i - - " ' ... I LETTERS Correspondent Argues It Is A Longer Survival of the Fittest. PORTLAND. Nov. 6. (To the Edi tor.) A striking example of the er rors one Is likely-to fall Into who mis conceives a great scientific principle, in afforded in the letter published in The Oregonian and signed "American Without the Hyphen." The writer makes an argument for war, based, by analogy, upon the struggle for existence and the survival of the fit two things surely going on In the natural world, but after all rep resenting only part of the process. The scientific evolutionary biologist toda-y recognizes that the primary problem for him to solve is the ques tion of the origin of the fit. How do those variations arise among plants, animals and men that are stronger or more energetic or more skilful or in telligent? Whatever the process may be whereby this happens and prac tically nothinjf as yet is known about It it is of infinitely more importance then natural selection. It alone makes natural relectlon possible there could be no evolution without variation. The deepest problem in biology we now know is not that which the phrase "the survival of the fit" explains fair ly satisfactorily, but "how do the fit arrlvsT" What lias war to do with this? Just so much: there ls absolutely no evi dence that the favorable variations re ferred to are caused by war or the struggle in nature. It is a good deal more likely that Htrength. energy and ihtelllger.ee appear in living things as a. result of ample nutrition in a com paratively peaceful environment. Militarist apologists have pushed the principle of survival of the fittest be yond the point or reason. We must lemember'tliat constant warfare in nature does not really occur. It would mean the general extinction or life. There must be at least enough peace to permit feeding and breeding to pro duce the organisms fitted to maintain themselves in any given environment. Then, too. it must not be forgotten that the "survival of the fittest" also means a capacity to conquer adverse external physical forces. That capacity and the exercise of it, as far as the happiness of man is concerned, is a great deal more important than the mutual "laughter called war. Moreover, as Dr. H. B. Torrey. pro fessor of biology of Reed College, so clearly pointed out in his lecture on "T War a Biological Necessity?" at the Central Library two weeks ago, the mothod of warfare today Is a mere routine procedure, not necessarily based on superior strength or intelli gence at all. Modern warfare actually reverses the process whereby the fit survive by allowing- the sickly, the un energetic, the mentally weak, the less original, the less-brave to stay at home and propagate their undesirable quali ties, while the active, the efficient and capable are selected to die by being eent to the front. Modern warfare is so different from, the conflicts of primitive man. In which Individuals had to resort to personal combat and the defeated were gener ally exterminated, that no real com parison between the two methods holds good. Your correspondent has quite failed to grasp the mechanism called "natural selection," or the "survival of the fit" when he says that war- today is merely "the same fight on a larger scale." It" is an exact reversal of that flgh. i. c, the survival of the unfit. Does a shrapnel shell, fired by a man five or ten miles off. who discharges a Sun with the blind, unthinking, auto matic regularity of a machine, dis criminate, when it explodes 1n ftie enemy's trenches, between a" dolt' and a genius, between the strong and the weak, butwnen a man of good stock and a man of poor stock? No, it is all a matter of chance. . For war to be biologlcaly advan tageous from the human standpoint, we should have to go back "to primi tive methods and have practically the whole population get into the fight with clubs or pikes or swords or bows and arrows, including the leaders, who now stay out of range of the big guns and try to think cut plans so that the fittest ot their own race and nation may not be killed off in too great numbers. , May we not hope that mankind will in lime have enough Intelligence to see that modern warfare does as much (perhaps even more) injury to the na tion that wins, as to the nation that loses? m that day we shall have re course to fair and equitable compro mise and tlie principle of reciprocity in settling controversies. For these after all are the two things which alone innke possible any sort of civil sta bility or social progress. UK. VTRGIL MAC MICKLE, 807 Dekum Building. DEATH 1IECAI.I.S INDIAN OATH Pastor Wrltfs or fart Played by Sam uel B. I-'IoYTcrs. DALLAS, Or.. Nov. r.. (To the Edi tor.) The rawing of Samuel B. Flow ers. one of the oldest residents of Rose burg, reminds me of an incident which lie related while making a farewell visit in my home 10 years ago. as we were preparing to remove to Illinois. Mr. Flowers at that time was a ven erable man, i being about 85 yers of age. He spoke entertainingly of pio neer days In Douglas County. S01-.10 thins he related ought to be preserved in the roCrd of the Oregon Historical Society. 1 recall the following inci dent: Many years ago an Indian village nestled among the tall pines on tl.e banks of the North Vmpqua. about CO miles from Roseburg. Thev were in their primitive barbarous condition, al though they were not savages and thev were on friendly terms- with the white settlers of the neighborhood. The In dians had their code of morals and their forms of religi.iuB belief and man ner of worship. One day the great chief of the vil iV8."1'1 Mr- lowers and informed him the Indians would hold some kind or a religious council or pow-wow at the big pine on a certain e.-enlng and invited him-to be present. At the time appointed Mr. Flowers and some of hi cowboys rode over to the village. It was Just before sunset the place was unusually quiet and an Impressive scene met their eyes. They found all the old men and the war riors seated on the grass in a great circle around the big council pine. The chief sat with his back to the tree. All sat in silence and with their heads bowed low on their chests. They re mained in this position for some time w hen the chief arose and in a moment wiaKing slowly around the pine xrre. no men began his oration. It "a an eloquent and stirring apos trophe. "O bright snn. O noble sun. father of su living.