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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (July 31, 1915)
THE. MORNING OREGOXIAX. SATURDAY, JULY 31, 1913.
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v'FOKTUNO, SATURDAY, JULY SI, 1915.
A SUBMARINE BASE IN OREGON.
In authorizing: substantial enlarge
I ment of the Navy, Congress of neces
sity must, and doubtless will, provide
;for the enlargement of existing Navy
Jjards and the establishment of new
. ones. The present Navy taxes the ca
pacity of the Navy-yards on the twe
coasts and lack of facilities ashore
i-often too long delays repairs to war
ships. The great deficiency In shore
. stations today is on the Pacific Coast,
."which has but two Navy-yards, as
against seven on the Atlantic Coast
and others on the Gulf of Mexico.
In times past, when efforts have
-been made to secure the station of a
. larger number of warships on the
; Pacific Coast, the Navy Department
-lhas repeatedly taken refuge behind
I the fact that the Pacific Coast did not
have enough Navy-yards to handle a
' big fleet. Tet when the Pacific Coast
1 sought appropriations for more or
larger Navy-yards, the Department's
answer was that most of the fleet was
. stationed in the Atlantic, and there
-.was not need for more yards.
' With the expansion of the Navy
end this expansion is now assured in
tvlew of the awakening of the Admin
istration there will be need for more
Navy-yards along the Pacific Coast,
and the Navy Department will be un
able to sidetrack the demand, unless
it intends to hold the Pacific fleet at its
"present size, and add all new ships to
ithe Atlantic fleet or to fleets In for-J
Naval officers being very generally
impressed with the fiecessity for many
. more submarines than now fly the
-American flag, and submarines hav-
lng demonstrated their superiority in
the war abroad, it is reported that
the Navy Department will ask Con
gress to authorize somewhere from
fifty to eighty of these craft. If Con
: grees responds to public sentiment
; with liberal appropriations for war
'ships, the Department must, while
: urging appropriations for more ships,
recommend appropriations for more
It recently was rumored that the
Navy Department contemplated the
. establishment of a naval base on the
Columbia River. The rumor has been
: pronounced unfounded by the ranking
: officers of the Navy. But if the De
partment has not yet come to see the
. necessity for establishing a naval base
somewhere between Puget Sound and
San Francisco, where the only VTest
'. em Navy-yards are located, naval men
familiar with conditions on the Pa
cific Coast will awaken to this neces-
; slty as they work out the details of
the new naval programme. j
.: Heretofore there has been an un
reasoning, unjustified prejudice
-against the Columbia River In the
s minds of naval officers on duty at the!
Department, and the successive heads
of the Department have absorbed this
' prejudice. Today if the proposal were
'brought squarely before Secretary
.Daniels that a Navy-yard be estab
lished on the Columbia, he probably
. would veto the project. There is,
, however, a project which Portland
: and Columbia River interests can put
forward to which the Navy Depart
ment can urge no practical, or the
oretical objection. That is the estab
; lishment on the Columbia River, or
on the Willamette, o a submarine and
destroyer base. Puget Sound, with its
' abundance of deep water, can readily
care for battleships of heavy draft, if
its Navy-yard is sufficiently enlarged
In capacity. The Mare Island yard,
when dredging operations are com
pleted, can also take care of some
battleships and of the cruisers on the
Pacific station. But unless- these
yards are more than doubled In ca
pacity, they cannot make all necessary
repairs to submarines and to destroy
ers and expeditiously handle the larger
chips as well.
Congress in recent years, in appro
priating for submarines, ' has directed
that a part of each year's authoriza
tion be built on the Pacific Coast and
he detailed to Pacific stations after
completion. , There is every reason to
believe this policy will be continued.
If it is, some provision must be made
Jor caring for these vessels after they
go Into commission. Being Intricate
of design, and more or less experi
mental as yet, submarines in particu
lar, and destroj'ers to a less degree,
require frequent overhauling, altera
tion and repair.
The money necessary to equip the
Puget Sound or Mare Island Navy
yards to handle the submarines and
destroyers to be added "In the near
future to the Pacific fleet would es
tablish a station on the Columbia
River or on the Willamette. Port
land furnishes a ready supply of me
chanics, and in Portland markets can
be purchased the supplies for such a
station as readily as In Seattle or San
Francisco. A yard near Portland
would have the advantage of fresh
water not found at either of the exist
ing yards on the west coast. Being
centrally located, such a yard would
be in easy communication with both
existing yards, and Portland's climate
is such that outdoor work could be
carried on throughout the year.
While the Navy Department has
riven no consideration to the proposi
tion of establishing a naval base on
the Columbia River, and while offi
cials of the Department say the ques
tion has not been considered, this
particular suggestion has not been
laid before the Department. If prop
erly presented between now and De
cember It might receive favorable
Certain theological pundits are de
bating over a proposed "plucking
board" for ministers. Its purpose
would be to force them out of their
pulpits when they are past work. We
cannot approve of any such project.
