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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (April 28, 1905)
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"PORTLAND, FRIDAY, APRIL 28, 1903.
Of all the topics discussed at the De
velopment League Convention none at
tracted more attention and brought out
a more earnest spirit than the section
on "Good Roads." This interest will
culminate at the meeting of the Na
tional Good Roads Association at the
Fair between June 20 and 24. The coun
ties of Oregon are invited to send spe
cial representatives, consisting of
Ounty Judges and Commissioners, of
Road Supervisors and way-wardens, of
farmers and landowners. All such
should attend, for the subject is vital.
Of what use is it to advise the outlying
farmer to undertake new industries, to
enlarge his orchHrd, develop his dairy.
multiply hie stock, when from the con
dition of the five or six miles between
him and the railroad he must either
(through half the year) put in half the
das- in going and returning or else stop
at home? What inducement is there
for the farmer to join his neighbors
down ' the road in building a good
srhoolhouse and hiring better teachers,
and providing eight or nine months'
schooling -for his children, when for six
rconths in the year they absolutely can-
rot get to the school? No matter what
electric railroads or motor-car lines are
built and opened, the problem will still
be- for the products of the, country dis
tricts to reach the road.
Judge Scott, of Marion County, in an
address he made to the convention, laid
stress on the common ignorance as to
the best -and cheapest way to build the
various kinds of road. The best ex
perts in the Nation will be here in June
to deal with authority on these subjects.
Certain notions must be got rid of in
advance. Ome is that each road district
is a unit by itself to make, to main
tain, to Improve the roads in and
through it at its own sweet will. Even
on the main through roads the border
line between districts is very often
marked by a most serious difference in
condition on either side. Another too
common idea is that the present rest
dents in properties through which the
road runs are. if not the only, at any
rate the substantial, parties In Interest
In that public right and easement which
belongs to the entire community.
The first necessity is to get rid of the
notion that any one who can handle a
plow and use a shovel can lay out and
build a road worthy of the name. Cer
tain principles and rules of roadbuild-
ing have come to be accepted, which
are common to all localities. Other
methods are adaptable to local condi
tions of hill and dale, of grade and
curvature, of soil and rainfall. So that
there is a science to be learned.
There- is hardly one item of county
expenditure where money well laid out
brings a surer and more prompt return
than in good roads. The saving to each
individual by which two horses do the
work of four, by which spoiling' and
waste of marketable products of the
farm are avoided, by which time now
needlessly spent Is saved, is, in the ag
gregate, gain, and serious, solid gain
to the community. Bringing the outly
ing farm within one hour, instead of
three, from the country town and trad
lng point, means a rise of substantial
value in the farm, makes the district
more attractive to the newcomer, as
well as more desirable to the resident.
Good roads mark a prosperous commu
rlty almost as much as substantial
homesteads and neat fences.
It Is probably true that much money
has been wasted in Oregon in road
building experiments. If real gains
from good roads are to be had here as
they have been realized in other states
and countries, the path of wisdom Is
not to -close the purse tightly and leav
things as they, are, but to learn better
methods, moretsultable for the growing,
rising civilization to which Oregon as
That the city is as deeply Interested
as the distant farm requires little proof.
The countryman's needs are more ob
vious and pressing, but in these day
no man liveth to himself alone. The
c ty merchant must deliver as well as
receive his goods the city doctor must
hurry to his country patient the city
harch must be filled up with country
worshipers rest, change, recreation
are absolute necessities for bodies worn
and nerves run down from the strain
of city -work. No single Interest among
the many that make up our common
life can stand back to say good roads
are no concern of ours.
MARRIED MEN TO THE RESCUE.
Miss Nan Patterson, showgirl, with
all that the name implies in fondness
for dress and display, in Immorality and
in reckless disregard for the conse
quences of waywardness, Is on trial for
her life for the third time for the mur
der of Caesar Young. Her acquittal is
practically a foregone conclusion. She
herself bases her belief in acquittal
upon the fact that her counsel, by sa
gacious fencing and careful manage
ment, succeeded in getting a jury of
married men. She had killed her para
mour, a married man, who had spent
many thousand dollars upon her, and
who was, presumably, tired of her and
was on the eve of departure for Europe
in the hope of shaking her off. If she
is acquitted, as seems more than prob
able. It will be. according to her own
estimate, a married man's victory, in
fluenced by a fellow feeling 'for men In
the strait in which Caesar Young found
himself, andfrom which he escaped by
the fate of suicide or murder.
There Is another reason given for the
great desire of this defendant a
woman lost to all sense" of virtue and
even of common decency to secure a
jury of married men before whom her
delinquencies were to be exposed, and,
as a last resort, a plea for meroy was
to be entered, namely, that married
men regard with more leniency than do
unmarried men the emotional nature of
women which leads them, or may lead
them, to commit social sins.