- said Be. Then he praised ..." sun ror rising every morning to arive away the darkness and to fill the world with light. He praised the sun for his power to melt the snow off the mountains, ana to send the warm rain. ne manned tne sun ror making the fruits, bloom and the leaves grow and the green grass cover the land. He thanked and praised the sun tor his power over the sea and the rivers to send the red salmon tip the streams that the Indians might have fish to boil over their fires and to smoke for their Winter food. The stalwart chief then addressed the ground: "O ground, mother of all living!" were his Impassioned words. Then he poured out words of praise to the rroond for reeding grass in ,. elk and deer, that tho Indiana might GAY AND GRAVE nae plenty or meat for food, to make mem strong and brave. Hp th.nb ths ground for the wild fruits and ber ries whioh gava the Indians health and gladness. Then the chier stopped. Looking about him he loudly called upon the wild fowl, the elk and deer and bear or the rorests. and the fish of the rivers to praise the sun and the ground. He commanded the rocks and the trees and the rivers to praise them. Then he spoke with eloquenso to his people. He commanded them to honor and praise the sun and the ground as the father and mother or all living, and to beg them ever to -remember and do the Indians good and never do them harm. The chief ceased speaking. Drawing an arrow from the skin quiver hang ing at his back, he slashed his naked breast with the keen point of flint. when the blood flowed Trom the wound over hie heart, it was an oath and to ken to the sua and the ground, of the sincerity of the Indians in their words of praise. How like the 148th Psalm was this psalm of the Indian chieftain! Mr. Flowers, also gave a brief ac count of a great battle which took place somewhere in the mountains east of Roseburg in those early times. Ho did not name the tribes engaged in the contest, but related that hundreds of Indians from all partB of the country assembled In two great bands. The fighting began early in the morning and continued until darkness settled over the mountains. Next day an armistice was declared. The Indian chiefs came together in council. Arter a. long pow-wow they made an agreement or peace between the tribes. Then the Indians began gathering the dead, and there were scores Of them. When the sun was set ting the dead braves, with great quan tities of wood, had been laid in a mon ster funeral pyre and as the sun sank behind the gloomy forest, torches were applied and the fires were kept burn ing until all were reduced to ashes. Mr. Flowers was an eye-witness or this battle one or the many intensely interesting events or pioneer days in Oregon. The pioneers should be en couraged to place such events among the records or the Historical Society ror the benerit or posterity. GEORGE H. BENNETT, Pastor Methodist Episcopal Church. CLOSING THEORY IS ASSAILED If Shops Can Be Shut One Day, Way Not Seven f Is Query. PORTLAND. Or.. Nov. . (To the Editor.) Robert G. Duncan sets the Sunday question rorth in an erroneous light, and I beg leave to criticise his position. Ho says, "The man who can not compete on eo.ua.1 terms must per ish. Surely he is unworthy of a place in organized society." Then. "Sunday opening of business houses is a special privilege to a very email minority." This would be true if there were a law to compel the larger part to close while the minority were allowed to keep open, but there is not, and "the man who cannot compete on equal terms, surely he is unworthy of a place in organized society." Under the Oregon system no law can exist without the sanction of the peo ple, that Is the majority. If the ma jority declare by their vote that Sun day is a. legal holiday, and attach a penalty for non-compliance, and then decide again that there is need of two holidays in the week, and then that we need three, and then four, five, six, and finally that men shoull not do business at all, but rest seven days in the week, we can see that they have the right and power, on this assumption, to stop business altogether. And, if they have the right to stop business alto gether, they have the equal right to compel men to do business, and there is no escape from this conclusion. If it is true that "Sunday opening of busi ness houses is a special privilege to a very small minority," then the thing is conversely true that the Sunday closing of business houses is a special privilege to a. very large majority! He also says that "if the statutes rixed Wednesday as the weekly holi day there would be those to say it in terred with their religious liberty," and methlnks Mr. Duncan would be one of tho first to do so. If there were a statute with a penal ty attached compelling men to refrain from work on every holiday, then all holidays and men would be treated equal. But why does Mr. Duncan want a law to protect the "weekly" holl dayT Why not demand the same ror Independence day? And Christmas? And Washington's birthday? And 1 for Arbor day? Can all men "compete on equal terms" without them? Surely such reasoning is puerile. The law of eminent domain protects the property of the citizens of the state, and the same basic principle applies to tho time of a man as ilustrated in the employment of soldiers. The Govern ment cannot justly deprive a man of his time which belongs to himself and family, while he is compelled to go to battle and fight, unless he is paid for it. And the same principle applies if he is compelled to 6top his work while someone else rests. If he is to Be de prived of one-seventh of his time for another man's benefit, the other man of the Government should recompense him for it. For they have no more right to deprive him of one-seventh of it than they have to deprive him of six sevenths of it. or all or it! He says: "In this day or highly-organized society it is imperative that all