiaKing slowly around the pine
xrre. no men began his oration. It
"a an eloquent and stirring apos
"O bright snn. O noble sun. father of
su living.- said Be. Then he praised
..." sun ror rising every morning to
arive away the darkness and to fill the
world with light. He praised the sun
for his power to melt the snow off the
mountains, ana to send the warm rain.
ne manned tne sun ror making the
fruits, bloom and the leaves grow and
the green grass cover the land. He
thanked and praised the sun tor his
power over the sea and the rivers to
send the red salmon tip the streams
that the Indians might have fish to
boil over their fires and to smoke for
their Winter food.
The stalwart chief then addressed
the ground: "O ground, mother of all
living!" were his Impassioned words.
Then he poured out words of praise to
the rroond for reeding grass in ,.
elk and deer, that tho Indiana might
GAY AND GRAVE
nae plenty or meat for food, to make
mem strong and brave. Hp th.nb
ths ground for the wild fruits and ber
ries whioh gava the Indians health and
gladness. Then the chier stopped.
Looking about him he loudly called
upon the wild fowl, the elk and deer
and bear or the rorests. and the fish of
the rivers to praise the sun and the
ground. He commanded the rocks and
the trees and the rivers to praise them.
Then he spoke with eloquenso to his
people. He commanded them to honor
and praise the sun and the ground as
the father and mother or all living,
and to beg them ever to -remember and
do the Indians good and never do them
The chief ceased speaking. Drawing
an arrow from the skin quiver hang
ing at his back, he slashed his naked
breast with the keen point of flint.
when the blood flowed Trom the wound
over hie heart, it was an oath and to
ken to the sua and the ground, of the
sincerity of the Indians in their words
of praise. How like the 148th Psalm
was this psalm of the Indian chieftain!
Mr. Flowers, also gave a brief ac
count of a great battle which took
place somewhere in the mountains east
of Roseburg in those early times. Ho
did not name the tribes engaged in the
contest, but related that hundreds of
Indians from all partB of the country
assembled In two great bands. The
fighting began early in the morning
and continued until darkness settled
over the mountains.
Next day an armistice was declared.
The Indian chiefs came together in
council. Arter a. long pow-wow they
made an agreement or peace between
the tribes. Then the Indians began
gathering the dead, and there were
scores Of them. When the sun was set
ting the dead braves, with great quan
tities of wood, had been laid in a mon
ster funeral pyre and as the sun sank
behind the gloomy forest, torches were
applied and the fires were kept burn
ing until all were reduced to ashes.
Mr. Flowers was an eye-witness or
this battle one or the many intensely
interesting events or pioneer days in
Oregon. The pioneers should be en
couraged to place such events among
the records or the Historical Society ror
the benerit or posterity.
GEORGE H. BENNETT,
Pastor Methodist Episcopal Church.
CLOSING THEORY IS ASSAILED
If Shops Can Be Shut One Day, Way
Not Seven f Is Query.
PORTLAND. Or.. Nov. . (To the
Editor.) Robert G. Duncan sets the
Sunday question rorth in an erroneous
light, and I beg leave to criticise his
position. Ho says, "The man who can
not compete on eo.ua.1 terms must per
ish. Surely he is unworthy of a place
in organized society." Then. "Sunday
opening of business houses is a special
privilege to a very email minority."
This would be true if there were a
law to compel the larger part to close
while the minority were allowed to
keep open, but there is not, and "the
man who cannot compete on equal
terms, surely he is unworthy of a place
in organized society."
Under the Oregon system no law can
exist without the sanction of the peo
ple, that Is the majority. If the ma
jority declare by their vote that Sun
day is a. legal holiday, and attach a
penalty for non-compliance, and then
decide again that there is need of two
holidays in the week, and then that we
need three, and then four, five, six, and
finally that men shoull not do business
at all, but rest seven days in the
week, we can see that they have the
right and power, on this assumption, to
stop business altogether. And, if they
have the right to stop business alto
gether, they have the equal right to
compel men to do business, and there
is no escape from this conclusion. If
it is true that "Sunday opening of busi
ness houses is a special privilege to a
very small minority," then the thing
is conversely true that the Sunday
closing of business houses is a special
privilege to a. very large majority!
He also says that "if the statutes
rixed Wednesday as the weekly holi
day there would be those to say it in
terred with their religious liberty,"
and methlnks Mr. Duncan would be one
of tho first to do so.
If there were a statute with a penal
ty attached compelling men to refrain
from work on every holiday, then all
holidays and men would be treated
equal. But why does Mr. Duncan want
a law to protect the "weekly" holl
dayT Why not demand the same ror
Independence day? And Christmas?
And Washington's birthday? And 1 for
Arbor day? Can all men "compete on
equal terms" without them? Surely
such reasoning is puerile.