Whether the one contention or the
other'-is or is not well grounded ia
matter of opinion rather than of proven
fact. That which seems certain In the
Nan Patterson case at present is that
she will be acquitted by a Jury com
posed, according to her desire, of mar-
fled men. The evidence In this case has
twice before been presented in all of its
revolting details to the court, and
through the press has been given to the
public. It is a tale, long-drawn-out, of
gross immorality, wild extravagance,
reckless infatuation, marital faithless
ness, the efforts of a wire to reclaim
her errant husband, of an abandoned
woman to thwart this purpose, and of
a sensational killing, whether murder
or suicide is yet undetermined, as the
last resolution of a desperate woman or
a more desperate man to make an end
of an unseemly debauch In which they
had engaged for months under the
name of "love." The story Is a long
one. Its springs lie baik in the turbu
lent waters of the years when, as child
and girl, Nan Patterson was in tutelage
for the part that she played in this
tragedy. There were but two persons
present when the pistol shot that ended
the life of Young rang out upon the air
the man who was trying to escape
from the woman and the woman who
was determined not to let him go. The
shot left nothing for him to toll, and
it put the story that he had committed
suicide upon her lips. So it stands the
state combating It with the story of
While It is not likely that conviction
will follow this prosecution, it must be
patent to all who have followed the
trials that the state has a good -case.
For example, "J. Morgan Smith, brother-
in-law of Nan Patterson, who was sup
posed to have bought the plBtol for the
woman to do the deed, was spirited
away at heavy cost before the former
trials. Being .produced at the present
trial, the pawnbroker who sold the
weapon suffered a convenient lapse of
memory and failed to identify Smith.
In support also of the murder theory
Is evidence that this man Smith and his
wife shared with Nan Patterson the
bounty of Young, and that they, as
well as she. were loath to have him de
part with his wife to Europe, as that
would mean a serious falling off in their
revenues. It Is against testimony of
this character, and much of it, that the
married men'6 jury Is expected to bring
in a verdict of acquittal. In this event
let us hope that Nan Patterson -will
not be Induced to enter the lecture field
with a repertoire which includes "Hus
bands I Have Known," "Married Men
to the Rescue," and similar suggestive
CRIMES OF THE CATTLEMEN.
Along with the breath of Springtime,
along with the swelling brooks and
bursting buds, comes that old, old story
of warfare between the sheepmen and
cattlemen of Southeastern Oregon. It
Is the familiar tfale of midnight murder.
arson and malicious slaughter of help
less dumb brutes, and a general reign
of lawlessness such as would have dis
graced the blackest days of the. Dark
Ages. These fires of lawlessness, -kin
dled by avarice and greed, of course de
mand new fuel each year, and the per
sonnel of the human victims, or a new
brand on the unfortunate sheep, offer
the only variation to the old, old story.
These annually recurring outrages are
a disgrace to civilization. The offenses
are intensified from the fact that the
men responsible for them are supposed
to be and actually do lay claim to re
"Morgan, the pirate, and others of his
ilk who sailed under the "Jolly Roger,'
murdered and pillaged wherever they
found victims, but they made no pre
tensions to being anything but outlaws.
As such the world expected nothing but
outlawry from them. There was a dis
regard for sham or false pretenses in
their actions which is missing in the
work of these land pirates who infest
and defile one of the fairest sections of
Oregon. There is another feature of
the work of these land pirates which by
contrast with that of Morgan is highly
flattering to the long-dead buccaneer.
Morgan led his murderous bands and
fought shoulder to shoulder with his
men. The skulking Oregon land pirates
are too cowardly for anything that car
ries with it a possibility of danger, so,
for the safety of their own worthless
carcasses, they generally employ some
cheap murderer to do the killing by
which they hope to profit.
It is a terrible state of affairs to exist
in a civilized commonwealth, and Is one
61 the outgrowths of that pernicious
but not uncommonly accepted belief
that anything which belongs to the
Government is the legitimate prize for
the thief who can first get his hands on
it. The cattle, kings of California and
Oregon, aided by land thieves of high
and low degree, have succeeded in gain
ing possession of vast tracts of land in
the two states, and, by virtue of such
possession, have for years claimed sov
ereignty over millions of acres to which
they have no right whatever. It Is the
effort to exclude the sheepmen . from
this land, to which they themselves
have no right, that causes these cold
blooded murders cviery year. The title
to these. lands Is still vested In the Gov
ernment, and, in the eyes of the Gov
ernment, the rights of the sheepman
are as sacred as those of his wealthier
opponent, the cattleman. Unfortunate
ly, no determined effort has ever been
made to curb this lawlessness, which
breaks out as regularly as the buds of
Springtime, and this fact has a most
detrimental effect on that section of the
state where the outrages take place.
No homeseeker who comes to the
state with the intention of remaining
here will care to settle in a district
where murder goes unpunished simply
because local public sentiment is in fa
vor of the murderer. The picket lines
of law and order are, of course, each
year being extended a little farther Into
"Darkest Oregon," but the stigma of
crime will not be removed from some
portions of Southeastern Oregon until
there is more of a tendency among all
settlers in that region to aid in hunt
ing down and bringing to justice the
redhanded murderers who seem willing
to kill sheep or sheepherders with bru
THE CASE OF TOM BROWN.
