THE " MORNINGjOKEGONIAN, FftlDA-T,- 7 , $PRlt- '2S; ' i90o; ' ? ' Enterefi at the PostoOlce at Portland, Or., as second-class matter. SUBSCRIPTION BATES. INVARIABLY IN ADVANCE. (By Mall or Express.) Dally and Sunday, per year $9.W Dally and Sunday, six months o.OO Dally and Sunday, three months 2.65 Dally .and Sunday, per month....... Dally -without Sunday, per year 7.50 Dally without Sunday, six months 3.00 Dally without Sunday, three months 1.95 Dally without Sunday, per month...-.. .65 Sunday per year 00 Sunday, six months. ........ ........... 1-00 Sunday, three months.. .CO BY CARRIER. Dally without Sunday, jer weefc........ .13 Dally per -week. Sunday included..'..... .20 THB WEEKLY OREGONIAN. XIasued Every Thursday.) Weekly, per year J-.W "Meekiy, six months -7& Weekly, three months.... -30 HOW TO REiUX Send, postofnco money rrder, express order or personal check on your local bank. Stamps, coin or currency are at the sender's risk. EASTERN BUSINESS OIXICE. The S. C. Beckwith Special Acency New York; Rooms 43-50 Tribune building. Chi cago; Rooms 610-512 Tribune building. The Oregonlan does not buy poems or stories from Individuals and cannot under take to return any manuscript sent to it with out solicitation. No 6tamps should be In closed for this purpose. KEPT ON SALE. Chicago Auditorium Annex, Postolfice News Co., 17S Dearborn street. Dallas, Tex. Globe News Depot, 260 Main street. DenTcr Julius Black, Hamilton & Kend rick, 80C-312 Seventeenth street,, and Irue nuff Bros., 605 Sixteenth street. Dec Moines, la-Moses Jacobs, 300 Firth street. Goldfield. "Sev. C Molone. Kansas City, Mo. Rlcksecker Clear Co., Ninth and Walnut. Los Angeles Harry Drapkln; B. E. Amos, 514 West Seventh street. Minneapolis M J. Kavanaugh, 50 South Third; L. "Regelsburger. 217 First avenue South. New York City I Jones St Co., Astor House. Oakland, Cal. W. H. Johnston. Four teenth and Franklin streets. Ogden F. R. Gpdard and Meyers & Har rop; D. Xa. Boyle. Omaha Barkalow Bros.. 1612 Famham; Mageath. Stationery Co., 1308 Farnbam; McLaughlin Bros.. 24C South 14th. Phoenix, Ariz. The Berryhlll News Co. Sacramento, CaL Sacramento News Co., 429 K street. Salt Lake Salt Lake News Co.,,, 77 West Ee"ond street South. Santa Barbara, Cal. S. Smith. San Diego, CaL J. Dlllard. San Francisco J. K. Cooper & Co.. 746 Market street; Foster & Crear, Ferry News Stand; Goldsmith Bros., 23G Sutter; L. E. 3p Palace Hotel News Stand; F. W. Pitts, 1008 Market; Frank Scott, 80 Ellis; N. Wheatley Movable News Stand, corner Mar ket and Kearney streets; Hotel St. Francis News Stand. St. Louis, Mo. E. T. Jett Book & News Company. 806 Olive street. Washington, D. C. Ebbit House News Etand. "PORTLAND, FRIDAY, APRIL 28, 1903. X- GOOD ROADS. Of all the topics discussed at the De velopment League Convention none at tracted more attention and brought out a more earnest spirit than the section on "Good Roads." This interest will culminate at the meeting of the Na tional Good Roads Association at the Fair between June 20 and 24. The coun ties of Oregon are invited to send spe cial representatives, consisting of Ounty Judges and Commissioners, of Road Supervisors and way-wardens, of farmers and landowners. All such should attend, for the subject is vital. Of what use is it to advise the outlying farmer to undertake new industries, to enlarge his orchHrd, develop his dairy. multiply hie stock, when from the con dition of the five or six miles between him and the railroad he must either (through half the year) put in half the das- in going and returning or else stop at home? What inducement is there for the farmer to join his neighbors down ' the road in building a good srhoolhouse and hiring better teachers, and providing eight or nine months' schooling -for his children, when for six rconths in the year they absolutely can- rot get to the school? No matter what electric railroads or motor-car lines are built and opened, the problem will still be- for the products of the, country dis tricts to reach the road. Judge Scott, of Marion County, in an address he made to the convention, laid stress on the common ignorance as to the best -and cheapest way to build the various kinds of road. The best ex perts in the Nation will be here in June to deal with authority on these subjects. Certain notions must be got rid of in advance. Ome is that each road district is a unit by itself to make, to main tain, to Improve the roads in and through it at its own sweet will. Even on the main through roads the border line between districts is very often marked by a most serious difference in condition on either side. Another too common idea is that the present rest dents in properties through which the