The law of eminent domain protects
the property of the citizens of the state,
and the same basic principle applies to
tho time of a man as ilustrated in the
employment of soldiers. The Govern
ment cannot justly deprive a man of
his time which belongs to himself and
family, while he is compelled to go to
battle and fight, unless he is paid for
it. And the same principle applies if
he is compelled to 6top his work while
someone else rests. If he is to Be de
prived of one-seventh of his time for
another man's benefit, the other man of
the Government should recompense him
for it. For they have no more right
to deprive him of one-seventh of it
than they have to deprive him of six
sevenths of it. or all or it!
He says: "In this day or highly-organized
society it is imperative that all
business men be bound by certain rules.
To bind all, the rule must be pre
scribed by a supreme authority." Where
is the "supreme authority" for binding
all business men On Sunday? He says
"wo look to the state." but I wish to
be shown where the state has been
delegated that power. I have always
understood that Jehovah was supreme
authority in such matters, and if Mr.
Duncan will admit that. I would like
to have him point out where Jehovah
has said that it is either a crime or a
sin to perform honest labor on the first
day of the weekr commonly called Sun
day. "They have no reasonable defense
and must rely upon emotional preju
dice." says Mr. Duncan.
"Wherein thou judgest another thou
condemnest thyself; for thou that Judg
est another docst the same thing"
(Paul. Rom. ii:l)
Suppose the majority vote a strict
Sunday law. and Mr. Duncan .voting
witn me rest, tnen next year In think
ing the matter over, Mr. Duncan de
cides he has made a mistake and
wishes to change his custom and ob
serve the seventh day or the week, and
still do business six days, ror six-day
competition cannot be met with rive
day competition, but the law says "No."
you cannot change now, ror the major
ity have decided that Sunday is the
best day ror you to rest, and as far as
anything else is concerned you said
that it had nothing to do with "liberty,
conscience or religion." "it is merely "a
matter or expediency, in maintaining
tne pnysical condition or tne people."
Any man who so votes is voting away
his liberty to change his customs in
harmony -with bis will.
Though Mr. Duncan and all his ilk
make laws, they cannot bind men In
this matter. To be binding they must
have the "supreme authority" and this
the state has not!
"Whenever the law. cither in terms
or by the method employed in its en
forcement, undertakes to compel ob
servances that are only required by
particular creeas, no matter now nu
merous may be those who consider
them or divine obligation, it becomes
tyrannical and destructive of the fun
damental principle of American lib
erty." Judge Cooley.
J AT It. DE SPAIN,
50 East Eighth Street.
THE SUNDAY OREGOXIAX, PORTLAND, NOVEMBER
KATK THEORY ASS.VII.Krj
Pampering; ( American Wm SaM
to Be Cause of Deccrease.
PORTLAND, Nov. J.-(To the Ed
itor.) From his method of discussing
the appallingly low birth rate of our
country I pereccive that H. J. Spencer
has been innoculated with the poison
of Socialist error. Following ths lead
Of Socialist sophists, he ascribes the
reduced birth Tate to economic con
ditions. No greater fallacy is con
If economic distress were responsible
for a low birth rato. why do not the
well-to-do have the most children and
the poor the fewest. The reverse is the
case. That fact alone punctures the
gentleman's beautiful Socialist explan.
No, the fault lies at bottom in the
demoralization of our American women,
millions of whom have been Damnered
to the point of parasitism. What with
sending out their washing, patroniz
ing bakeries and aelicatessen stores,
eating canned and -package goods,
using scores of labor-saving devices
in the household and having few or no
children, one wonders what in the
world the women nowadays do With
their time. Certainly they do not
spend it in useful labor. Gossip, clubs,
bridgo playing, shopping, extrava
gance In dress and the theater and vul
gar picture shows probably explain a
jeai. , una remembers with awe
and reverence the heroic tasks our
mothers and", grandmothers nerlormeri
in the days of large - families. Thev
raised ons not afraid to fight for their
I rerer mainly to the married women
a being pampered. In addition to
this Class another fnftnr . 1. . l. ..
down tha birth rate is our large num-
uer 01 spinsters. The United States
census for 1910 showed almost ' 9.000.
000 women in this country above 15
years of age who are not married,
widowed cr divorced. Think or that
vast army of celibates, the larger part
of whom will never have offspring. Is
that a sign of race Vigor? No. it Is a
symptom or race decay. Are not men
and women necessary to each other's
nappiness.- rue old healthy view was
that celibacy meant a starved and
morbid life. Are wo becoming a Na
tion of man-hating' women and women
hating men? If so, write flnis to our
Two more significant facts may be
Olted. (1) There are over 400,000
mature women school teachers in the
United States, among whom an ever
increasing majority remain . celibates.
They form, as it were, a standing
army of spinsters, sustained by the tax
payers' money, arter .whom large num
bers df other women pattern their
lives, navlng come under the influence
or these celibates while attending pub
lic school. There 1e something about
the prim correctness ot the . school
teacher type that chills love to the
bone when he approaches. (2) The last
Census showed that or women in the
United states between 85 And 84 years
of age the best years of lire 30.6
per cent were Celibates. There is
every indication that this condition is
No nation can progress where Its
women are either abused or pampered.