A revolting story is being told from
day to day before the court In Chehalls
In which the State of Washington Is
prosecutor and Tom Brown, an untu
tored, unkempt and all of his" life an
abused and uncared-for 17-year-old boy
Is defendant. The charge upon which
this lad is arraigned is murder in the
first degree; the man killed was his
father; the Instrument used in the kill
ing was a rifle; and several shots were
fired before the deed was complete.
At first thought one must turn in hor
ror from this youthful parricide, and,
stifling pity, commend him to the gal
lows. But there Is another side to this
story. The father, a brutal man by na
ture, became doubly brutal through the
Inordinate use of strong drink. Wife
and children were the victims of his
drunken wrath for years. This boy had
repeatedly. In his early childhood, been
beaten into insensibility. Because of a
course of systematic cruelty which he
had suffered, he both hated and feared
his father. The final tragedy was pre
ceded by a race between the boy and
his father for the house, where the gun
was kept. The boy got there first, got
the gun, and -the rest followed. He
makes no denial of the deed; shows no
remorse for it, and seems to have no
dread of the probable consequences. He
Is. in short, what his father made him
an uneducated, irresponsible lad, whose
only dream of manhood was In the hope
that It would give him strength to get
even on the father who had made his
life a qurse.
While murder, except in the extrem
ity of self-defense, cannot In any sense
be justified, the conditions precedent to
this crime if the killing mas be so
called go far toward palliating it. The
boy. It is said, is a degenerate, whose
mental state closely borders upon in
sanity. Begotten by such a father,
brought up In domestic clamor, starved,
beaten, overworked, untaught, it is a
marvel, not that ne took a human life
upon great provocation, but that he
lived in a country neighborhood from
his Infancy up to 17 years of age with
out having disturbed its peace and
safety. If acquitted of this crime, It
will be the duty of the state for its own
protection to place him In the Reform
School; if condemned to a long term of
penal servitude, he will find prison life
at Kb worst superior to the home life
he has known; if executed, the state
will have discharged itself of a grave
responsibility in the easiest If not the
best way. The case is at once revolt
ing and pitiful.
SOUTHERN TACIFIC AWAKENING.
The determination of the Harriman
system to Improve the physical condi
tion of the Oregon division of the
Southern Pacific by the expenditure of
a vast sum of money may be taken to
indicate that the recent improvements
of the trunk lines of the system has
proved highly remunerative. Few, if
any. railroads have ever been con
structed in a new country in such man
ner as to leave no room for Improve
ment In the way of reducing grades,
lessening curves and otherwise increas
ing the economies of operation. Not in
frequently the temptation to get quick
returns at a sacrifice of increased ex
penditure In the future defers the need
ed Improvement too long. The South
ern. Pacific's Oregon division has for
many yeare had an unenviable reputa
tion on account of its dilapidated, run-down-at-the-heel
It is doubtful If there is another road
In the United States running through
a country so rich and well populated
as the Willamette Valley that has such
arslow train service as the Southern
Pacific. The wisdom of the manage
ment Is strikingly apparent in the slow
schedule by which trains are run, for,
were the speed increased under existing
circumstances, it would certainly prove
expensive to the company and dossibly
fatal to a-great many passengers. The
inferior physical condition of the road,
and the attendant light equipment that
could with "safety be operated on It,
was in a measure satisfactory when
Ben Holladay was in power, and it was
mildly excusable in the earlier days of
the Huntington regime; but, in these
modern times of close figuring on the
cost per ton per mile, it has become
quite plain to railroad men that the an
cient -Southern Pacific was no longer an
economical proposition ln! comparison
with modernized roads.
The trunk lines of the Harriman sys
tem made enormous drains on the rail
road treasury during the past four
years of reconstructive period, and.
while that work was in progress, divl
dends were small and the stock was
'hammered down "'to & low point. With
the completion of these repairs came . a
change, "The old locomotives .hauled
more cars and ran more miles than was
possible under the former condition of
the road, and heavier steel and a better
roadbed permitted the use of larger lo
comotives, which still further reduced
the cost of mqvinsr freight and passen
ger trains. There was a backward flow
of profits to the treasury", which soon
advanced the price of the stock and
placed the system on a healthier finan
cial basis than it had ever before en
joyed. What has been accomplished on
the trunk lines and in a measure on the
O. R. & N. Co. will be repeated in de
gree on the ancient Southern Pacific.
Plans now approved for betterments
in Oregon call for expenditure of
$1,500,000 this year. This is a large sum
of money, hut It will soon trickle back
Into the treasury In the shape of sav
ings made In the, cost of operation.