road runs are. if not the only, at any rate the substantial, parties In Interest In that public right and easement which belongs to the entire community. The first necessity is to get rid of the notion that any one who can handle a plow and use a shovel can lay out and build a road worthy of the name. Cer tain principles and rules of roadbuild- ing have come to be accepted, which are common to all localities. Other methods are adaptable to local condi tions of hill and dale, of grade and curvature, of soil and rainfall. So that there is a science to be learned. There- is hardly one item of county expenditure where money well laid out brings a surer and more prompt return than in good roads. The saving to each individual by which two horses do the work of four, by which spoiling' and waste of marketable products of the farm are avoided, by which time now needlessly spent Is saved, is, in the ag gregate, gain, and serious, solid gain to the community. Bringing the outly ing farm within one hour, instead of three, from the country town and trad lng point, means a rise of substantial value in the farm, makes the district more attractive to the newcomer, as well as more desirable to the resident. Good roads mark a prosperous commu rlty almost as much as substantial homesteads and neat fences. It Is probably true that much money has been wasted in Oregon in road building experiments. If real gains from good roads are to be had here as they have been realized in other states and countries, the path of wisdom Is not to -close the purse tightly and leav things as they, are, but to learn better methods, moretsultable for the growing, rising civilization to which Oregon as pires. That the city is as deeply Interested as the distant farm requires little proof. The countryman's needs are more ob vious and pressing, but in these day no man liveth to himself alone. The c ty merchant must deliver as well as receive his goods the city doctor must hurry to his country patient the city harch must be filled up with country worshipers rest, change, recreation are absolute necessities for bodies worn and nerves run down from the strain of city -work. No single Interest among the many that make up our common life can stand back to say good roads are no concern of ours. MARRIED MEN TO THE RESCUE. Miss Nan Patterson, showgirl, with all that the name implies in fondness for dress and display, in Immorality and in reckless disregard for the conse quences of waywardness, Is on trial for her life for the third time for the mur der of Caesar Young. Her acquittal is practically a foregone conclusion. She herself bases her belief in acquittal upon the fact that her counsel, by sa gacious fencing and careful manage ment, succeeded in getting a jury of married men. She had killed her para mour, a married man, who had spent many thousand dollars upon her, and who was, presumably, tired of her and was on the eve of departure for Europe in the hope of shaking her off. If she is acquitted, as seems more than prob able. It will be. according to her own estimate, a married man's victory, in fluenced by a fellow feeling 'for men In the strait in which Caesar Young found himself, andfrom which he escaped by the fate of suicide or murder. There Is another reason given for the great desire of this defendant a woman lost to all sense" of virtue and even of common decency to secure a jury of married men before whom her delinquencies were to be exposed, and, as a last resort, a plea for meroy was to be entered, namely, that married men regard with more leniency than do unmarried men the emotional nature of women which leads them, or may lead them, to commit social sins. Whether the one contention or the other'-is or is not well grounded ia matter of opinion rather than of proven fact. That which seems certain In the Nan Patterson case at present is that she will be acquitted by a Jury com posed, according to her desire, of mar- fled men. The evidence In this case has twice before been presented in all of its revolting details to the court, and through the press has been given to the public. It is a tale, long-drawn-out, of gross immorality, wild extravagance, reckless infatuation, marital faithless ness, the efforts of a wire to reclaim her errant husband, of an abandoned woman to thwart this purpose, and of a sensational killing, whether murder or suicide is yet undetermined, as the last resolution of a desperate woman or a more desperate man to make an end of an unseemly debauch In which they had engaged for months under the name of "love." The story Is a long one. Its springs lie baik in the turbu lent waters of the years when, as child and girl, Nan Patterson was in tutelage