For purposes or maintaining race
strength both or these things are
equally bad. We have petted them in
the United States until our women have
lost all sense ot their obligation to re
new the -lace, to make possible a pow
erful leadership among -nations.
The outcome of such a, situation is
perfectly plain: it leads straight to
National ruin. How can we 'hope to
compete In the world with the human
harvest, immeasurably the most impor
tant of all harvests, growing poorer
Do we expect to count at all In the
great, international drama opening up
in the ; undeveloped regions of China
and other parts of the Orient? Can we
wage a contest with Japan, for in
stance, with her vigorous, unafraid,
energetic, fecund millions, closely- knit
as a national and ethnic unit?
If so -our women must bring forth
sturdy sons and daughters, "fit ror
these states." as Walt Whitman sang,
In vastly larger numbers than they
have done in the Immediate past.
Let us not deceive ourselves. We
cannot evade nature's decree. That de
cree has been and always will be the
"Increase Or perish. Grow stronger
in numbers or the more prolific racea
will crowd you off the earth."
Let us depart from the path that
leads to destruction berore It Is too
late. A. P. CROTHERS.
VALVE OF- DAY
Views on Sunday Vary Widely as Its
History Is Traced.
LOS ANGELES, Nov. 4. (To the Ed
itor.) When Paul was preaching in
Asia the people were worshiping the
goddess Luna, the moon. They called
her Diana. A large number or silver
smiths were engaged in making silver
shrines for Diana. The people bought
these models of her bhauuful temple
for use in their home devotions, to
show that Diana was the goddess of
Worship in their family circle.
The great apostle had a message for
that people, which called them to leave
their idolatry and worship the true
God. This God was not the moon,
the sun nor any other creature, but
the Creator of all theso things. Tem
ples, images or laws made by the hands
of sinful men were not necessary to
his worship. He aeked men to obey
his voice, to keep his commandments.
He gave them his holy Sabbath, to
keep in their memory the true God,
who made heaven and earth and all
that therein Is, in six days, and rested
upon the seventh day. and blessing it,
sot it apart as his memorial.
Paul's preaching was so full of rea
son and truth that it was permeating
all Asia- It was rapidly breaking
down false worship and lessening the
demand for images and for models or
Diana's temple, until this branch of
the silversmiths' business was In dan
ger of being ruined. One of them.
Demetrius, called a meeting and said:
"Sirs, ye know that by this craft we
have our wealth. Moreover, ye see and
near that not alone at Ephesus, but
almost throughout all Asia, this Paul
has persuaded and turned awav much
poople. saying that they be no gods
which are made with hands, so that
not only this our craft is In danger to
be set at naught, but also that the tem
ple of the great goddess Diana should
be despised-. . . whom all Asia and
the world worshtpeth.''
Then all the silversmiths set up the
cry "Great is Diana of the Ephesians."
The people joined in this praise serv
ice until the town clerk interfered and
dispersed them. The only reason given
for the worship of Diana was that un
til Paul came, all Asia and the world
worshiped her. The assembly was
confused" and "some cried one thing
and some another." They certainly
were hard pressed and were having a
trying time to fine some reason for
Diana's,, worship: butall agreed that
Diana was "great."
The International Lord's Day Con
gress, held in Oakland. Cal.. .Tulv ??
Uto August 1, 1915. in some or its lead
ing features resembled this meeting at
Ephesus. The congress was not called
to sustain the worship of the moon or
to make a demand for her shrines, but
It was called to protect from desecra
tion the day that the pagans set apart
to the honor of their principal god. the
sun. from which It derived its name of
Sun's day. One of the leading speak
ers in the congress admitted that the
first ' law for observing the day was
made by Constantlne. Starch 7, 321. a.
- , ...in
D. This law was made lor "the ven
erable day of the sun." .-
The congress was unanimous In the
one thine that this Sunday is "great."
very "great." and that worshipers In
all the world think so. But thoy did
not -agree on tha reasons why it was
Some said it is treat an th m t,.
T to church, to forsake all worldly labor
uiuusemem, io retrain irom excur
sions picnic parties, tall games, the
reading of Sunday papers, etc.. not
even allowing such things to exist on
Others considered it "great" as a day
or pleasure, with a portion spent In
church and the balance in amusement,
with rest from all "wearing toil," with
auto rides In the country, etc.
Tho permanent chairman, Alton B.
Parker, considered the day "great"
from a political point or view and
necessary to good citizenship" and
true "patriotism." He thought that a
portion of It should be spent In tho
study of elvlt government. Investigat
ing - political parties and issues. This
would naturally include the reading
of tne Sunday political paper, so much
denounced by others.