Fast trains will promote travel and
economy of operation ,wlll eventually
admit of a lowering of freight tariffs,
withattendant Increase In business. The
Oregon division of the Southern Pacific
is In the hands of men who know what
is needed, and, when they get the road
In the desired physical condition. If
Wall street will permit them to operate
it to the best advantage", everything
will be profitable and satisfactory alike
to patrons and the r,oad which is serv
ing them. With the completion of the
great improvements now projected,
there may be a more nopefui outlook
for construction of some-of the numer
ous feeders which 'are ld"ng overdue In
Many interesting and close questions
have arisen concerning the effect the
local-option law has upon city charters
which grant the municipality exclusive
control of the liquor traffic. The Su
preme Court decided in the box ordi
nance case that the local-option law
takes precedence over a charter passed
before the law was adopted. The ques
tion not being In isshe, the court passed
no opinion concerning the effect the
law may "have upon a charter paesed
since the law was adopted. The last
Legislature passed a large number of
charter bills, the chief purpose of which
was to evade the provisions of the local
option law, and In due time controver
sies will arise, thus paving the way for
a test in the courts. Then the Supreme
Court will have the question presented
squarely and will be called upon to
construe the two acts as they affect
each other. While it would be Interest
ing and often convenient to have Su
preme Courts pass upon questions of
law without waiting for the point to be
placed squarely in issue, yet it Is prob
ably a wiBe policy for the court to give
no opinions until an actual controversy
requires It. Courts that are too ready
to give opinions are most likely to find
themselves In error.
The number of witnesses who have
come forward to swear that they saw
Nan Patterson and Caesar Young en
gaged in a death struggle In the New
York cab grows from day to day. In
almost every Instance these yarns are
hardly worth investigation. They arise
out of the insatiable desire of persons
of a certain stripe for notoriety. No
one saw the murder. The mystery
grows. Some one has a theory as to
how It happened. He or she tells the
prosecuting officers, squaring the al
leged facts with his or her imagination.
No sensational tragedy, bearing a
strong element of mystery, ever hap
pens without testimony of this kind by
witnesses who never saw the crime.
Pacific University, at Forest Grove,
has won ten out of fourteen debates in
which it has participated. This is a
record of which the school may be proud
even though it should lose every foot
ball contest In which it may engage.
Tito debating societies of the colleges
are admirable training schools for fu
ture public men and that Institution
which develops good debaters may feel
assured that it is accomplishing prac
tical results. To be' a good debater re
quires quick and accurate reasoning,
good command of- language, breadth of
reading, aptness In illustration, elo
quence of speech, gracefulness of man
ner and an understanding' of human
If Charles M. Schwab returns from
Russia with orders for a big fleet of
warships, some of his indiscretions in
connection with a shipbuilding combine
which built no ships may be forgotten.
The United States is now reaping some
of the benefits accruing from the splen
did work of our battleships during the
war with Spain, and It is a matter of
indifference who brings home the orders
so long as they are brought to Amer
Kozloff, terror of the nihilists, at the
age of 68 years, ha3 been called from re
tirement to fill the position of Governor-
General of Moscow. The Russian pub
lic In consequence fears a revival of
harsh measures and more bloodshed.
Attempts have been made on Kozloff's
life at numerous times In the past,, and,
with most of the Imperial family
frightened into very close cover, he
may now meet the fate he has thus far
The Portland Flour Mills Company
yesterday dispatched another of the
flour cargoes that have made Portland
famous. The vessel carried 56,000 bar
rels, valued at more than $200,000. This
is much smaller than some cargoes
which have preceded It, but It assists
in keeping up the record, which shows
that Portland has cleared more cargoes
in excess of 50,000 barrels than have
been cleared from any other port on
Thibetan savages, who were appar
ently well-satisfied with their own form
of religion, have just murdered four
French missionaries "and a Chinaman,
who accompanied them beyond the
safety lines on the Thibetan frontier.
The introduction of a new religion, as
with any 'strange custom, will always
be in a measure unsafe In certain re
mote localities, unless bullets as well as
Bibles are used.
Tacoma papers are doing the usual
amount of boasting over the big cargo
taken out by the Oriental liner Ping
Suey. The value of the big liner's cargo
was more than $1,000,000, ifhd exceeded
that of the Minnesota 1y nearly $25,000,
This record will hardly be permitted to
stand, for, if necessary, citizens of Se
attle will Include some of their bank
clearings with the " cargo of some of
Honduras would be a lonely place if it
were not for American embezzlers. San
Francisco is supposed to have contrib
uted the latest emigrant. In the person
of Collector Smith, to the Central
With America's naval guns blowing
their muzzles off and Britain's too weak
to be fired with full charges. It Is quite
possible that nations with the biggest
navies will be strongest advocates of
Russia intends to have her new bat
tleships made in America. This will be
mere waste of money, however, unless
she follows the same course with re
gard to her Admirals and sailors.
Banker Bigelow should not fworry
over his inability to recall the names
of all his creditors. The creditors will
The Scottish verdict of "not proven'
appears ,to be the logical one in the
Nan Patterson case.