An aged minister should no more be
forced out of his charge than an aged
father out of his dwelling. An assist
ant should be assigned to him and he
should be warmed and cheered by his
people's love until he dies.
HIS COLD XEBTE.
Becker died gamely, protesting his
Innocence. But he was not innocent.
It was in keeping with the wicked
character of the man that he should
go to his fate with a. lie on his lips.
He had worn for many years a blue
uniform and a policeman's shield, the
outward and visible signs of the
duties put upon him by the law
to enforce the law. But he betrayed
his trust and violated his oath and
lived a false and unworthy life.
It took a man of iron nerve to do
the things Becker did. He was the
partner of criminals, though he was
sworn to protect the public against
crime of all kinds. He was a grafter,
a crook, and finally a murderer. He
was forever over a powder mine, yet
he was always under the aegis of the
law, himself an arm of the law's au
thority, and an official bulwark of its
security. Only an untoward incident
betrayed him. He might have gone
on always without exposure, fattening
on the weaknesses and misdoings of
others, except that murder will out.
"Charlie." said Mrs. Becker, "Is not
a saint, but he is no murderer."
Becker had a believing and faithful
wife. He realised it at the last, as it
is to be hoped he did from the first.
He paid an affecting tribute to her
loyalty in his dying message. It is
well enough that she should have faith
in the innocence of her husband. That
is poor enough consolation for her in
her sore troubles. But it is impera
tive for the public protection and for
the public confidence in the exact
workings of justice that the truth
about Becker be known by all others.
Becker reaped where he had sown.
He was first a traitor to his trust, and
finally by natural steps in wrongdoing
a murderer. The law has been vin
ANOTHER DESERTING DEMOCRAT.
When Mr. Bryan reaches New
York, on his grand round of the
country for the purpose of rallying
deserving Democrats to the Bryan
standard, we shall expect to see his
enthusiastic and complaisant friend,
James M. Sullivan, occupying a front
place on the Bryan platform with
other distinguished officeholders and
ex-officeholders. Sullivan is the
shirt-sleeve diplomat, who was Min
ister to Santo Domingo, appointed
through the Bryan influence and re
moved from office, for the public
good, after Bryan quit.
A Bryan encomium of the service
able Sullivan was contained in that
characteristic letter which Bryan
wrote, soliciting the appointment of
"deserving Democrats" in the Domin
ican customs service. "You will find
Sullivan a strong, courageous fellow,"
said the good Bryan. "The more I
see of him the better I am satisfied
he will fit into the place there and
do what is necessary to be done."
Mr. Sullivan was dismissed upon the
recommendation of Senator Phelan, of
California, commissioned by the Pres
ident to Investigate the Santo Do
mingo situation, for "temperamental
unfitness." His methods in doing
what was necessary to be done" were
too raw. For example, he made him
self the protector of a particular bank.
In which the public funds were placed.
That is what he was there for.
Secretary Bryan sturdily stood by
Sullivan during his incumbency. It
was a particularly inexcusable per
formance in view of the unsavory sur
roundings of Sullivan and the high
duty of an American Secretary to put
the diplomatic service on a plane be
yond suspicion or justifiable attack.
Yet Bryan sought through Sullivan
and others to make Santo Domingo
fair hunting ground for an odious
gang of Democratic spoilsmen.
But Santo Domingo Is only a part
of the story. The diplomatic service
as a whole suffered sadly and almost
Irreparably from the spoils-making
proclivities of Secretary Bryan. It
will take years for recovery.
BUYING' BELCIVM.FOR S 100,000,000.
John Wanamaker makes a propo
sal to buy Belgium for (100,000,000
from Germany and give it back to the
Belgians. Evidently Mr. Wanamaker
believes that money will accomplish
anything. Yet it is hard to believe
that he has made his fantastic sug
gestion seriously. Belgium Is not on
the bargain-counter of nations, nor
did Germany seize and hold the little
kingdom for commercial purposes.
Her reasons were purely military and
One may well wonder where Mr.
Wanamaker got his idea that Belgium
might be bought and sold, or that
Germany would assume to give title,
or that J100.000.000 is the right sum.
Is it conceivable, either, that King Al
bert would consent to buy his way
back to his lost throne?
Germany entered Belgium a year
ago as a highway to France, appeal
ing to the Belgians not to interfere
and guaranteeing ample reparation.
It is true that Germany acknowledged
that the neutrality of Belgium was
thus violated, but the law of necessity
was pleaded as being a paramount
excuse. It Is true also that the world
was assured by Chancellor Bethmann
Hollweg that Germany would in no
circumstances annex Belgium. If
that is so, why seek to buy back Bel
gium? Belgium will come Into Its
own kingdom at the end of the war,
even with a German victory, unless
Germany changes her mind. As a
matter of course there will be a re
stored Belgium If Germany is defeat
ed. So Mr. Wanamaker'! $100,000,
000 will be wasted in either event.