for the part that she played in this tragedy. There were but two persons present when the pistol shot that ended the life of Young rang out upon the air the man who was trying to escape from the woman and the woman who was determined not to let him go. The shot left nothing for him to toll, and it put the story that he had committed suicide upon her lips. So it stands the state combating It with the story of murder. While It is not likely that conviction will follow this prosecution, it must be patent to all who have followed the trials that the state has a good -case. For example, "J. Morgan Smith, brother- in-law of Nan Patterson, who was sup posed to have bought the plBtol for the woman to do the deed, was spirited away at heavy cost before the former trials. Being .produced at the present trial, the pawnbroker who sold the weapon suffered a convenient lapse of memory and failed to identify Smith. In support also of the murder theory Is evidence that this man Smith and his wife shared with Nan Patterson the bounty of Young, and that they, as well as she. were loath to have him de part with his wife to Europe, as that would mean a serious falling off in their revenues. It Is against testimony of this character, and much of it, that the married men'6 jury Is expected to bring in a verdict of acquittal. In this event let us hope that Nan Patterson -will not be Induced to enter the lecture field with a repertoire which includes "Hus bands I Have Known," "Married Men to the Rescue," and similar suggestive things. CRIMES OF THE CATTLEMEN. Along with the breath of Springtime, along with the swelling brooks and bursting buds, comes that old, old story of warfare between the sheepmen and cattlemen of Southeastern Oregon. It Is the familiar tfale of midnight murder. arson and malicious slaughter of help less dumb brutes, and a general reign of lawlessness such as would have dis graced the blackest days of the. Dark Ages. These fires of lawlessness, -kin dled by avarice and greed, of course de mand new fuel each year, and the per sonnel of the human victims, or a new brand on the unfortunate sheep, offer the only variation to the old, old story. These annually recurring outrages are a disgrace to civilization. The offenses are intensified from the fact that the men responsible for them are supposed to be and actually do lay claim to re spectabllity. "Morgan, the pirate, and others of his ilk who sailed under the "Jolly Roger,' murdered and pillaged wherever they found victims, but they made no pre tensions to being anything but outlaws. As such the world expected nothing but outlawry from them. There was a dis regard for sham or false pretenses in their actions which is missing in the work of these land pirates who infest and defile one of the fairest sections of Oregon. There is another feature of the work of these land pirates which by contrast with that of Morgan is highly flattering to the long-dead buccaneer. Morgan led his murderous bands and fought shoulder to shoulder with his men. The skulking Oregon land pirates are too cowardly for anything that car ries with it a possibility of danger, so, for the safety of their own worthless carcasses, they generally employ some cheap murderer to do the killing by which they hope to profit. It is a terrible state of affairs to exist in a civilized commonwealth, and Is one 61 the outgrowths of that pernicious but not uncommonly accepted belief that anything which belongs to the Government is the legitimate prize for the thief who can first get his hands on it. The cattle, kings of California and Oregon, aided by land thieves of high and low degree, have succeeded in gain ing possession of vast tracts of land in the two states, and, by virtue of such possession, have for years claimed sov ereignty over millions of acres to which they have no right whatever. It Is the effort to exclude the sheepmen . from this land, to which they themselves have no right, that causes these cold blooded murders cviery year. The title to these. lands Is still vested In the Gov ernment, and, in the eyes of the Gov ernment, the rights of the sheepman are as sacred as those of his wealthier opponent, the cattleman. Unfortunate ly, no determined effort has ever been made to curb this lawlessness, which breaks out as regularly as the buds of Springtime, and this fact has a most detrimental effect on that section of the state where the outrages take place. No homeseeker who comes to the state with the intention of remaining here will care to settle in a district where murder goes unpunished simply because local public sentiment is in fa vor of the murderer. The picket lines of law and order are, of course, each year