No doubt BIgclow will go down in his
tory as the banker that madc'Milwau
' ' NOTE A"NDCOMMENT.
Bank clerks that cannot settle here
settle in Honduras.
Honesty is the best policy, better
even than an Equitable.
If we .were about to commit suicide
we should not choose the gas method.
There is always a doubt in the minds
of the people as to whether? or not the
suicide was intentional.
The Baltimore Herald presents a pic
ture of the President "in full hunting
regalia." f - ,
We used to think the advertisements
of "Dr. Queer's Quick Cures" In the Ir
rigon Irrigator were "joshes," but have
now come to the conclusion that they
are genuine patent medicine boosts.
The Irrigator's grave condemnation of
Ironical paragraphs leads us to be
lieve tnat It is more matter-of-fact than
we had suspected, and it is certainly to
be deplored that a reputable country
paper should advertise the rldlculously
named "Q. Q. Q." as a panacea for mor
tal Ills, from biliousness to baldness.
Is "Nan" an endearing twist of Ann
or Nancy? Thcro would be far less in
terest in Nan Patterson's trial if she
were known as Ann Patterson, and al
though Nancy Patterson would be bet
ter than Ann, it lacks the jolly brevlty
"Carnegie has given $10,000,00 to
found a home tor superannuated col
lege professors. Far better to chloro
form the brutes.
In a county with a name such as Ash
tabula anything Is possible. A t farmer
there Ashtabula County Is in Ohio-
has discovered that the heat generated
.In a hive of bees Is just the thing for
hatching eggs, far better than a hen's
or an incubator's heat and two days
quicker. So while this farmer's bees
are busy storing away honey they are
also unconsciously hatching out a lot
of line Spring chickens. The correspon
dent sending out this story neglects to
state what changes are wrought in
the chickens thus warmed Into life. Do
they acquire stings? Do they lay eggs
of honey? Do they buzz instead of
clucking? We await replies to these
Guerrero, the Spanish dancer who is at
present charming Londoners, is in the
habit of wearing all hor Jewels by day as
well as by night. She says in explanation
that the precious possessions are lcs3 like
ly to be- stolen from her own care than
from a bank or safe. That is an cxpana
tlon that docs Guerrero's Ingenuity some
credit, and it woud not be surprising to
find other womon beginning to act upon
the same plan. If one has jewels, why not
"Sissificd asses" are no longer to be tot
crated in the Presbyterian ministry, ac
cording to a. resolution introduced in the
Pittsburg Presbytery. "Resolved," coa
tinued the resolution, "that their admls
slon be discouraged; that the ministers be
Instructed to no longer part their hair In
the middle." How much more sensible to
discourage ungrammatical asses and to
resolve that the ministers be Instructed
"to ho longer part" their Infinitives In the
Sarah Bernhardt, vigorously condemns
the proposed perhaps threatened would
be the better adjective resurrection of
the crinoline, but Mile. Sorol. of the Thea
trc Francalse, Is rathor inclined to favor
such a return to a former mode. One
thing Is certain the crinoline was never
meant for use In a street-car age. Fancy
two or three ladles of equatorial girth
trying to do the strap-hanging stunt in a
wib-wobbledy car there would be a crlnk
ling and crumpling of hoops straightaway.
American Medicine refers to drunkards
as ola alcoholics. '
Portland will soon-begin to feel that it
Is not Itself when no grand jury is In
Bogus dollars are boing circulated hero.
Persons catholic enough to accept "taint
cd" money will doubtless draw the line
Rojestvcnsky may settle matters by cut
ting Togo when he meets the Japanese
The Admirals have never been introduced
Mrs. Chadwlck's effects were sold for a
song, which didn't contain any of the
There is a sort of worked-up sontiment
about rcburlals. Had Napoleon's body
been left in St. Helena, would Franco
have lost anything Would the contempla
tive heart not be touched more deeply?
Drake's bones are coral made In the
Spanish Main, a fitter resting place than
even Down. Who would dig up the bones
of Shelley and of Keats from their Ital
ian resting-places? There Is something
artificial about second burials, which re
ly, too much for effect upon mere empty
Safe and Safer Games.
Lafayette (Ind.) Journal.
Checkers Is a less dangerous game
than chess. Few checker-players go
crazy, although many are crazy t6
playC A safer game than any of them
Is seven-up, and there is nothing the
mattor with four-handed euchre. And
then there are crlbbage and sixty-six,
both of which are almost entirely safe,
as very few crlbbage or slxty-slx
players evor get more than half-crazy,
and then only when they lose seven or
eight games In succession.
Born Before Ills Time.
The poet Chdtterton was starving In
"I live too soon," ho despairingly
cried. "Now, if this were 1005, I could
-n-rlte street-car poetry and take my pay
In brookfast food."
But It was before the days of street
cars. .So the poor follow starved to death.
The Unfortunate Orcgonlan.