It would seem that the Philadelphia
storekeeper's philanthropic purpose
to purchase Belgium might better be
changed to a plan to raise $100.
000,000 for the relief of needy Bel
gians and needy Poles and other suf
ferers from the great war.
J. S. -Yoder writes The Oregonian
that ha is puzzled by a contradiction
between our opinion of country diet
and that of a minister who recently
lectured in' his neighborhood. The
minister could not sufficiently praise
the food he ate on his trip light,
spongy bread, fresh butter and the
like. And he told the rural audience
that they ought to be thankful for
their dietetic advantages. This, as
Mr. Yoder remarks, does not Jibe with
The Oregonian's lately expressed opin
ion that city people outlive their
country cousins because they have bet
ter food to eat.
We protest at the outset that the
case of a minister on a visit to a rural
community is hardly typical. What is
set before him differs tragically from
the ordinary diet of the country. The
spongy bread and the fragrant butter
of which ha partakes are not tha rule
but the rare exception on rural dinner
tables. More commonly the bread is
sour and the butter resembles the
famous pat which Josiah Allen's wlfa
kepton the table for show all ona
Summer while she was saving up
money for a trip to Boston.
lf rural cooks would do for the'ir
own families what is done for tha
visiting minister wa should sea fewer
ill-nourished, dyspeptic farmers. The
common practice-is to ship to the city
the best the farm produces and feed
the family on what cannot be sold.
This is a species of economy which
has shortened many a life. It is pro
verbial that if one wants the best of
country produca he must go to the
city to find It- As a matter of fact,
there are a great many villages like
Hubbard, from which Mr. Yoder
writes, which import most of their
vegetable luxuries from town.
The art of cookery has been so neg
lected in our schools and homes that
the health of rural communities haa
been sadly Impaired by indigestible,
innutritious food. The vision of tha
country dinner table laden with all
the luxuries of the land and groaning
under its sumptuous burden of sapid
eatables is largely mythical. The real
ity too often takes tha disillusioned
form of fried pork and sour bread,
with soggy potatoes to eke out the re
past. Farmers should learn to feed
themselves as well as they do the
TflE SUMMER VACATION.
Mrs. T. Vernette Morse, of Chicago,
has sound ideas for the betterment of
the public schools. She expressed
some of them at the Panama Fair tha
other day and we are glad to see that
they have been pretty widely pub
lished. Mrs. Morse is president of
the National Vocational Art and In
dustrial Federation and may be sup
posed to have given a good deal of
thought to the problems of vocational
education as well as to the best inter
ests of the schools in general. Her
tneory that the public schools should
be in session throughout the year is
gaining ground among disinterested
students of education.
Tha practice of leaving the vast
school plant of the country idle dur
ing the Summer months while the
children run wild upon the streets can
hardly be reconciled with sound sense.
Mrs. Morse would divide the school
year into four quarters with brief va
cations between them. Of course one
quarter would come in the Summer
months. This plan has been adopted
at the Chicago University and has
worked well there. The hardship
that it might bring upon the instruc
tors has been evaded by assigning to
each of -them one quarter for his
These periods of relaxation may be
allowed to accumulate, If the in
structor wishes, until they amount to
a full year, when he may go to Europe
or pursue investigations at the ends of
the earth. But it is mainly for the
children's sake that the Idea of a
full year's school should be pushed.
We need not remind the reader that
our school children are two full years
behind th.fce of France and Germany
as far as knowledge is concerned.
The real reason for their backward
ness is to be found in their waste of
time. From the school day and the
school year a bit has been lopped off
here and another bit there until the
whole Is sadly depleted. Of course
the children take all the play time
they can get. and too often their par
ents encourage their idleness, but the
consequences are none the less de
plorable for that. If the inexcusably
wasteful Summer vacation cannot be
abolished it can and should be ma
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE NKZ PERCE
In the current number of the
Washington Historical Quarterly Nel
son C. Titus gives an account of "The
Last Stand of the Nez Perces" under
their heroio Chief Joseph. The final
battle of the inglorious war in which
the Nez Perce nation was ruined and
all but exterminated was fought on
the western slope of the Bears Paw
Mountains, whither the starving In
dians had fled before the armies of
the white man in the hope of curing
buffalo meat for their Winter's food.
Here they were surprised by United
States troops under Colonel Nelson A.