being extended a little farther Into "Darkest Oregon," but the stigma of crime will not be removed from some portions of Southeastern Oregon until there is more of a tendency among all settlers in that region to aid in hunt ing down and bringing to justice the redhanded murderers who seem willing to kill sheep or sheepherders with bru tal Impartiality. THE CASE OF TOM BROWN. A revolting story is being told from day to day before the court In Chehalls In which the State of Washington Is prosecutor and Tom Brown, an untu tored, unkempt and all of his" life an abused and uncared-for 17-year-old boy Is defendant. The charge upon which this lad is arraigned is murder in the first degree; the man killed was his father; the Instrument used in the kill ing was a rifle; and several shots were fired before the deed was complete. At first thought one must turn in hor ror from this youthful parricide, and, stifling pity, commend him to the gal lows. But there Is another side to this story. The father, a brutal man by na ture, became doubly brutal through the Inordinate use of strong drink. Wife and children were the victims of his drunken wrath for years. This boy had repeatedly. In his early childhood, been beaten into insensibility. Because of a course of systematic cruelty which he had suffered, he both hated and feared his father. The final tragedy was pre ceded by a race between the boy and his father for the house, where the gun was kept. The boy got there first, got the gun, and -the rest followed. He makes no denial of the deed; shows no remorse for it, and seems to have no dread of the probable consequences. He Is. in short, what his father made him an uneducated, irresponsible lad, whose only dream of manhood was In the hope that It would give him strength to get even on the father who had made his life a qurse. While murder, except in the extrem ity of self-defense, cannot In any sense be justified, the conditions precedent to this crime if the killing mas be so called go far toward palliating it. The boy. It is said, is a degenerate, whose mental state closely borders upon in sanity. Begotten by such a father, brought up In domestic clamor, starved, beaten, overworked, untaught, it is a marvel, not that ne took a human life upon great provocation, but that he lived in a country neighborhood from his Infancy up to 17 years of age with out having disturbed its peace and safety. If acquitted of this crime, It will be the duty of the state for its own protection to place him In the Reform School; if condemned to a long term of penal servitude, he will find prison life at Kb worst superior to the home life he has known; if executed, the state will have discharged itself of a grave responsibility in the easiest If not the best way. The case is at once revolt ing and pitiful. SOUTHERN TACIFIC AWAKENING. The determination of the Harriman system to Improve the physical condi tion of the Oregon division of the Southern Pacific by the expenditure of a vast sum of money may be taken to indicate that the recent improvements of the trunk lines of the system has proved highly remunerative. Few, if any. railroads have ever been con structed in a new country in such man ner as to leave no room for Improve ment In the way of reducing grades, lessening curves and otherwise increas ing the economies of operation. Not in frequently the temptation to get quick returns at a sacrifice of increased ex penditure In the future defers the need ed Improvement too long. The South ern. Pacific's Oregon division has for many yeare had an unenviable reputa tion on account of its dilapidated, run-down-at-the-heel condition. It is doubtful If there is another road In the United States running through a country so rich and well populated as the Willamette Valley that has such arslow train service as the Southern Pacific. The wisdom of the manage ment Is strikingly apparent in the slow schedule by which trains are run, for, were the speed increased under existing circumstances, it would certainly prove expensive to the company and dossibly fatal to a-great many passengers. The inferior physical condition of the road, and the attendant light equipment that could with "safety be operated on It, was in a measure satisfactory when Ben Holladay was in power, and it was mildly excusable in the earlier days of the Huntington regime; but, in these modern times of close figuring on the cost per ton per mile, it has become quite plain to railroad men that the an cient -Southern Pacific was no longer an economical proposition ln! comparison with modernized roads. The trunk lines of the Harriman sys tem made enormous drains on the rail road treasury during the past four years