The Irrlgon Irrigator.
The Oregonlan has been doing ome
high and lofty tumbling, having turned
a complete flop. It Is now on the side of
aiitche.ll. "Why? Has it -seen a light? If
Mitchell was guilty a month ago ho is
still guilty. If the Oregonlan was right
a month.ago it Is wrong now.
The Music's the Thin?.
Senator Mitchell ct al, have injured
their cause and themselves by their
grasping at nothing but technicalities.
Face the music on the merits of the
cases, that's what the people want.
- - Butcher, baker, merchant, weaver! "
I xour lack of custom chronic?
Has your business got "Spring- fever?
Give It advertising tonic!
ARE OUR RAILROAD RATES TOO HIGH?
Interesting: Figures by an Expert, Compiled in Behalf of the Railroad .
Companion Relation of Revenue to Wages Fore ism Statistics.
Washington, D. C Special to the Chi
cago Inter-Ocean.) The interest In the
Senate committee hearings on railway
rate regulation is growing. Railroad men
and attorneys have been heard, and more
are to follow. A number of shippers have
requested to be heard. The committee
itself has called on several experts. One
of these is the well-known Chicago jour
nalist, Slason. Thompson, who has become
recognized as one of the leading statisti
cians in the country, especially in railroad
As to American Freight Rates.
That frelcht rates on American railways
are the lowest in the world, and had
steadily tended downward until the recent
advance in wagea and material, is proved
by the following statemerts compiled by
Average revenue per ton per mile, trackmen.
Rate. Kate. wages,
Year. cents. Tear. eents. lear. per day
1S70 1.990 1S05
.810 1S03 $1.17
1882 1.240 1896....
1887 1.030 1897
18SS 1.001 1S9S....
I860 922 1S99....
1S90 041 1900
1891 803 1001....
1892 80S 1902
1893 879 1903.....
Compare the advance of 5.4 per cent in
the rate since 1SD9 with 12.3 per cent in
wages of the most numerous body of rail
way employes since 1S3S. The cost of all
railway supplies has advanced even more
Foreign Freight Rates.
In England, the North Eastern Railway,
the only British road giving intelligible
statistics, shows the following average
receipts per ton mile In It-OS:
On minerals 1.98
On merchandise and livestock , 2.94
On all commodities 2.32
Pcntf. R. XL. on much the same classes.... 0.5S
In Germany, av. revenue per ton mile. ...1.42
In France, av. revenue per ton mile 1.65
In Austria, av. revenue per 'ton mile....!. IB
In Hungary, av. revenue per too mile. ...lot
The rates of American railways are low
in order to move the greatest quantity of
freight. As wages are high they have to
depend on rigid economies of operation to
make their small margin of profit.
It costs 23 cents a mile to move a ton of
freight from the farm or the factory to
the station; It costs less than three
fourths of a cent h mile to transport it
thence to Ua destination.
As to Passenger Rates.
The average revenue of the railways for
carrying passengers one mile since the or
ganization of the Interstate Commerce
Commission has been as follows:
Cents. Cents. Cents.
1SSS 2.35 1S0S 2.11 150S l."7
1889 2.17 ISM 1.80 1899 1.98
1890 2.17 1803 2.04 1000 2.00
1891 2.14 ISOf. 2.KJ 1901 2.01
1892 2.13 1897 2.02 1002 1.99
Where passenger rates have declined
nearly 6 percent since 1SD2 the average
dally wages of the men most directly em
ployed In train service have Increaiwd as
Bngihcmen '..Conductors 10
Firemen 10Othcr trainmen 14
The recent Increase in receipts per pas
senger mile is due to losing the choapeat
passenger traffic, which Is traveling by
trolley, and not to an increase In rates.
The cost of passenger service Is con
stantly increasing to meet the demand for
more trains and greater speed.
Foreign Passenger Rates.
England First class. -1 cents: second, 15
cents: third, 2 cents. Average receipts per
passenger mile, about 2 cents.
Germany Fast trains: First class. 3.45
cents: second, 2.55; third, 1.7. Ordinary
trains: J? irst, 3.uicenis: sccona, iniru.
1.53. and fonrth. O.i" (not allowed on fast
trains). Average receipt per passenger
mile about 1.07 cents, due to 90 per cent of
travel being third and fourth-class on
cars little better than American boxcars.
Travel for One Day's Pay.
Distance one days' pay of labor will
carry him In different countries:
Country , miles.
Per day a pay.