Miles, and, after a surprisingly pro
longed resistance, were obliged to
surrender. The trouble with the Nez
Perces began, as most troubles did
between the Indians and white men,
through the treachery and dishonesty
of the "superior race." Chief Jo
seph's tribe had played an honorable
part In the history of the West from
the time of the Lewis and Clark ex
pedition. They befriended these bold
explorers and were so deeply Im
pressed by their manly virtues that
some twenty-five years later they sent
to St. Louis asking for teachers of the
white man's religion to come and live
Marcus Whitman set up his mission
In response to this pathetic plea. At
that time the vigorous and thriving
tribe of the Nez Perces possessed . a
wide stretch of territory bounded on
the east by the Bitter Root Mountains
and extending Into Oregon and Washington-through
Idaho. But the greedy
eye of the goldseeker and stockman
was already fastened upon their land
and by the year 1855 the Nez Perces
had been worked up to the point of
submitting to one of those "treaties"
by which our Indian wards have been
systematically swindled. This treaty
deprived them of all their territory
but the Wallowa Valley, a romantic
and fruitful region In the northern
part of Oregon. Here they dwelt
happily for many years and might
have developed a unique civilization
in the Swiss-like liberty of the friendly
mountalns had it not been for the In
veterate greed of the miners and cat
tlemen. Envious of the scant pos
sessions of the Nez Perces, these ad
venturers egged the Government on to
require another renunciation of the
This time they must forsake their
lovely homes In the Wallowa country
and migrate to Lapwai in Idaho, the
site of one of the Whitman mission
stations. Part of the Nez Perces, In
their desire for peace with the United
States, agreed to go. but others re
fused, relying upon the treaty of 1856.
But our treaties with the Indians have
had even less virtue than "scraps of
paper." Troops were sent to remove
the unwilling Nez Perces by force. It
was then that the masterly energies of
Chief Joseph came into play. He
placed himself at the head of his re
bellious people, intending to lead
them into Canada, where, as he said,
the Government kept faith with its
The Federal troops in that region
were commanded by General O. O.
Howard, whose ardent piety did not
interfere with the execution of in
human orders from his superiors. His
first move was to block the exits to
Canada, expecting to pen up tha In
dians In the Wallbwa Valley and carry
the entire tribe into captivity. But
Joseph found a way out over tha Lolo
Pass, which led into the Bitter Root
Valley, then a wild region but row a
paradise. His plan was to proceed
toward Canada through the Mullan
Pass, not far from Helena, but, learn
ing that it was held by a strong guard,
he turned southward and sought shel
ter in tha Big Hole Basin, a retreat
which seamed secure. General How
ard's troops were four days in the rear
and Joseph knew of no other danger.
But Major Gibbon had pursued him
with a battalion of cavalry which at
tacked the sleeping Indians before
dawn. Confused at first, the Nez
Perces soon rallied and inflicted a ter.
rible defeat upon the foe. Gibbon's
cavalry was rendered so helpless that
he could not interfere with the move
ments of the Indians, who quietly de
camped from tha Big Hole, made their
way eastward and northward through
the Yellowstone Park and across the
valleys of the Yellowstone and Mis
souri Rivers to within eighty miles of
the Canadian border. Here, on the
western slope of the Bears Paw Moun
tains, they camped to replenish their
store of provisions by a buffalo hunt.
During their flight before the Fed
eral troops the Indians had commit
ted no depredations. They Injured
nobody and paid for the supplies
which they received. This is strictly
true of Joseph's band, whatever may
be said of other and less competently
commanded parties. But the military
made no distinctions between tha bad
and the good. They visited upon tha
heads of tha Innocent tha real or
imaginary crimes of tha guilty. It fell
to Colonel Miles to strike tha lat and
killing blow at the fleeing Nez Perces.
Passing round the northern flank of
the Bears Paw Mountains, he came
upon their camp early in the morn
ing of the last day of September. The
year was 1877. Mr. Titus narrates in
careful detail tha events that followed.
If any white reader can peruse the
account with pride, wa do not envy
his stony heart and moral insensibil
ity. The usual attempt was made to
surprise the Indians, but it failed.
Then Chief Joseph was taken prisoner
by treachery, though when the Nez
Perces captured Lieutenant Jerome as
a hostage he was released.
Repeated attacks failed to dislodge
the Indians until, on October 3. a
twelve-pound brass cannon was
brought Into action. This exploded
shells in the middle of the Nes Perce
camp, hurling women, children and
warriors Indiscriminately Into the air.
Driven to desperation by this weapon,
against which they could make no de.
fense, tha Nea Perces, by Chief Jo
seph's advice, finally surrendered and
were led away captive and desolate
to the desert home provided by the
Government In exchange for the love
ly valleys and lakes of Wallowa. Those
who 6hudder over the horrors of Eu
ropean warfare may, if they will, find
precedents for the worst of them in
our campaign against tha innocent
and manly Nez Perces.
To offset the Lincoln Highway In
the North, tho South has projected a
Dixie Highway to run from Michi
gan to Florida. The construction of
these long Interstate roads, with the
steady Improvement of the automobile,
portend heavy inroads upon railroad
passenger traffic. It would be inter
esting to know just how much the
auto has cut down their receipts from
Panama Fair travel.
Cheap radium will be a boon to
cancer patients and they may thank
the Government for It. It is not "dirt
cheap" even yet. The price still
ranges about the comfortable figure
of J36,00O-a gram. But that Is bet
ter than a million for the same weight.