But it was universally agreed that
Sunday is "great" and that some means
must be found to check the waning of
It was also contended, at least bv
some, that Its only enemies worthy or
note are those who are keeping the
Sabbath of the Lord and calling upon
man to worship the "God that made tho
heavens and the earth" and gave for
tils memorial the seventh, not the flrst
ay of the week the same gospel
truth preached by Pnut. with similar
results. . W. MAYHEW HEALET.
"EW BIRTHS LAID TO LOW PAY
Physician Defends Childless Families
PROSSER. Wash., Nov. 5. (To the
Editor.) In The Oregonian I find two
articles, one from Tho Oregonian Wash
ington News Bureau and one by one
A. P. Crothers. Mr. Crothers gets off
a lot or sob stun about "glorious Na
tional destiny, patriotic Americans;
high idealism, women shirking the re
sponsibility of parenthood and wails
at the prudence and forethought re
flected In general public opinion.
The news bureau dispatch says "20
per cent of the wage-earners are out
of employment and 17 per cent-more
are working on part time."
If Mr. Crothers would study facts
instead of sentiment he would see the
connection between "willful childless
ness" and lack of work.
I have practiced in many and many
homes where they had. as Mr. Crothers
suggested, five, six or seven children
in the family and mora coming, where
tho wretchedness and poverty was de
picted in the Ill-clad children, a few
scraps of furniture and very little food
In the house, and the peaked, pinched
look of the children told but too well
the struggle for an existence, and in
this I defy successful contradiction,
for we of the medical nni(oi v,
the opportunity which no other clasj
In millions of families a new cheap
dress Or bonnet for the mother Is of
rare occurrence, as she has to scrimp
and save and make over old clothes
of father for Johnny and some of her
worn-out dresses for little Mary, and
in 87 years' practice I have seen many
such cases. How under suoh circum
stances could you expect the poor
woman to thank God for the prospect
Of bringing another into this home?
Does Mr. Crothers think that such
environments tend to good citizenship?
Does he know that povertv and big
families tend to fill' our asylums and
penitentiaries? If he docs not he ought
to. A great many who denounce will
ful childlessness do not look ror the
cause, but smite the result and instead
or getting at the cause or the sore and
removing it, keep washing the surrace.
The United States census or 1903
says the average wage or the workers
or the country was. In the steel Indus
try, for all employes over 18 years ot
age, $346, and the average Wage or
heads of families was $409.
The same year the total average
wage of 6.615.046 was $518 a. year and
produced wealth to the amount of 11290
upf 'h-1011 went to the man higher
Does Mr. Crothers work ror $42.16 a
month -and feed-and clothe a family or
six children and wire? Does his wire
do all the ramily work and take care
of those children? Does he expect to
educate ond make useful citizens of
them on that $43.16 a month. If he
Is doing It on that salary I will take
off my hat to him and say his high
and laudable position is well taken
Further, I would ask does ha think
that of those 6.615.046 earning $43 g
a month are justified in marrying and
raising a family of five or six chil
dren? But this Is a greater question than
personalities between us and I would
like to discuss it on its merits
on his own proposition that "any
healthy couple who do not have at
least five or six children are not dis
charging their duty to the United
States of America."
DR. D. M. ANGUS.
Treatment of Epilepsy
Jf?.15- ,NV' 5 (To tho Edi
tor.) Kindly inform mo if there is
any cure for epilepsy. If so which Is
the best doctor in Portland to cure
that? A READER.
It depends upon the cause, but so
far no absolute cure for epilepsy is
known. There are some cases on
record which have been temporarily
relieved, say for a. number Of months
or years, by operation. Among prom
inent specialists on brain and nervous
disorders are: Dr. W. ' T. Williamson.
Corbett building; Dr. William House,
Selling building; and Dr. Lawrence
Selling, Selling building.
PORTLAND, Nov. 5. (To the Edi
tor) Please tell mo name and ton
nage of dreadnaughts and battle
cruisers in united states Navy; also
uumucra m loose in construction and
aggregate tonnage of United s'tates
navv- J. S. M.
The United States has no battle
Cruisers. It has eight dreadnaughts
built, four building and three author
ised. Consult World Almanao at Pub
lic Library for further information.
While this work makes no distinction
between battleships and dreadnaughts
the latter can be Identified in the list
as those battleships whose keels were
laid since 1906.
All Are Citizens.
CENTRA LIA. Wash.. Nov. 4. (To the
Editor.) Does the son of a foreigner
who was not naturalized berore the son
reached his majority have to take out
certificate of citizenship, son having
oeen oorn in mis. country?
Are Chinese and Japanese born i
this country citizens?
Is a son, born in the United States
or toreign parents who were not nat
uralized citizen? SUBSCRIBER.
liie lourteentn amendment to the
Constitution of the United States says:
"All persons born ... in the
United States art citizens of the United
States . .
"Ererythinir is lovely and th goose hangr
higli" Is a much-used expression ajid turns
on a misnpprenension of the word "honk,"
the cry of the wi!fl goose 9s it files. On clear
hiirh. Conseauentiv th'd m,iu,
Inin? id lovely and t h m uuthpr l fni.