business men be bound by certain rules. To bind all, the rule must be pre scribed by a supreme authority." Where is the "supreme authority" for binding all business men On Sunday? He says "wo look to the state." but I wish to be shown where the state has been delegated that power. I have always understood that Jehovah was supreme authority in such matters, and if Mr. Duncan will admit that. I would like to have him point out where Jehovah has said that it is either a crime or a sin to perform honest labor on the first day of the weekr commonly called Sun day. "They have no reasonable defense and must rely upon emotional preju dice." says Mr. Duncan. "Wherein thou judgest another thou condemnest thyself; for thou that Judg est another docst the same thing" (Paul. Rom. ii:l) Suppose the majority vote a strict Sunday law. and Mr. Duncan .voting witn me rest, tnen next year In think ing the matter over, Mr. Duncan de cides he has made a mistake and wishes to change his custom and ob serve the seventh day or the week, and still do business six days, ror six-day competition cannot be met with rive day competition, but the law says "No." you cannot change now, ror the major ity have decided that Sunday is the best day ror you to rest, and as far as anything else is concerned you said that it had nothing to do with "liberty, conscience or religion." "it is merely "a matter or expediency, in maintaining tne pnysical condition or tne people." Any man who so votes is voting away his liberty to change his customs in harmony -with bis will. Though Mr. Duncan and all his ilk make laws, they cannot bind men In this matter. To be binding they must have the "supreme authority" and this the state has not! "Whenever the law. cither in terms or by the method employed in its en forcement, undertakes to compel ob servances that are only required by particular creeas, no matter now nu merous may be those who consider them or divine obligation, it becomes tyrannical and destructive of the fun damental principle of American lib erty." Judge Cooley. J AT It. DE SPAIN, 50 East Eighth Street. THE SUNDAY OREGOXIAX, PORTLAND, NOVEMBER KATK THEORY ASS.VII.Krj Pampering; ( American Wm SaM to Be Cause of Deccrease. PORTLAND, Nov. J.-(To the Ed itor.) From his method of discussing the appallingly low birth rate of our country I pereccive that H. J. Spencer has been innoculated with the poison of Socialist error. Following ths lead Of Socialist sophists, he ascribes the reduced birth Tate to economic con ditions. No greater fallacy is con ceivable. If economic distress were responsible for a low birth rato. why do not the well-to-do have the most children and the poor the fewest. The reverse is the case. That fact alone punctures the gentleman's beautiful Socialist explan. ation. No, the fault lies at bottom in the demoralization of our American women, millions of whom have been Damnered to the point of parasitism. What with sending out their washing, patroniz ing bakeries and aelicatessen stores, eating canned and -package goods, using scores of labor-saving devices in the household and having few or no children, one wonders what in the world the women nowadays do With their time. Certainly they do not spend it in useful labor. Gossip, clubs, bridgo playing, shopping, extrava gance In dress and the theater and vul gar picture shows probably explain a jeai. , una remembers with awe and reverence the heroic tasks our mothers and", grandmothers nerlormeri in the days of large - families. Thev raised ons not afraid to fight for their country. I rerer mainly to the married women a being pampered. In addition to this Class another fnftnr . 1. . l. .. down tha birth rate is our large num- uer 01 spinsters. The United States census for 1910 showed almost ' 9.000. 000 women in this country above 15 years of age who are not married, widowed cr divorced. Think or that vast army of celibates, the larger part of whom will never have offspring. Is that a sign of race Vigor? No. it Is a symptom or race decay. Are not men and women necessary to each other's nappiness.- rue old healthy view was that celibacy meant a starved and morbid life. Are wo becoming a Na tion of man-hating' women and women hating men? If so, write flnis to our history. Two more significant facts may be Olted. (1) There are over 400,000 mature women school teachers in the United States, among whom an ever increasing majority remain . celibates. They form, as it were, a standing army of spinsters, sustained by the tax payers' money, arter .whom large num bers df other women pattern their lives, navlng come under the influence or these celibates while attending pub lic school. There 1e something about the prim correctness ot the . school teacher type that chills love to the bone when he approaches. (2) The last Census showed that or women in the United states between 85 And 84 years of age the best years of lire 30.6 per cent were Celibates. There is every indication that this condition is growing worse. No nation can progress where Its women are either abused or pampered. For purposes or maintaining race strength both or these things are equally bad. We have petted them in the United States until our women have lost all sense ot their obligation to re new the -lace, to make possible a pow erful leadership among -nations. The outcome of such a, situation is perfectly plain: it leads straight to National ruin. How can we 'hope to compete In the world with the human harvest, immeasurably the most impor tant of all harvests, growing poorer and poorer? Do we expect to count at all In the great, international drama opening up in the ; undeveloped regions of China and other parts of the Orient? Can we wage a contest with Japan, for in stance, with her vigorous, unafraid, energetic, fecund millions, closely- knit as a national and ethnic unit? If so -our women must bring forth sturdy sons and daughters, "fit ror these states." as Walt Whitman sang, In vastly larger numbers than they have done in the Immediate past. Let us not deceive ourselves. We cannot evade nature's decree. That de cree has been and always will be the same: "Increase Or perish. Grow stronger