Radium treatment will always be too
expensive for the poor unless public
or private charity pays for it.
Hamlin Garland takes up the weary
old dirge that good books are no
longer read. The auto, the talking ma
chine and the movies have swamped
them. This is not true, but what if it
were true? For many centuries books
were humanity's main resource for
instruction and spiritual refreshment.
Now we have many other resources.
Why not use them?
Deputy District Attorney Delch is
not given to hysterics, and when he
Insists In stating there are Irregulari
ties, to use a mild term, in the conduct
of saloons, he knows whereof he is
talking. Since the saloon is the poor
man's clubroom, he must be protected
In his enjovment of its advantages.
If a girl of 14 Is "preparing for tho
stage" by dressing and undressing in
a room with two men, it is time some
body used his boot to elevate the
Another conscientious manufacturer
in the East has refused a $27,000,000
order for rifles for the allies. What
his employes think of It is another
Judge Land is is handling one end
of the Eastland investigation and
somebody would better see about rais
ing $27,000,000 to pay a fine.
He looks like the same old Bryan,
he talks like the same old Bryan, and
he is the identical historical article.
Give the blanket overcoat to tha
poor man at the back door. Styles are
to be shapely this Winter.
The forecasters do not mention
"probably light snow" because this Is
the last day of July.
Oregon will get some of the war
grab. Spruce from here is going Into
Roseburg's municipal railway plan
has been declared valid by the courts.
Now, go ahead.
Something wrong In the sugar mar
ket to drop before the fruit season is
Kentucky sent a white and a black
out ahead of New York yesterday.
This spell of weather must be due
to the new spot on the sun.
Get out of the city tomorrow and
see something different.
A Jackson Club could not become
hilarious on grapejulce.
The Hon. Nakal may be the Roose
velt of Japan.
Arizona will yet hang the four Mex
icans. Warsaw is ready for tha German.
European War Primer
Br Katlamal Cfesrapblnl Sac-letr.
For weeks German rerimenta have
been working thetr way from Cracow
and Plotrkow. north and northwest, to
ward Warsaw through the aovernroent
of Radom. Tomaaow, Knnskle, Pred
borx, Stasmw, andomierz. Ostrowlec.
ilia and the River Tlllca have fol
lowed one another in the prominence
of war reports, as tha invaders have
converged upon tha central erevernment
of Warsaw, tha kernel of Kusaian Po
land. Radom Is a triangular province,
with a base toward Galtcia and its
apex pointed directly at Warsaw. The
government contains 4768 square miles,
much of which is aa rich as any land
in Kurope. More than 60 per cent of
the total area of this government was
under cultivation in !.
The government is bounded on the
west and north by tha River I'lltca.
and upon the north, east and south by
tha lUver Vistula, la common with all
Russian Poland It has suffered a
dampening of Its industrial and com
mercial development due to a lack of
facilities for communication. Tha Vis
tula Hlver forms one of Its main ave
nues of trade while one railway
crosses through the government from
Ivangorod to Kleloe. and a branch line
projects south into the central part
from Tomaaow. Itadom Is bounded by
tha governments of Plotrkow on tha
west, Warsaw and rMedlce on the
north, Lublin on the east and Austrian
Oalicla and the Polish government of
Klelca on tha aouth.
Tha military difficulty of the coun
try increases toward the south and to
ward the west; for irregular hills build
Its southern area and marshes and
swamps border tha sides of tha un
healthy Pllica. Tha southern landa of
the government ara taken up with the
heavily forested Sandomlr Heights, a
broad aertea of ranges of deeply cleft
hllla. their ridges varying- from 800 to
100 feet in height, and here and there
pierced by valleys scoured and worn
In great cuts that are bottomed by the
richest of agricultural land and
drained by tributaries of tha Vistula.
Toward the central region, the
country becomes a long, rolling swell,
broken ever and again by stray hill
formations, and In places densely for
ested. Tha cleared land hers is also
extremely fertile. It is principally un
der wheat, rye, barley, oata. buck
wheat, hemp, flax and potatoes. A
vast amount of fuel alcohol is dlMilled
from the potatoes raised in tha gov
ernment. Here, too. are great cattle,
swine and aroose farms. Large nuan-
titiea of grain and meats have always
been prominent exports from Radom.
The northern districts of Radom
government again take on a character
disadvantageous to roUttsry operations.
The land slopes .away, flat. low. mo
notonous, to fever-breathing swamps.
marsr.es and long stretches of morass
The Pllica basin Is a succession of
marsh lands, and is known as one of
tha most unhealthy parts of Poland
The climate throughout the whole gov
ernment is cold and moist, with a mean
July temperature of 7T degreeg Fahren
heit. The northern districts and the
narrow valleys among the southern
hills occasionally suffer from severe
Nearly 1.000.000 people ara sup
ported in the government, and Ita in
dustry has been developing rapidly
inrouajnout recent years. Ksdom la
rich In certain minerals. In Iron ore
and clay. Coal and sine also occur. In
peace times Iron and steel to an amount
ot some too.ooo tons Is produced.