"EFFICIENCY" ILLS ARE DIAGNOSED
E. Merer, From Salem, Tells Portlansl
What Ails City Government.
SALEM, Or.. Nov. 5. (To the Edi
tor.) Peopla all over the state are
watching the outcome of commission
form of government in Portland and
are amused at the heroic efforts of the
members in applying the ax to each
other's departments in trimming up the
budget and lopping oft alleged useless
or unnecessary overhead charges. The
super-heroism or Commissioner Daly
in offering to reduce hts own salary
from $5000 a year to $4000 a year
should be accepted in good faith by the
public and all the reet of the Commis
sion would be nnnlattdprt hv "jtalnii-"
Mr. Daly Or even "going him One bet
ter.- That would stamp with an air
of sincerity and conviction the action
of the City Commission in discharg
ing street . laborers and -reducing the
salaries of hundreds of clerks and em
ployes. The nepole of the
learned that highbrows on big salaries
u" n"i conetitute or necessity work
able efficiency. Thn Statft Trlnfe..
Salem, now a mere clerical employe, is
uun5 Deiter work and enforcing great
economies which his predecessors, when
the office paid from $10,000 to $15,000
a year, were unable or unwilling to
bring about. The theory that the high
brow and highly-educated class Can,
by merely paying them big salaries,
solve the problems of government is
oreaking down In Oregon.
The most important, question now
berore the people Is. What constitutes
real efficiency? That is a National is
sue and a world issue, being fought
out with blood and iron in Europe. In
tha last analysis efflolency only exists
in the individual. It does not exist in
scraps of paper, whether they be city
charters, state laws, printed constitu
tions, or National treaties. The only
results of efficiency we get come from
the efficient man or woman. What,
then, constitutes this precious Jewel
efficiency? - The individual in ofrice
must not only be efficient on bis job,
but must possess the ability to put his
hand on efficient persons under him.
If he is only efficient in his own ca
pacity, but hag not the political saga
city or genius to -select efficient help
ers, no efricieney will result. His un
derlings will waste at the bunghole
what he saves at the spigot.
The city has had an erticiency code.
Tho State of Wisconsin spent hundreds
of thousands of dollars on an efficiency
code, got up by reformers and college
professors, and state taxes increased
under it 400 per cent, according to
newspaper reports. Formula govern
ment is always a failure. That Is what
ail your city administration in Port
land. It Is the trouble with the whole
Oregon system. Let me call your at
ttentlon to an example of what I call
real efficiency. I must go to the un
salaried private citizen for my Illus
tration, although you have examples of
it in much of the work of your County
Commissioners and In some depart
ments or our state government.
In the report of the management cf
the Rose Festival a few months since
it wae shown thpt a deficit of $1414.
handed over from 1914. had been wiped
out and there was a surplus of $2889
to hand back to the Chamber of Com
merce. A total of $36,917.87 .was dis
bursed in a few weeks and the Rose
Show was the best the city ever had.
Not a dollar was Wasted and there Is
a handsome surplus In the fund for the
show next year a condition that
makes every one reel good.
Mr. Bates was managing director for
a strong committee ot Portland busi
ness men. who gave him a rree hand,
and not one ot these gentlemen re
ceived a penny for their time or serv
ices. Besides the large cash surplus,
the report of the accountants shows
that the Rose Festival committee has
on hand $S5 worth of flag and bunt
ing and $2800.47 worth or materials
suitable for decorations already paid
for that can be used next year, all
saved and put away.
Now, that Is business erflclency that
the people would like to see applied
to public affairs by men drawing sal
aries, supplied with orrices and auto
mobiles at public expense, with sta
tionery and stenographers, and printing
presses to print their reports and ad-
.... ,.,ciiiseives at public excense
ruture political enterorlae Mr
j-xiien aa a private citizen during the
course of the year acts on a dozen com
mittees, like managing the Gresham
,t wj,hout Balary, as do scores of
other efficient citizens.
MRS. DUSflWAV'S LIFE RARE
Friend of "Mother o Suffrage" Recalls
Her Early Career.
NEWPORT. Or., Nov. 4. (To the
Editor.) It was in 1883 that I first
made Mrs. Duniway's acquaintance and
during Frances Willard's visit to Port
land I was a guest In her house, and
a kinder hostess I never had. Mr. Duni
way told me at the time some inter
esting anecdotes of the starting of his
wife's work. They were living in
Salem and heard one Sunday evening
a great tirade from the pulpit against
temperance. - He said he knew some
thing was up. for his wife took oft her
fur Wraps and then her warm coat
and Winter gloves. At the flrst op
portunity she was on her feet, speak
ing warmly in favor of temperance.
This was the occasion of the discovery
of her latent talents.
It was naturally a disappointment
to the Roman's Christian Temperance
Union when she announced that the
loss of tha women's vote in Washing
ton State was due to them and a grief,
too, that she remained of the same
opinion to the end of her life.