in numbers or the more prolific racea will crowd you off the earth." Let us depart from the path that leads to destruction berore It Is too late. A. P. CROTHERS. VALVE OF- DAY NOT STABLE Views on Sunday Vary Widely as Its History Is Traced. LOS ANGELES, Nov. 4. (To the Ed itor.) When Paul was preaching in Asia the people were worshiping the goddess Luna, the moon. They called her Diana. A large number or silver smiths were engaged in making silver shrines for Diana. The people bought these models of her bhauuful temple for use in their home devotions, to show that Diana was the goddess of Worship in their family circle. The great apostle had a message for that people, which called them to leave their idolatry and worship the true God. This God was not the moon, the sun nor any other creature, but the Creator of all theso things. Tem ples, images or laws made by the hands of sinful men were not necessary to his worship. He aeked men to obey his voice, to keep his commandments. He gave them his holy Sabbath, to keep in their memory the true God, who made heaven and earth and all that therein Is, in six days, and rested upon the seventh day. and blessing it, sot it apart as his memorial. Paul's preaching was so full of rea son and truth that it was permeating all Asia- It was rapidly breaking down false worship and lessening the demand for images and for models or Diana's temple, until this branch of the silversmiths' business was In dan ger of being ruined. One of them. Demetrius, called a meeting and said: "Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth. Moreover, ye see and near that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul has persuaded and turned awav much poople. saying that they be no gods which are made with hands, so that not only this our craft is In danger to be set at naught, but also that the tem ple of the great goddess Diana should be despised-. . . whom all Asia and the world worshtpeth.'' Then all the silversmiths set up the cry "Great is Diana of the Ephesians." The people joined in this praise serv ice until the town clerk interfered and dispersed them. The only reason given for the worship of Diana was that un til Paul came, all Asia and the world worshiped her. The assembly was confused" and "some cried one thing and some another." They certainly were hard pressed and were having a trying time to fine some reason for Diana's,, worship: butall agreed that Diana was "great." The International Lord's Day Con gress, held in Oakland. Cal.. .Tulv ?? Uto August 1, 1915. in some or its lead ing features resembled this meeting at Ephesus. The congress was not called to sustain the worship of the moon or to make a demand for her shrines, but It was called to protect from desecra tion the day that the pagans set apart to the honor of their principal god. the sun. from which It derived its name of Sun's day. One of the leading speak ers in the congress admitted that the first ' law for observing the day was made by Constantlne. Starch 7, 321. a. - , ...in DISCUSS D. This law was made lor "the ven erable day of the sun." .- The congress was unanimous In the one thine that this Sunday is "great." very "great." and that worshipers In all the world think so. But thoy did not -agree on tha reasons why it was great. Some said it is treat an th m t,. T to church, to forsake all worldly labor uiuusemem, io retrain irom excur sions picnic parties, tall games, the reading of Sunday papers, etc.. not even allowing such things to exist on that day. Others considered it "great" as a day or pleasure, with a portion spent In church and the balance in amusement, with rest from all "wearing toil," with auto rides In the country, etc. Tho permanent chairman, Alton B. Parker, considered the day "great" from a political point or view and necessary to good citizenship" and true "patriotism." He thought that a portion of It should be spent In tho study of elvlt government. Investigat ing - political parties and issues. This would naturally include the reading of tne Sunday political paper, so much denounced by others. But it was universally agreed that Sunday is "great" and that some means must be found to check the waning of Its glory. It was also contended, at least bv some, that Its only enemies worthy or note are those who are keeping the Sabbath of the Lord and calling upon man to worship the "God that made tho heavens and the earth" and gave for tils memorial the seventh, not the flrst ay of the week the same gospel truth preached by Pnut. with similar results. . W. MAYHEW HEALET. "EW BIRTHS LAID TO LOW PAY Physician Defends Childless Families Against Critics. PROSSER. Wash., Nov. 5. (To the Editor.) In The Oregonian I find two articles, one from Tho Oregonian Wash ington News Bureau and one by one A. P. Crothers. Mr. Crothers gets off a lot or sob stun about "glorious Na tional destiny, patriotic Americans; high idealism, women shirking the re sponsibility of parenthood and wails at the prudence and forethought re flected In general public opinion. The news bureau dispatch says "20 per cent of the wage-earners are out of employment and 17 per cent-more are working on part time." If Mr. Crothers would study facts instead of sentiment he would see the connection between "willful childless ness" and lack of work. I have practiced in many and many homes where they had. as Mr. Crothers suggested, five, six or seven children in the family and mora coming, where tho wretchedness and poverty was de picted in the Ill-clad children, a few scraps of furniture and very little food In the house, and the peaked, pinched look of the children told but too well the struggle for an existence, and in this I defy successful contradiction, for we of the medical nni(oi v, the opportunity which no other clasj has. - In millions of families a new cheap dress Or bonnet for the mother Is of rare occurrence, as she has to scrimp and save and make over old clothes of father for Johnny and some of her worn-out dresses for little Mary, and in 87 years' practice I have seen many such cases. How under suoh circum stances could you expect the poor woman to thank God for the prospect Of