THE ITALIAN RAILWAY STRIKE
Muny reports on the strike on tne
railwav. Of Italy have boon furnisaeu.
by the cable service ot the Associated ;
Press. A writer in the Milwaukee AVis j
consin supplies these explanatory j
There ar 9318 miles of railway In Italy, j
three-fourths of which are owned by ths sov- i
ernmcnt. but government operation of the rail- '
ways ceased In 18S5. On April 27 of that year
the government entered Into contract leas
ing the roads to private corporations for tW
years, retaining the privilege, however, ot
terminating the contracts at the end of 20
years or at the ond of 40 years. The flret
option to resumo the operation of the rail
roads will mature on the 27th of the present
month. The 4-prrlt of socialism is at present
verv strontr In Italy, and a bill is now pend
ing in the Italian Parliament which provide
or state management and administration of
flve-slxtbs of all the railway lln of the
country- If It is enacted a sum equivalent to
"flOO.OOO.COO will have to be immediately d
burd to liquidate the claims of the compan
ies. The plan Is to make this department of Kv
ernmental activity Independent of pomieal
ehanRes by cntrustlns it to a nonpartisan
council of administration, concHstins of a cen
tral board jt Romo and a number of depart
mental boards of directors- The bill is a min
isterial measure and was drawn with great
care, in the hope of foroatalMnc any possi
bility ot clashes between the railway em
ployes and the government when the govern
ment resumes toward the employe, the rela
tion of? employer. With this end in view, the
preamble of tho measure promises Improved
conditions ot service, higher wager In the
near future, an extension of pensions to wid
ows and orphans of men losing their lives In
the tervlce and participation by employes in
the profits of tho business. Strikes are ta
booed, probably on the theory under which
In Holland and In Australia strikes on gov
ernment railways have been trcatetd as prac
tically equivalent to rebellion against the
government. To render strikes unnecessary,
the bill provides for a -system or arbitration.
.Every branch of the service is to elect a
co u nail of lt own. ami tne prpsiaenw or.
these councils are to form a grand council,
empowered to treat with the administrative
board on all matters affecting the service.
Serious controversies' are to be rof erred for
final settlement to a tribunal consbstiB? of a
councilor of state, two legal represcntatlvee,
two members ot the railway administration
and two representatives' of the employe.
Evidently, the railway employes object to
the proposition to deprive them of the right to
strike. The labor leaders demanded certain
changes, which were .conceded by the min
istry. Then further changes were demanded,
which were refused. The labor leaders re
sponded by catling a strike. If all the rail
way employes called out had obeyed the cail.
300.000 would have quit their positions; but
the atrike order was obeyed by npt more than
half of the men. Premier Fortl denounces the
strike as an effort ot one class ot citizens to
atscrt special rights In conflict with the in
terests of the country, at large. He has pat
the army la charge of the railroads, making
It extremely dangerous for the strikers to at
tempt to interfere with the service.
It appears ver probable that the'strlks can
not succeed in coercing- the ministry. If 't
succeeda in defeating the passage of the bill
it will be memorable as an uprisins of so
cialist workingmen against a proposed meas
ure which. It consummated, would have placed
nearly ill the railways of Italy ou a social
The phenomenon is not so anomalous as It
superficially appears. It reveals the fact that
the workingmen of Italy who call themselves
Socialists are not Socialists at heart, but in
divlduallsts. They are unwilling to sacrifice
their liberty. In tho nature of thlngss social
ism Is synonymous with centralization of
.power. A socialistic government would bo
stronger and more highly centralized than any
Great Britain 1'
Germany (government railways) - oft
France -government railways) .iti
Belgium (government railways) 'M
Italy (government railways) -to
Russia (government railways) "a
I ml la (government railways) -I
Pay of Railway Labor.
(American and Foreign.)
It American railway freight rates were
in proportion to American wages in com
parison with foreign wages, they wouW
be from four to eight times what they
are. as the following figures, from official
Average pay of railway laborers In va
rious countries whose freight rates are
more 'than double American rates:
United State (a) $1.
United Kingdom -
Germany (atate railways)
France (state railways) T.35J
Belgium (state railways) 4. .48
Italy Cstate railways) -42
Rufia l state railways)
India (state railways) .OS
(a) The lowest pais class ef railway em
ployes. Average pay of several classes of fail
way employes in the United States. 'Groat
Britain and Belgium. 1003:
per day. per da.
Enginemcn $1.W ?pl.-
Flremea 2JS -91
Conductors S-S- 1.22
Other tralnmeB 2-17 .N
Gen I office clerke. -.-1
Station agents 1.S7
Switch and croesins:
tenders and -watchmenMen
Belgium is chosen for me cmiansn w
catise the nay of railway labor tUr is les
complicated with premiums ami a!wBg'
tnan elsewhere on ths continent, s'ea BHOe
tla Department of Labor. So." 20. and Kit
annual report of the Commlesloaer oC Tjurfcc.
In 19K the Interstate Commerce Com
mission summarized their capitalization
Tc4al railway capital. .
Qwned by railrvado. . .
Net railway capital $lU.2Sl."S.,i
Cost of I tit 11 ways and Equiimumt.
The Interstate Commerce Commission
In 1806 reported as follows:
Ceet ot road (lR.S2lt mlleJ....?llA278jai7,lt()
Cow ot equipment t'lrj.77.i5:
Total cost 5107.5U4tf:
During the last tow years new ltxm(lvr,
uaskenger and freight cars eoet upward '
5KY4.frM.f4N). The cost of the oouIWHsm r-
ported in 103 was prtxlmately:
( No. Av. cost. Total cost.