In those early days in Salem her hus
band was an Invalid and through work
at a millinery store she was able to
keep the family. She worked at her
millinery from 4 o'clock, in the morn
ing till breakfast time. She had then
to do all that was necessary for the
little ones. Later she was obliged to
leave and return to the store. These
children lived to "call her blessed."
Mrs. Dunlway was. Without contro
versy, tho pioneer of the equal suffrage
It was. as we all. knew, her ardent be
lief, and, stirred up to work for it
T . .
she Was most efficient as an organizer
ana ine eloquence and arguments of
her speaking brought in, many con
verts. The opposition that she met with
the early stages of the work was hard
to bear, but nothing daunted her enter
prising spirit and her perseverance no
rebuff could suppress. .
Her friends, and they are many, are
iiianmui mac sne lived long enough
to see the cause victorious.
' LOUISA NASH.
CHAMPION OF HOBO REPLIES
Correspondent Says L'nemployment and
Courts to Blame.
PORTLAND, Nov. S. (To the Ed
itor.) A Chicago judge, who quite
correctly ciassuies nimseir as a "tin
erer in numan nature." believes he
nas analyzed tne average hobo and
reuucwi xiis auriouies to tueir ele
ments. He finds the hobo to be con
stituted of 20 per cent laziness. 10 per
cent nitx-u iuck ana on per cent physi
cal huu raemai defectiveness.
The judge is mistaken In believing
that the above "analysis" Is his own
original discovery. It dates back to
the first well-fed skinflint who sought
an excuse for refusing a handout to
the starving mn at the back door.
The analysis is not entirely false. But
it is wrong to imply that this
I analysis is true of all. or of a maior-
' it V. ot those who hfL' for tnnA 1n
ity. of those who bes for, food in these
days. And It is stupid to assure us
that nature made the typical hobo that
The most important fact to consider
in any real attempt to analyse the
typical hobo", is that he is a living
organism and has gone through a, long
process of development. ' The learned
Judge has fairly and honestly earned
the right to call himif n -
In human nature" hv innrin iki.
fact; more especially in a time like
this, when "typical hobos" are beine:
produced In millions.
The- flrst step in the production of a
typical hobo Is a period of compulsory
unemployment, long enongh to ex
haust any money that may have been
saved up for a rainy day. Then follows
seml-8taratlon and exposure to cold
and rain. This kind of Ufa will rap
Idly destroy the anergy and vitality of
even the strongest men, so that they
can no longer stand the hard and in-1
tense labor of modern industry. The
realization that ihev ,nv k --
dered physically unfit 1b at the bottom 1
ot mat zo per cent Of laziness which
tho judga discovered, while tho crim
inal instincts are aroused by vagrancy
imprisonment, rockpile slavery and Ju
dijal tinkering with human nature.
The Vast majority of thme wi
-called hobos need nothing else, than a
cnance to earn a living. Even the
Judge's "typical hobo" would quit being
," ' couia get work that would
allow lils vitality to be restored.
Remains oniv to eminin -k
Judge should have broken into print
m. liui mat is easy,
We can imagine that in some dark
and hidden recess of the ponderous
judicial cranium there la a faint con
sciousness that he also is in some
measure responsible for the production
of "typical hobos," and the great judi
clal mind responds with a theory that
"typical hobes" are born, not made
which is very soothing to Judicial seir
righteousness and that miraculous
cures are effected by rockpile terms.
Thus slavery assumes the guise ot
Christian charity. Which is comfort"
ing to the soul of the well fed.
B. E. NILSSON. !
LAW REQUIRES STORES TO CLOSE
But Grocer May Peddle Goods on Sun
day If B SO Desires.
PORTLAND, Nov. 6. (To the Editor.)
As "W. O. H.," writing in Tho Orego
nian of yesterday morning, requests
me to "explain why the day he wishes
to force on others happens to be the
first day of tho week," I will try to
make it clear to one and all that I had
absolutely nothing to say in tho enact
ment of the Sunday law.
At the time the bill was enacted Into
law I was 6 years old. That was 1864.
I was then more concerned with watch
ing the Federal troops march past my
Kentucky home on their way to Nash
ville, than I was with Oregon law.
Space forbids making answer to the
many questions asked by "AV. O. H.."
but to that one that dares me to say
Roberts, the buyer, Is not more guilty
than Kellaher. the seller," I. reply that
there is no Oregon law prohibiting the
buying or selling of groceries on Sun
day or any other day. There is where
the layman becomes confused in dis
cussing the law. Let me make it
clear. It Is not unlawful to buy or sell
goods on Sunday, but the law does say
that it if. unlawful to keep open any
store, shop, billiard hall, tippling house
or other place of business for business
purposes on Sunday, commonly called
The unlawrul act is not in buying or
selling, but in keeping open those spe
cifically named business houses. To
provide fcr cases of mercy or necessity
the law excepts drugstores, doctor
shops, butchers, bakers, livery stables,
undertakers and theaters from its op
eration. ir a grocer took a basket on
his arm and went about selling rrom
the basket no one would claim he was
violating the law.