of reconstructive period, and. while that work was in progress, divl dends were small and the stock was 'hammered down "'to & low point. With the completion of these repairs came . a change, "The old locomotives .hauled more cars and ran more miles than was possible under the former condition of the road, and heavier steel and a better roadbed permitted the use of larger lo comotives, which still further reduced the cost of mqvinsr freight and passen ger trains. There was a backward flow of profits to the treasury", which soon advanced the price of the stock and placed the system on a healthier finan cial basis than it had ever before en joyed. What has been accomplished on the trunk lines and in a measure on the O. R. & N. Co. will be repeated in de gree on the ancient Southern Pacific. Plans now approved for betterments in Oregon call for expenditure of $1,500,000 this year. This is a large sum of money, hut It will soon trickle back Into the treasury In the shape of sav ings made In the, cost of operation. Fast trains will promote travel and economy of operation ,wlll eventually admit of a lowering of freight tariffs, withattendant Increase In business. The Oregon division of the Southern Pacific is In the hands of men who know what is needed, and, when they get the road In the desired physical condition. If Wall street will permit them to operate it to the best advantage", everything will be profitable and satisfactory alike to patrons and the r,oad which is serv ing them. With the completion of the great improvements now projected, there may be a more nopefui outlook for construction of some-of the numer ous feeders which 'are ld"ng overdue In this state. Many interesting and close questions have arisen concerning the effect the local-option law has upon city charters which grant the municipality exclusive control of the liquor traffic. The Su preme Court decided in the box ordi nance case that the local-option law takes precedence over a charter passed before the law was adopted. The ques tion not being In isshe, the court passed no opinion concerning the effect the law may "have upon a charter paesed since the law was adopted. The last Legislature passed a large number of charter bills, the chief purpose of which was to evade the provisions of the local option law, and In due time controver sies will arise, thus paving the way for a test in the courts. Then the Supreme Court will have the question presented squarely and will be called upon to construe the two acts as they affect each other. While it would be Interest ing and often convenient to have Su preme Courts pass upon questions of law without waiting for the point to be placed squarely in issue, yet it Is prob ably a wiBe policy for the court to give no opinions until an actual controversy requires It. Courts that are too ready to give opinions are most likely to find themselves In error. The number of witnesses who have come forward to swear that they saw Nan Patterson and Caesar Young en gaged in a death struggle In the New York cab grows from day to day. In almost every Instance these yarns are hardly worth investigation. They arise out of the insatiable desire of persons of a certain stripe for notoriety. No one saw the murder. The mystery grows. Some one has a theory as to how It happened. He or she tells the prosecuting officers, squaring the al leged facts with his or her imagination. No sensational tragedy, bearing a strong element of mystery, ever hap pens without testimony of this kind by witnesses who never saw the crime. Pacific University, at Forest Grove, has won ten out of fourteen debates in which it has participated. This is a record of which the school may be proud even though it should lose every foot ball contest In which it may engage. Tito debating societies of the colleges are admirable training schools for fu ture public men and that Institution which develops good debaters may feel assured that it is accomplishing prac tical results. To be' a good debater re quires quick and accurate reasoning, good command of- language, breadth of reading, aptness In illustration, elo quence of speech, gracefulness of man ner and an understanding' of human nature. If Charles M. Schwab returns from Russia with orders for a big fleet of warships, some of his indiscretions in connection with a shipbuilding combine which built no ships may be forgotten. The United States is now reaping some of the benefits accruing from the splen did work of our battleships during the war with Spain, and It is a matter of indifference who brings home the orders so long as they are brought to Amer ican yards. Kozloff, terror of the nihilists, at the age of 68 years, ha3 been