bringing another into this home? Does Mr. Crothers think that such environments tend to good citizenship? Does he know that povertv and big families tend to fill' our asylums and penitentiaries? If he docs not he ought to. A great many who denounce will ful childlessness do not look ror the cause, but smite the result and instead or getting at the cause or the sore and removing it, keep washing the surrace. The United States census or 1903 says the average wage or the workers or the country was. In the steel Indus try, for all employes over 18 years ot age, $346, and the average Wage or heads of families was $409. The same year the total average wage of 6.615.046 was $518 a. year and produced wealth to the amount of 11290 upf 'h-1011 went to the man higher Does Mr. Crothers work ror $42.16 a month -and feed-and clothe a family or six children and wire? Does his wire do all the ramily work and take care of those children? Does he expect to educate ond make useful citizens of them on that $43.16 a month. If he Is doing It on that salary I will take off my hat to him and say his high and laudable position is well taken Further, I would ask does ha think that of those 6.615.046 earning $43 g a month are justified in marrying and raising a family of five or six chil dren? But this Is a greater question than personalities between us and I would like to discuss it on its merits on his own proposition that "any healthy couple who do not have at least five or six children are not dis charging their duty to the United States of America." DR. D. M. ANGUS. Treatment of Epilepsy Jf?.15- ,NV' 5 (To tho Edi tor.) Kindly inform mo if there is any cure for epilepsy. If so which Is the best doctor in Portland to cure that? A READER. It depends upon the cause, but so far no absolute cure for epilepsy is known. There are some cases on record which have been temporarily relieved, say for a. number Of months or years, by operation. Among prom inent specialists on brain and nervous disorders are: Dr. W. ' T. Williamson. Corbett building; Dr. William House, Selling building; and Dr. Lawrence Selling, Selling building. America's Navy. PORTLAND, Nov. 5. (To the Edi tor) Please tell mo name and ton nage of dreadnaughts and battle cruisers in united states Navy; also uumucra m loose in construction and aggregate tonnage of United s'tates navv- J. S. M. The United States has no battle Cruisers. It has eight dreadnaughts built, four building and three author ised. Consult World Almanao at Pub lic Library for further information. While this work makes no distinction between battleships and dreadnaughts the latter can be Identified in the list as those battleships whose keels were laid since 1906. All Are Citizens. CENTRA LIA. Wash.. Nov. 4. (To the Editor.) Does the son of a foreigner who was not naturalized berore the son reached his majority have to take out certificate of citizenship, son having oeen oorn in mis. country? Are Chinese and Japanese born i this country citizens? Is a son, born in the United States or toreign parents who were not nat uralized citizen? SUBSCRIBER. liie lourteentn amendment to the Constitution of the United States says: "All persons born ... in the United States art citizens of the United States . . "Ererythinir is lovely and th goose hangr higli" Is a much-used expression ajid turns on a misnpprenension of the word "honk," the cry of the wi!fl goose 9s it files. On clear hiirh. Conseauentiv th'd m,iu, Inin? id lovely and t h m uuthpr l fni. LKADTNfl TOPICS "EFFICIENCY" ILLS ARE DIAGNOSED E. Merer, From Salem, Tells Portlansl What Ails City Government. SALEM, Or.. Nov. 5. (To the Edi tor.) Peopla all over the state are watching the outcome of commission form of government in Portland and are amused at the heroic efforts of the members in applying the ax to each other's departments in trimming up the budget and lopping oft alleged useless or unnecessary overhead charges. The super-heroism or Commissioner Daly in offering to reduce hts own salary from $5000 a year to $4000 a year should be accepted in good faith by the public and all the reet of the Commis sion would be nnnlattdprt hv "jtalnii-" Mr. Daly Or even "going him One bet ter.- That would stamp with an air of sincerity and conviction the action of the City Commission in discharg ing street . laborers and -reducing the salaries of hundreds of clerks and em ployes. The nepole of the learned that highbrows on big salaries u" n"i conetitute or necessity work able efficiency. Thn Statft Trlnfe.. Salem, now a mere clerical employe, is uun5 Deiter work and enforcing great economies which his predecessors, when the office paid from $10,000 to $15,000 a year, were unable or unwilling to bring about. The theory that the high brow and highly-educated class Can, by merely paying them big salaries, solve the problems of government is oreaking down In Oregon. The most important, question now berore the people Is. What constitutes real efficiency? That is a National is sue and a world issue, being fought out with blood and iron in Europe. In tha last analysis efflolency only exists in the individual. It does not exist in scraps of paper, whether they be city charters, state laws, printed constitu tions, or National treaties. The only results of efficiency we get come from the efficient man or woman. What, then, constitutes this precious Jewel efficiency? - The individual in ofrice must not only be efficient on bis job, but must possess the ability to put his hand on efficient persons under him. If he is only efficient in his own ca pacity, but hag not the political saga city or genius to -select efficient help ers, no efricieney will result. His un derlings will waste at the bunghole what he saves at the spigot. The city has had an erticiency code. Tho State of Wisconsin spent hundreds of thousands of dollars on an efficiency code, got up by reformers and college professors, and state taxes increased under it 400 per cent, according to newspaper reports. Formula govern ment is always a failure. That Is what ail your city administration in Port land. It Is the trouble with the whole Oregon system. Let me call your at ttentlon to