The law allows me to mow my lawn
or sell lawn mowers, but it says I must
close my hardware store. It permits
me to prune my rose bushes, but it
compels me to close tho offices of the
Retailers' Reporting Company, which
In prescribing a rule of action for
the government of the people the law
makers merely specified that day of tho
week that Is set in the calendar under
the name Sunday and to further iden
tify the day they said "commonly
called Lord's day." Had the lawmakers
said "seventh day of the week" or "lirst
day of the week" there would have
been the same dispute, different de
nominations Betting up rival claims in
support of their faith.
This law, like all laws governing so
ciety, is a man-made law, for the gov
ernment of men in their temporal vo
cations. Why anyone should quote
Scripture either for or against it is a
mystery unless we assume that some
labor under the delusion that "freedom
of conscience" licenses the individual
to do wfcat he pleases so long as he
conforms to his conscience.
There is but one excuse for any mer
chant breaking this law and that is to
say he finds advantage In opening when
his competitors are closed and he wants
that advantage, law or no law.
R. G. D.
MR. DUNCAN'S RICHES IRRITATE
Mrs. L. Garriott Saya Member of Gro
cer's Association Has Plenty.
PORTLAND. No 6. (To the Ed
itor.) The writer who designates the
Grocers' Association as a trust and oc
topus may not havo known Just how
near he was to the truth, but an ex
amination or the roster shows nearly
every member or the organization to
be wealthy, if not rich.
The present secretary, Robert G.
Duncan, could well afford to quit work
He owns $40,000 wcrth of California
lands, a section of Texas lands, a fine
home In Portland and but recently
compromised a contested will case in
volving his grandfather's estate for a
sonaideration of $210,000. Mr.. Duncan
will have the above amount paid to
him next year. That he will spend
any of It is questionable. John D
Rockefeller's middle name is Duncan"
accounting for the frugality of the oil
king. If he ever turns a dollar loose
he must have $1.25 in exchange. He
ought to resign from the ofTIco ha
holds to some man who needs the po
sition. Truly the name octopus de
scribes our Grocers' Association
MRS. L. GARRIOTT,
' 257 West Farragut.
GIRL'S TREATMENT PROBED
Industrial School Methods to Under
To investigate the alleged Inhumane
treatment of girls at the State Indus
trial School for Girls at Salem, the ad
visory board of tha school win meet in
Salem Monday. The caso to come under
consideration is that of Genevieve
Foster, aged 19, sent from Multnomah
County a few weeks ago.
It is claimed that because of the
girl's violations ot discipline a straight
Jacket was used on her by Mrs. 13. K.
Hopkins, superintendent of the school.
An examination of the girl's sanity will
be asked for at the meeting Monday.
The board is composed of Mrs. Lola
G. Baldwin, or Portland: Mrs. Aristene
N. Felts, or Portland, and Mrs. W. H.
Dancy, of Salem.
In an Ice plant In Camilla, Ga.. a oo
pound Mock of Ice dropped 10 feet and
struck John Roes, a nero employe, on the
head. TVIth the exception of a short silt
In- the scalp be dl1 not appear to ft teri
ously inconvenienced ,y lh blow and alter
havlnt- the -nounu dr5sed, he went ba-k
TASK FOR GERMANY CONSIDERED
Tnrkey Declare to Neeel Stern Hand
f Berlin In Constantinople.
PENDLETON. Or., Nov. 5. (To the
Editor.) To tho providentialist the
latest developments in the European
oiruesie present possibilities of. earlv
and permanent peace. With Germs nv-
llkely soon to be in snhituMi.i
or Constantinople, the civilized world,
outside the warring powers, would be
satisfied to see her remain there per
manently, providing she were to with
draw her armies from France and Bel
gium, give to Poland the national
status which it enjoyed prior to its
Partition, restore Alsace-Lorraine to
France, abandon that militarism which
la the 'potential causa of the present
war, and the aroh menace to compre
hensive liberty or the race.
Germany in Constantinople as the
friend of Turkey might be an nnomalv.
but a friend can achieve more than an
enmy BB civilizing inriuence.
The war, after 16 months of carnage,
is practically a drawn gams. Th allied
forces are everywhere triumphant upon
seas, in ins colonies, and are slow
ly gaining in the west, whiln ih
tral powers are Victorious in tha east.
The terms of peace in the end will of
hecesslty be the result of compromise.
Is it not possible that Providence has
made of Bulgaria's sham at this Junc
ture an avenue through which peace
Austria, fighting ninn. tin. in
feated everywhere. Whatever tha final
result may be, she will emerge as a
vassal state, subject to the domination
or her powerful northern sister. It
might ba well to make Hungary a. sep
arate state, eliminate the Hapsburg
dynasty, and permit German absorp
tion of tha Germanic provinces of that
mosaic empire. The Slavio races ought
to be somehow reunited under a com
mon government, and the Csech or
ouuemia snouia Do permitted to erect
a commonwealth or his own, kindred
in character to Switzerland.