In their drive through southern
Russian Poland, the Germans recentlv
swept over tha city of Radom. canlral
of tha government of Radom and the
last important dry In the south he
twsen their legions and the metrop
olis. arse w.
Kadorn was ona of the numerous
thriving Industrial towns of Russian
Poland which have rnrunc Into Mnr
during the last score of years with the
percolation or western capital and
western manufacturing technique Into
ii. v -.v riimminius nearent to west
ern Kurope. Chean and abundant la
hor has attracted many enterprises
across m jttisaian borders, and con
venience to the larger markets and t!'
vast stores or raw materials haa held
most of these enterprises In Russian
Poland and in tha Daltlc provinces.
i. ii in was one or the prosperous
rmKrecsive Mav towns brought forth
by this western Invasion of industry,
Warsaw lies about 0 miles almost
due north of Radom. while the only
. iMiuuKD tno souinern
county capital approaches bv wav of
t fA.i.... t. . J ..
. ... i i.nnKurDq, maxing i."e
distance by railway more than 1P0
mile. Radom la situated on tha
Mlenna. in a sweep of country which
breaks Into a low. flat reach toward
the north. It Is one of the best, most
solidly built towns of Poland, and. un
like Lods. it has taken the trouble to
reflect the growing wealth of Its busi
ness in a neat, well-planned, substan
tial outward appearance. The Indus
try of Radom has been hampered by
Insufficient means for transportation
The population of the city exceeda
SO. Ooft, nenrly one-half cf which la
Jewish. The factories turn out agri
cultural machinery. leather goods,
other machinery and Iron products
Radom Is of importance In Polish his
tory, for here several diets were held.
Jadwiga, most famous Queen of Po
land, was chosen by electors assembled
here In J8S2. Here. In 1401. the union
between Poland and Lithuania was
brought about. At tha third partition
of Poland. Radom fell to the Austriana'
"m"' U TV" nn"ed to Russia In
HOW TO DISPOSE OF THAT WOOD
Make. City Kmplavra Pa re has It at
SO Cents A bare Market.
PORTLAND, July lo.(To the Edl
Tr 1 by The Oregonian that the
City of Portland haa a large supply of
good cordwood and that the Commis
sioners had it cut in order to give poor
men honest employment to support
their families. Very good. I sea Vhey
can't sell it for cost. 1 have a sugges
tion to make.
Let all tha city employes. In all lines,
purchase their wood from the city. In
so doing they will perform an act of
charity to the unemployed and relieve
the city of the wood, and this Winter
they can help many a poor man by
letting him cut wood.
I have worked for a number of cor
porations and they always Instruct
their employes to co-operate with the
company. Now. there Is not a single
employe In tha city who does not get
mora wages for like service than the
employe of a private corporation.
You would see if all employes would
buy and pay BO cents per cord more to
tha city, they would be loyal to the
town that butters their bread.
Has a single city payroll person
bought his Winter's wood of the city?
If not. why not?
J. H. VAM METER.
V96 Cleveland Avenue.
felts and C seek a.
PORTLAND. Or.. July SO. (To the
Editor.) I have been requested to ask
you for Information, about the descend
ants of Bohemians, the "Tchecha."
Are they the origin of the Celtlo race?
Bomeone said that the Irish and Bo
hemians had a reunion at New York
of a certain festival of hlstorlo origin.
Alt Bohemia was originally settled by
Celtic tribes and tha name "Bohemia"
Is of Celtic origin. The Celts were suc
ceeded by tha Germanic Marcomann!
and later by the Czechs. The Czechs
ara Slavs and ara not of common ra
cial stock with tha Celts.
MR. CVMMIXGS BEfFIVE' RKBVKIC
fsaatrr Merrsasta Alwara tablet Mall
Order Aaaattea Alwaya Er Marks,
OREGON CITY, Or, July J3. (To
the Editor.) Tha communication of
Harry Cummin,-s. of Heppner. In Th
Oregonlaa Wednesday is of such a na
ture that I would dem It a privilege
to ba allowed to reply to It.
Mr. Cumminss writes peculiarly Ilk
a man afflicted with a malignant case
of mail-order-It is. His kind are legion.
It must be confesssed. especially
amonast the easily deceived and lite
misinformed. If it were not so we
would not bear of the Immense divi
dends being declared annually by Chi
cago niail order houses, who thrive
solely upon Individuals who sea no
honor In their o n country.
I have no personal knowledge of
conditions In the town of Heppner, but
in my wanderings In various Yillae.ee
I have met the prototype of "Friend
Cumminss" under a variety of circum
stances. He la Invariably gloomy. Ills
11.65 shoes hold a bundle of emotions,
the chief ona of which Is tha appallinc
worry that the "Main-Street Empo
rium" made "two bits" on a big trana
action with him once upon a time.