an example of what I call real efficiency. I must go to the un salaried private citizen for my Illus tration, although you have examples of it in much of the work of your County Commissioners and In some depart ments or our state government. In the report of the management cf the Rose Festival a few months since it wae shown thpt a deficit of $1414. handed over from 1914. had been wiped out and there was a surplus of $2889 to hand back to the Chamber of Com merce. A total of $36,917.87 .was dis bursed in a few weeks and the Rose Show was the best the city ever had. Not a dollar was Wasted and there Is a handsome surplus In the fund for the show next year a condition that makes every one reel good. Mr. Bates was managing director for a strong committee ot Portland busi ness men. who gave him a rree hand, and not one ot these gentlemen re ceived a penny for their time or serv ices. Besides the large cash surplus, the report of the accountants shows that the Rose Festival committee has on hand $S5 worth of flag and bunt ing and $2800.47 worth or materials suitable for decorations already paid for that can be used next year, all saved and put away. Now, that Is business erflclency that the people would like to see applied to public affairs by men drawing sal aries, supplied with orrices and auto mobiles at public expense, with sta tionery and stenographers, and printing presses to print their reports and ad- for .... ,.,ciiiseives at public excense ruture political enterorlae Mr j-xiien aa a private citizen during the course of the year acts on a dozen com mittees, like managing the Gresham ,t wj,hout Balary, as do scores of other efficient citizens. E. HOFER. MRS. DUSflWAV'S LIFE RARE Friend of "Mother o Suffrage" Recalls Her Early Career. NEWPORT. Or., Nov. 4. (To the Editor.) It was in 1883 that I first made Mrs. Duniway's acquaintance and during Frances Willard's visit to Port land I was a guest In her house, and a kinder hostess I never had. Mr. Duni way told me at the time some inter esting anecdotes of the starting of his wife's work. They were living in Salem and heard one Sunday evening a great tirade from the pulpit against temperance. - He said he knew some thing was up. for his wife took oft her fur Wraps and then her warm coat and Winter gloves. At the flrst op portunity she was on her feet, speak ing warmly in favor of temperance. This was the occasion of the discovery of her latent talents. It was naturally a disappointment to the Roman's Christian Temperance Union when she announced that the loss of tha women's vote in Washing ton State was due to them and a grief, too, that she remained of the same opinion to the end of her life. In those early days in Salem her hus band was an Invalid and through work at a millinery store she was able to keep the family. She worked at her millinery from 4 o'clock, in the morn ing till breakfast time. She had then to do all that was necessary for the little ones. Later she was obliged to leave and return to the store. These children lived to "call her blessed." Mrs. Dunlway was. Without contro versy, tho pioneer of the equal suffrage It was. as we all. knew, her ardent be lief, and, stirred up to work for it T . . she Was most efficient as an organizer ana ine eloquence and arguments of her speaking brought in, many con verts. The opposition that she met with the early stages of the work was hard to bear, but nothing daunted her enter prising spirit and her perseverance no rebuff could suppress. . Her friends, and they are many, are iiianmui mac sne lived long enough to see the cause victorious. ' LOUISA NASH. CHAMPION OF HOBO REPLIES Correspondent Says L'nemployment and Courts to Blame. PORTLAND, Nov. S. (To the Ed itor.) A Chicago judge, who quite correctly ciassuies nimseir as a "tin erer in numan nature." believes he nas analyzed tne average hobo and reuucwi xiis auriouies to tueir ele ments. He finds the hobo to be con stituted of 20 per cent laziness. 10 per cent nitx-u iuck ana on per cent physi cal huu raemai defectiveness. The judge is mistaken In believing that the above "analysis" Is his own original discovery. It dates back to the first well-fed skinflint who sought an excuse for refusing a handout to the starving mn at the back door. The analysis is not entirely false. But it is wrong to imply that this I analysis is true of all. or of a maior- ' it V. ot those who hfL' for tnnA 1n ity. of those who bes for, food in these days. And It is stupid to assure us that nature made the typical hobo that way. The most important fact to consider in any real attempt to analyse the typical hobo", is that he is a living organism and has gone through a, long process of development. ' The learned Judge has fairly and honestly earned the right to call himif n - In human nature" hv innrin iki. fact; more especially in a time like this, when "typical hobos" are beine: produced In millions. The- flrst step in the production of a typical hobo Is a period of compulsory unemployment, long enongh to ex haust any money that may have been saved up for a rainy day. Then follows seml-8taratlon and exposure to cold and rain. This kind of Ufa will rap Idly destroy the anergy and vitality of even the strongest men, so that they can no longer stand the hard and in-1 tense labor of modern industry. The realization that ihev ,nv k -- dered physically unfit 1b at the bottom 1 ot mat zo per cent Of laziness which tho judga discovered, while tho crim inal instincts are aroused by vagrancy imprisonment, rockpile slavery and Ju dijal tinkering with human nature. The Vast majority of thme wi -called hobos need nothing else, than a cnance to earn a living. Even the Judge's "typical hobo" would quit being ," ' couia get work that would allow lils vitality to be restored. Remains oniv to eminin -k Judge should have broken into print m. liui mat is easy, We can imagine that in some dark and hidden recess of the ponderous judicial cranium there la a faint con sciousness that he also is in some measure responsible for the production of "typical hobos," and the great judi clal mind responds with a theory that "typical hobes" are born, not made which is very