ICOWOtlref .. 43.571 SU.WO $ 482.S1.0W
PaMKtftger cars r.l MI C.Oflu 22S.S40.dbU
Freight cars. .1.715,24 70 1.20.674.aX)
Total coH of ettuipntciH $ 1.0l2.W,Jul
Ctant ot road a above I0.278.7r7.22.
Cost ot 11.400 miles not repre
Cost 9t rwd and equipment. .?12.794.SO.Otr.t
This cost covers a total mileage for all
tracks of 283.S21 miles. It Is the large coet
of aiding, yard tracks, elevating tracks,
and other facilities at terminal-, rather
than the construction of ifw road, that
hax e&ttticd recent additions to railroad
As to Kail way Accidents.
Relatively to passenger and freight traf
fic, fatalities to paascngerg and employes
are lesj oh American than foreign rail
ways, as the following table shows:
Year. Country. Mileage. Killed. Killed.
1(01 Russian Europe.. 2S.9S2
ltHS-3 Norway 1.430
I iSott-t DemwH ".'.'.".'..
IfHK SH-rrtB i.isi
1 194 Germany
BefctuiM ....1 2.S2.
Austria 12. Id"
I'nltsd Kingdom.. 22.431
Het of liorupc.. S.JW7
Total 17T.3KJ SHI 2.25"
1MW United Ptats....2o7,77 XIX 3.2R
Since 1W0. French reporw cover ety aeet
dents to trains.
, trod the meant of nubal-Hcnec of every indl-
; vw,wi under its dominion. Every approach
toward socniliam tend toward cantraltsatMHi
of powrr toward ring rule toward the moat
odiotM despotism over the marses by an aspir
ing and mw-rwukw few who can manage to
clutch the reins. The present industrial sys
tem has its disadvantage, but it is Paradtcn
for the worhiegman compared with what tint
socialistic aystem would be. If "he doe net
like his Job under the present system, he cun
qwfrt it. and he is still a citlsen. Under the
octaHstic system, if he quit his Job be would
be an ontlaw a traitor; a condemned "and
hunted man. with no chance to obtain employ
ntont. for the only, employer would be the
slate, and the Mate would mean the govern
ment, and tho ieovernment would mean Mho
men in control of tho zovernmcHt, and the
men in control of the government wwutd' have
Socialism, reduced to practice, would . in
dustrial slavery. Xo wonder that Ration So-
enUteui object to o!lligm whH thy realize
wnat soviaHrMM means.
A JJud listnkc.
Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser.
George Bernard Shaw declares that'
"ehihlren are the great deatreyaro .of
home -lifo." Sucn an assertion craatAg a
strong -suspicion that his birth rAuft a
broad . mistake.
Jtouiid the Bend. '
Sydney (X. S. U'.) Bulletin.
Round the bend where the pungas' grow,
I heard an asle groan,
The clatter of linch-pine knocking slowv
in a drowsy monotone.
A great voice bellowed, ."Won back, there,
"You Lion-cow, eemc here!"
Then I heard the "plunk" ef a banjo shrill!
Its mwsic sounding clear.
Round the bend the leader's came
"With lary shouldering stride.
Toughened muscta and solid frame.
Under the tawny hide.
Sturdy bullocks, and well they hauled.
Yet I saw no driver there.
And "plank! plunk! plank!" the banjo 'aaned.
Playing a reckless air.
Round the bend the wagon swayed.
With a led horse tied behind.
While the ghostly banjo twanged and played.
And the axles squealed and whined.
Oit there. Sergeant: Dickie! Dan!"
I looked In vain for sign of man.
Kven up In the gums. - "
Round the bend the dust swept down" '
Till I saw the wagon-tail.
And a lazy teamster, tanned and brown,
Lying there on a. hale.
H sparred and struek at the hovering files.
lite banjo on his chest.
H damned the heat and his horse's eyes.
But he cursed his bullocks best.
Round the bend he looked at me.
And ii mlded a curt '"Good-day,"
Then let a passionate melody
Over the pungas stray, 4
With "cllnka: clunka! clang! clangl olangl-
Ile soothes his sleeping dog
So full of harmony and slang
"You Major-cow! You hog!"
Round the bend I watched him go
Vnder tho noon-day glare.
With llneh-plns knocking soft and low. ' '
Playing a dainty air.
He yelled at the bullocks he could net
I heard the wagon groan, .
And his banjo's t wanking came to me
In a drowsy monotone.
Round the bend tho dust dropped down
And covered the -wagon-tall.
And I envied that tearopter, tanned and brown.
Lying there on a bale:
Heavy and alow, his bullocks swung;
His horje dreamed on behind:
His dog slept sound, and his banjo rung
And his was an easy mind.