I encountered another mail order
apostle but yesterday in a thriving
community in tha valley, lie waa a son
of tha soil and his vocation upon this
day was the selling of berries. After
gaining a contribution of S2 from the
leading store to "flx a bridge." ba suc
ceeded in disposing of a crate of "six
bit" berrlea to the "robber" who con
ducted the shop for 11.55," after which
he hied himself to the overall counter,
where he refused to pay SI for a lead
ing brand sold In tha best stores In
every city In this country at thia Pi ice.
The mail order house quotea overalls
at S centa. cut small, of lighter ma
terial and made under sweatshop con
ditions, all of which mattered not to
this "thrifty" trader.
Brother Cummmgs elaborates upon
tha fart that his Heppner merchant
asks SI. 50 for shoes ha purchased at
fltS. Verily, his ahrewd al-lllty
should command a big aalary outiir
of tna connnee of Heppner.
I refute the statement that llr. Cum
mlngs purchased a pair of i i0 shoes
for fl.SS as an absurdity.
I deny the allegation that "the
largest store In Heppner" refused to
make a legitimate and reasonable ad
justment of an unsatisfactory pur
chase. Hut I sympathize with Mr. Cum
minus In his distress In finding the
stores of Heppner closed at V. M.
How sad that the "long hours" have
gone the way of tha "cracker box" and
the "pickle bar'l."
Friend Cummlngs may "go home, eat
his supper, write an order to his mall
order house and gel what ha wants at
half cost." After accomplish Ir.t this
mighty task, let him relax and await
the call. Ilia services will be In such
demand ha will be able to name bis
salary and may possibly soma day ex
perience tha novel sensstlon of wear
ing a real pair of UN leather shoes.
K. W. ROW LA NO.
Mlalaler. Caaatry Diet.
IIL'BBARD. Or.. July 39. tTo the
Editor.) Several weeks ago a noted
lecturer of Portland delivered a lec
ture t Ihe Smyrna Congregational
Church. Being somewhat late at hla
appointment, he excused himself by
saying. "You country people don I real
ize what it means to one from the city
to sit down to a table filled with home
coolted food. The l;ght. spongy bread,
the fresh butter. m:Ik and cream, the
freh vegetablea and fruit are all hard
to get away from. I know you will ex
cuse me for being late."
How shall we harmonise the above
with the paragraph on The Oregonmn's
editorial page wherein you say "City
people eat better food, and thereby
outlive Ihelr country cousins." I'lease
explain. J. ji. VOPER.
Moaer at Vale ('allege.
It has been fi.rtire-1 out that w.ien
the graduates of IMS at Yale get tlieir
cHplomaas the men will b.ive spent
11.079.111 during the four years of their
university life. The most affluent mem
ber of the class eoent 14500. and the
most frugal only :00 In actual cai-h
during the fre.'.iman year.
Balked by a Radeat.
Kx chang a.
The I'nlted Statea t!overnme:it was
recently balked by a rat. The ro.1ent
ate up a complaint on which tha Gov
ernment rested Its case for white slav
ery In Krsnclseo.
The Sunday Oregonian
Conservation of human life and human health has been the subject
of much study and attention in recent years, but most of the effort
has been directed toward savin?; the adult human.
Now comes an orgranitation that proposes to show that if the
Nation is to have better adults it must bep;in by having- better babies.
A full descriptive story of the aims and purposes of the orpanieation,
together with many useful instructions regarding the care of babies,
will be presented in the Sunday Oregonian.
A REVIEW OF THE WAR The great conflict in Europe now has
been in progress for precisely a year. What has been the cost?
What is the outlook for peace? What progress has been made by
each nation involved in this terrible war? A complete review of
the year's events, prepared by the Associated Press will be offered
the readers of The Sunday Oregonian.
EVOLUTION OF THE HORSE Do you know that the familiar horse
of ordinary domestic use is the natural development of an animal
that had toes not unlike the pedal digits of the man of today? Well,
this is a fact. It will be explained along with numerous other in
teresting details regarding the origin and development of the horse
in the Sunday issue.
MIGHTY NAVAL BASE IN MID-PACIFIC Little seems to be known
even among people along the Pacific Coast regarding Uncle Sam's
powerful naval base at Pearl Harbor on Oahu, one of the Hawaiian
Islands. Nevertheless this modern naval station is said to be mightier
than Gibraltar. A full description of what the Government is doing
there with illustrations will be one of the many attractions of the
WHY BROTHERS AND SISTERS DIFFER This is the subject of an
interesting and instructive article by Dr. Woods Hutchinson. It is the
third of his new series now being printed exclusively in The Sunday
Oregonian. It presents the scientific causes of the contrary natures
so frequently possessed by members of the same family.