The historic canite! iinA eti ti,. -
phorus Is a prise rich enough for Ger-
mmoiwon. ror us possession na
tions have grappled all through the
centuries, and its control now will open
Asia Minor to German trade. 'and as
sure substantial German suzerainty or
the Balkan states. It will make for the
German nation Its place in the sun.
.rrom tns tanapolnt of civilization
Turkey needs the strong hand of the
stern military oligarchy which rules
at Berlin. The turbulent Balkan states
will be Improved by remoulding In the
crucible of Intelligent and progressive
absolutism. It Is more than possible
that Providence has selected Germany
to perform the task in the Near East,
which the combined authority of the
powers, arter a hair centurv of effort,
has railed to accomplish. The German
methods or government are well suited
to modernize the Turk and to develop
the latent natural resources of the
Turkish empire. - Democracies like
France and England are not equipped
Jor the task, Italy could not master it.
Russia cannot yet intelligently govern
herseir. It is iull time that the myriad
or subject races in Asia Were released
rrom the cruelty and oppression ot
England's navy and Disraeli's doubt
ful diplomacy unjustly barred Russia
from Constantinople in 1878. and It
win perhaps be Just retribution now If
Great Britain shall witness the en
thronement of her powerful rival in
the matchless eastsrp capital ot the
The people Of Germany would never
have countenanced this war could na
tional sentiment have found expression
in 1914, and the majority of the Amer
ican people have undoubtedly hoped
that the ultimate result of the present
strife might be to relieve the German
nation from tho Hohenaollern blight,
and to establish a German republic.
That may yet come.
The military group, which unhappily
governs Germany, has succeeded,
through Its disregard of national ob
ligations and the consciousless savag
ery which characterises its methods
of warfare. In alienating ths Sympathy
and arousing the antagonism of the
common people of Christendom, what
ever the formal attitude of govern
ments may be. This world-wide senti
ment must ultimately exert rerlex in
fluence among the masses of the Ger
man empire. Is It not possible now for
the voice) or the true Teuton the Ger
man of kindliness and honor whom all
respect to make itself heard, and at
this fateful Juncture to Compel the
proposal of terms of peace along the
lines above indicated? , The neutral
world will largely approve, and the
moral pressure or humanity will com
pel the allies to accept.
STEPHEN A. LOWELL.
M. P STMANUS GIVES POSITION
Dismissed Cltr Hall Stenographer
Taken System to Task.
PORTLAND. Nov. 6. (To the . Edi
tor.) With reference to a recent In
terview given by L. S. Kaiser, super
intendent of tho water bureau, 1. trust
that you will publish this statement
from mo for the reason that there
seemg to have been an undue amount of
publicity, in regard to my sojourn in
the City Hall for some 60 days in tho
bureau of waterworks as stenographer,
addressograph operator, or whatever
they want to call it.
At the time I received a communica
tion from the Civil Service Bard of
this city notifying me of my appoint
ment as stenographer I was selling
typewriters in Boise, Idaho, working
that state and doing a good business.
As I desired to complete a course in
law at the University of Oregon, where
I have already studied two years, and
as I have had eight yearn' experience
with the United States Government un
der Civil service, I knew I was capable
and feeling I could satisfactorily com
ply with the requirements of any offi
cial in the water bureau, I accepted th
There never has been any complaint
made to me of my work in that bureau
by any one, but it appears that the
work that I was doing was in viola
tion of the city charter, punishable bv
a fine of some $500 and imprisonment
In the County Jail. This was brought
to tha attention of Mr. Kaiser by the
president of the Civil Bur vice Board,
Mr. Caldwell, after I had asked him
my status in the matter. This rathe?
Incensed the chief clerk, Mr. Chess
man, who said that the matter was
purely one of administrative Junctions
and they would set a man to do any
thing they saw rit in that office. He
said that they would not tequlre in v
services any longer, as I had com
plained about the work that I was re
quired to do; that they didn't need a
stenographer anyway, and d.dn't havo
to keep one. They said that I would
be laid off that day at noon, October
Inas much as this was a probationary
period tliey contend that they can dis
charge an employe without anv reason
whatever, and this ias the proposition
that the- Civil Service Board is tak
It is true that an employe may ba
discharged for unsatisfactory services
within six months of appointment, but
there Is no provision that the employe
employed as a stenographer or clerk
shall put in his probationary period
of six months on an. addressograph ma
chine, more especially so when he
never operated one before.
There is plenty of work in that "of
fice for a stenographer to do without
compelling him to do tho work of fa
vorites who are unable to pass the re
quired examinations, but are put on
desks that should be held by men who
have been laid orf in the "Interests of
economy," M. F. Jl'MAAUB.