soothing to Judicial seir righteousness and that miraculous cures are effected by rockpile terms. Thus slavery assumes the guise ot Christian charity. Which is comfort" ing to the soul of the well fed. B. E. NILSSON. ! LAW REQUIRES STORES TO CLOSE But Grocer May Peddle Goods on Sun day If B SO Desires. PORTLAND, Nov. 6. (To the Editor.) As "W. O. H.," writing in Tho Orego nian of yesterday morning, requests me to "explain why the day he wishes to force on others happens to be the first day of tho week," I will try to make it clear to one and all that I had absolutely nothing to say in tho enact ment of the Sunday law. At the time the bill was enacted Into law I was 6 years old. That was 1864. I was then more concerned with watch ing the Federal troops march past my Kentucky home on their way to Nash ville, than I was with Oregon law. Space forbids making answer to the many questions asked by "AV. O. H.." but to that one that dares me to say Roberts, the buyer, Is not more guilty than Kellaher. the seller," I. reply that there is no Oregon law prohibiting the buying or selling of groceries on Sun day or any other day. There is where the layman becomes confused in dis cussing the law. Let me make it clear. It Is not unlawful to buy or sell goods on Sunday, but the law does say that it if. unlawful to keep open any store, shop, billiard hall, tippling house or other place of business for business purposes on Sunday, commonly called Lord's day. The unlawrul act is not in buying or selling, but in keeping open those spe cifically named business houses. To provide fcr cases of mercy or necessity the law excepts drugstores, doctor shops, butchers, bakers, livery stables, undertakers and theaters from its op eration. ir a grocer took a basket on his arm and went about selling rrom the basket no one would claim he was violating the law. The law allows me to mow my lawn or sell lawn mowers, but it says I must close my hardware store. It permits me to prune my rose bushes, but it compels me to close tho offices of the Retailers' Reporting Company, which I manage In prescribing a rule of action for the government of the people the law makers merely specified that day of tho week that Is set in the calendar under the name Sunday and to further iden tify the day they said "commonly called Lord's day." Had the lawmakers said "seventh day of the week" or "lirst day of the week" there would have been the same dispute, different de nominations Betting up rival claims in support of their faith. This law, like all laws governing so ciety, is a man-made law, for the gov ernment of men in their temporal vo cations. Why anyone should quote Scripture either for or against it is a mystery unless we assume that some labor under the delusion that "freedom of conscience" licenses the individual to do wfcat he pleases so long as he conforms to his conscience. There is but one excuse for any mer chant breaking this law and that is to say he finds advantage In opening when his competitors are closed and he wants that advantage, law or no law. R. G. D. MR. DUNCAN'S RICHES IRRITATE Mrs. L. Garriott Saya Member of Gro cer's Association Has Plenty. PORTLAND. No 6. (To the Ed itor.) The writer who designates the Grocers' Association as a trust and oc topus may not havo known Just how near he was to the truth, but an ex amination or the roster shows nearly every member or the organization to be wealthy, if not rich. The present secretary, Robert G. Duncan, could well afford to quit work He owns $40,000 wcrth of California lands, a section of Texas lands, a fine home In Portland and but recently compromised a contested will case in volving his grandfather's estate for a sonaideration of $210,000. Mr.. Duncan will have the above amount paid to him next year. That he will spend any of It is questionable. John D Rockefeller's middle name is Duncan" accounting for the frugality of the oil king. If he ever turns a dollar loose he must have $1.25 in exchange. He ought to resign from the ofTIco ha holds to some man who needs the po sition. Truly the name octopus de scribes our Grocers' Association MRS. L. GARRIOTT, ' 257 West Farragut. GIRL'S TREATMENT PROBED Industrial School Methods to Under go Investigation. To investigate the alleged Inhumane treatment of girls at the State Indus trial School for Girls at Salem, the ad visory board of tha school win meet in Salem Monday. The caso to come under consideration is that of Genevieve Foster, aged 19, sent from Multnomah County a few weeks ago. It is claimed that because of the girl's violations ot discipline a straight Jacket was used on her by Mrs. 13. K. Hopkins, superintendent of the school. An examination of the girl's sanity will be asked for at the meeting Monday. The board is composed of Mrs. Lola G. Baldwin, or Portland: Mrs. Aristene N. Felts, or Portland, and Mrs. W. H. Dancy, of Salem. In an Ice plant In Camilla, Ga.. a oo pound Mock of Ice dropped 10 feet and struck John Roes, a nero employe, on the head. TVIth the exception of a short silt In- the scalp be dl1 not appear to ft teri ously inconvenienced ,y lh blow and alter havlnt- the -nounu dr5sed, he went ba-k to work. TASK FOR GERMANY CONSIDERED Tnrkey Declare to Neeel Stern Hand f Berlin In Constantinople. PENDLETON. Or., Nov. 5. (To the Editor.) To tho providentialist the latest developments in the European oiruesie present possibilities of. earlv and permanent peace. With Germs nv- llkely soon to be in snhituMi.i or Constantinople, the civilized world, outside the warring powers, would be satisfied to see her remain there per manently, providing she were to with draw her armies from France and Bel gium, give to Poland the national status which it enjoyed prior to its Partition, restore Alsace-Lorraine to France, abandon that militarism which la the 'potential causa of the present war, and the aroh menace to compre hensive liberty or the race. Germany in Constantinople as the friend of Turkey might be an nnomalv. but a friend can achieve more than an enmy BB civilizing inriuence. The war, after 16 months of carnage, is practically a drawn gams. Th allied forces are everywhere triumphant upon seas, in