OLD ORPHANAGE PASSING OUT Recent researches conducted by
the Russell Sage foundation have revealed, it is reported, that the
old-fashioned method of caring for orphan children by grouping
them in large institutions where they must live according to a strict
set of rules must pass out of existence. A new method of caring
for such children will be fully explained in the Sunday paper.
GERMANS CREATE FRENCH FASHIONS The war has revealed,
it is reported from Taris, that the cutters and fitters who created
the French fashions that have been the accepted standards of style
for so many years, really were Germans and Austrtans instead of
French. This interesting discovery will be set forth in detail in the
big Sunday paper.
PAGE OF EASTLAND PICTURES The Oregonian has secured from
some of the best Chicago photographers a number of graphic pic
tures of the Eastland disaster. A page of the best amonjj these
photographs will be printed on Sunday.
OTHER INTERESTING ITEMS In addition to all this the Sunday
issue will present the usual attractions that appeal to the reader.
Principal among them will be. the "Stories and Pictures for the Little
Ones," Donahey's page of fairy tales with illustrations, "Temple'a
"Sketches From Life," a few complete short stories, the usual sec
tion devoted to sporting news, automobiles, real estate, music, the
drama, the moving pictures, society, reports from the beaches and
Twenty-Five Year Ago
from The Orevemsn of July 31. lsn.
Washington (Speaker Reed Is con
gratulating himself on having found
a I;emocratic Justification for ona of
tha rules in hie new coda which pro
hibits the tnlrrniiimcr.t of dilatory
motions. This rule haa frequently been
attacked. The fact haa been dug up
that in If Samuel J. Randall re
ported a rule for the consideration of
tha Cowles Internal revenue bill which
provided that after tha consideration
of the bill bad begun no dilatory mo
tion whatever could be entertained.
Mr. Reed saya he will ahow thia to his
Liemooratlc orponenta and adds demo
cratic opposition la as good an Indorse
ment as ha seeks.
Gervala. Or.. S. W. R. Jones, a well
known and rich farmer of French
Prairie, has bceik buncoed out of a cool
Sl0"0 by a sharp trick. A matrimonial
tangle and a louisiana lottery deal
figured in the trick. Jones Is 7S years
old. He had announced he would make
a gift of SIS.ooit to n younc sirl he
could win as a w ife. The girl a "broth
er" turned tho clever swindle.
Springfield. Mass Morritt Edward
Gate, president of RoKera College, haa
been chosen president of Amherst Col
lege to succeed Julius H. Sceley.
The First Baptist Church, of East
Portland, has tendered a call to Rev.
C J. Reed, of trecon City.
W. J. Soar.lon will produce "Phane-na-I.wn."
the brilliant Irish comedy,
tonight, and Monday !"fnmn Thomp
son will te seen in "The Old Home
stead" at the Marquam tirand.
Tha indiKnat Ion of Republican. Con
gressmen over Mr. Blaine's Interference
In the tariff discussion has reached a
belligerent state and a move Is said
to be under way to oust him from the
n. P. Leach and R P. Klr.c. of Port
land, have opened a fine xein of coal
on. Halls Creek, saya tha Coquilla City
Herald. I-.lxh Harnett eays the coal
aasaya higher than any on the Coast.
George llxon. of Kelo. Wash.,
hauled Il.ooo feet of lumber in one
load with five yoke of oxen last Mon
day. It waa m'.l taken from one tree,
the butt of which waa 75 Inches in
Chief of Police Tarrlsh declines to
step ilnwn snd out to make way for
John W. Minlo. Pamsh asked Presi
dent Simon. If he wanted htm to resign
and Imon answered: "Not . nles you
Half a Century Ago
From The OresnJa of Ju!v St.
The steamer Kam.y Troup touched at
this city yesterday, taking and leaving
passengers, on an excurion from Van
couver to Oregon City.
San KraticUoo, July The ovation
to General Rosecreus will take place
this evening. C.tixens wiil rendezvous
In front of the City Hall at half past
eight o'clock, whence they will march
to the Occidental Hotel. The proces
sion of rltisens nil! he preceded by a
platoon of pllre. tha Ninth Infantry
bnnd and the Turner Socletv. V. H. L
Harms will address the General In be
half of the people.
Stephens' petition for rsrdnn bss
been referred from all the Government
ofticers to Secretary Reward, who. It
Is satd. has It under advisement to re
port it to the President.
lxs Anpeles. July II. Tha well of
the Pioneer il Company is now t"
feet .leep. This morning there was
over fret of oil and water In the
well. Our oil companies are all very
SMtiKtiine of their company ahorl'y
.-inking oil In paving quantities.
All banks In Boston with the excep
tion of the "Traders" hsve become Na
Notice has been given that tha Com
mon Council of the Citv of Portland
pioposes to Improve Washington street
ftom the west line of Kront street to
ihe center of Fifth. The proposed Im
provement w-lil he made by planking
of the street with four-Inch plar.k.
making sl.lewslk of two-Inch plank.
an.1 fotir-ln.-h plank for curbing.