ins colonies, and are slow ly gaining in the west, whiln ih tral powers are Victorious in tha east. The terms of peace in the end will of hecesslty be the result of compromise. Is it not possible that Providence has made of Bulgaria's sham at this Junc ture an avenue through which peace may come? Austria, fighting ninn. tin. in feated everywhere. Whatever tha final result may be, she will emerge as a vassal state, subject to the domination or her powerful northern sister. It might ba well to make Hungary a. sep arate state, eliminate the Hapsburg dynasty, and permit German absorp tion of tha Germanic provinces of that mosaic empire. The Slavio races ought to be somehow reunited under a com mon government, and the Csech or ouuemia snouia Do permitted to erect a commonwealth or his own, kindred in character to Switzerland. The historic canite! iinA eti ti,. - phorus Is a prise rich enough for Ger- mmoiwon. ror us possession na tions have grappled all through the centuries, and its control now will open Asia Minor to German trade. 'and as sure substantial German suzerainty or the Balkan states. It will make for the German nation Its place in the sun. .rrom tns tanapolnt of civilization Turkey needs the strong hand of the stern military oligarchy which rules at Berlin. The turbulent Balkan states will be Improved by remoulding In the crucible of Intelligent and progressive absolutism. It Is more than possible that Providence has selected Germany to perform the task in the Near East, which the combined authority of the powers, arter a hair centurv of effort, has railed to accomplish. The German methods or government are well suited to modernize the Turk and to develop the latent natural resources of the Turkish empire. - Democracies like France and England are not equipped Jor the task, Italy could not master it. Russia cannot yet intelligently govern herseir. It is iull time that the myriad or subject races in Asia Were released rrom the cruelty and oppression ot Moslem injustice. England's navy and Disraeli's doubt ful diplomacy unjustly barred Russia from Constantinople in 1878. and It win perhaps be Just retribution now If Great Britain shall witness the en thronement of her powerful rival in the matchless eastsrp capital ot the Caesars. The people Of Germany would never have countenanced this war could na tional sentiment have found expression in 1914, and the majority of the Amer ican people have undoubtedly hoped that the ultimate result of the present strife might be to relieve the German nation from tho Hohenaollern blight, and to establish a German republic. That may yet come. The military group, which unhappily governs Germany, has succeeded, through Its disregard of national ob ligations and the consciousless savag ery which characterises its methods of warfare. In alienating ths Sympathy and arousing the antagonism of the common people of Christendom, what ever the formal attitude of govern ments may be. This world-wide senti ment must ultimately exert rerlex in fluence among the masses of the Ger man empire. Is It not possible now for the voice) or the true Teuton the Ger man of kindliness and honor whom all respect to make itself heard, and at this fateful Juncture to Compel the proposal of terms of peace along the lines above indicated? , The neutral world will largely approve, and the moral pressure or humanity will com pel the allies to accept. STEPHEN A. LOWELL. M. P STMANUS GIVES POSITION Dismissed Cltr Hall Stenographer Taken System to Task. PORTLAND. Nov. 6. (To the . Edi tor.) With reference to a recent In terview given by L. S. Kaiser, super intendent of tho water bureau, 1. trust that you will publish this statement from mo for the reason that there seemg to have been an undue amount of publicity, in regard to my sojourn in the City Hall for some 60 days in tho bureau of waterworks as stenographer, addressograph operator, or whatever they want to call it. At the time I received a communica tion from the Civil Service Bard of this city notifying me of my appoint ment as stenographer I was selling typewriters in Boise, Idaho, working that state and doing a good business. As I desired to complete a course in law at the University of Oregon, where I have already studied two years, and as I have had eight yearn' experience with the United States Government un der Civil service, I knew I was capable and feeling I could satisfactorily com ply with the requirements of any offi cial in the water bureau, I accepted th position. There never has been any complaint made to me of my work in that bureau by any one, but it appears that the work that I was doing was in viola tion of the city charter, punishable bv a fine of some $500 and imprisonment In the County Jail. This was brought to tha attention of Mr. Kaiser by the president of the Civil Bur vice Board, Mr. Caldwell, after I had asked him my status in the matter. This rathe? Incensed the chief clerk, Mr. Chess man, who said that the matter was purely one of administrative Junctions and they would set a man to do any thing they saw rit in that office. He said that they would not tequlre in v services any longer, as I had com plained about the work that I was re quired to do; that they didn't need a stenographer anyway, and d.dn't havo to keep one. They said that I would be laid off that day at noon, October 2, J913. Inas much as this was a probationary period tliey contend that they can dis charge an employe without anv reason whatever, and this ias the proposition that the- Civil Service Board is tak ing up. It is true that an employe may ba discharged for unsatisfactory services within six months of appointment, but there Is no provision that the employe employed as a stenographer or clerk shall put in his probationary period of six months on an. addressograph ma chine, more especially so when he never operated one before. There is plenty of work in that "of fice for a stenographer to do without compelling him to do tho work of fa vorites who are unable to pass the re quired examinations, but are put on desks that should be held by men who have been laid orf in the "Interests of economy," M. F. Jl'MAAUB.