called from re tirement to fill the position of Governor- General of Moscow. The Russian pub lic In consequence fears a revival of harsh measures and more bloodshed. Attempts have been made on Kozloff's life at numerous times In the past,, and, with most of the Imperial family frightened into very close cover, he may now meet the fate he has thus far escaped. The Portland Flour Mills Company yesterday dispatched another of the flour cargoes that have made Portland famous. The vessel carried 56,000 bar rels, valued at more than $200,000. This is much smaller than some cargoes which have preceded It, but It assists in keeping up the record, which shows that Portland has cleared more cargoes in excess of 50,000 barrels than have been cleared from any other port on earth. Thibetan savages, who were appar ently well-satisfied with their own form of religion, have just murdered four French missionaries "and a Chinaman, who accompanied them beyond the safety lines on the Thibetan frontier. The introduction of a new religion, as with any 'strange custom, will always be in a measure unsafe In certain re mote localities, unless bullets as well as Bibles are used. Tacoma papers are doing the usual amount of boasting over the big cargo taken out by the Oriental liner Ping Suey. The value of the big liner's cargo was more than $1,000,000, ifhd exceeded that of the Minnesota 1y nearly $25,000, This record will hardly be permitted to stand, for, if necessary, citizens of Se attle will Include some of their bank clearings with the " cargo of some of their liners. Honduras would be a lonely place if it were not for American embezzlers. San Francisco is supposed to have contrib uted the latest emigrant. In the person of Collector Smith, to the Central American country; With America's naval guns blowing their muzzles off and Britain's too weak to be fired with full charges. It Is quite possible that nations with the biggest navies will be strongest advocates of peace. Russia intends to have her new bat tleships made in America. This will be mere waste of money, however, unless she follows the same course with re gard to her Admirals and sailors. Banker Bigelow should not fworry over his inability to recall the names of all his creditors. The creditors will not forget. The Scottish verdict of "not proven' appears ,to be the logical one in the Nan Patterson case. No doubt BIgclow will go down in his tory as the banker that madc'Milwau kce famous. ' ' NOTE A"NDCOMMENT. Bank clerks that cannot settle here settle in Honduras. Honesty is the best policy, better even than an Equitable. If we .were about to commit suicide we should not choose the gas method. There is always a doubt in the minds of the people as to whether? or not the suicide was intentional. The Baltimore Herald presents a pic ture of the President "in full hunting regalia." f - , We used to think the advertisements of "Dr. Queer's Quick Cures" In the Ir rigon Irrigator were "joshes," but have now come to the conclusion that they are genuine patent medicine boosts. The Irrigator's grave condemnation of Ironical paragraphs leads us to be lieve tnat It is more matter-of-fact than we had suspected, and it is certainly to be deplored that a reputable country paper should advertise the rldlculously named "Q. Q. Q." as a panacea for mor tal Ills, from biliousness to baldness. Is "Nan" an endearing twist of Ann or Nancy? Thcro would be far less in terest in Nan Patterson's trial if she were known as Ann Patterson, and al though Nancy Patterson would be bet ter than Ann, it lacks the jolly brevlty of Nan. "Carnegie has given $10,000,00 to found a home tor superannuated col lege professors. Far better to chloro form the brutes. In a county with a name such as Ash tabula anything Is possible. A t farmer there Ashtabula County Is in Ohio- has discovered that the heat generated .In a hive of bees Is just the thing for hatching eggs, far better than a hen's or an incubator's heat and two days quicker. So while this farmer's bees are busy storing away honey they are also unconsciously hatching out a lot of line Spring chickens. The correspon dent sending out this story neglects to state what changes are wrought in the chickens thus warmed Into life. Do they acquire stings? Do they lay eggs of honey? Do they buzz instead of clucking? We await replies to these questions. Guerrero, the Spanish dancer who is at present charming Londoners, is in the habit of wearing all hor Jewels by day as well as by night. She says in explanation that the precious possessions are lcs3 like ly to be- stolen from her own care than from a bank or safe. That is an cxpana tlon that docs Guerrero's Ingenuity some credit, and it woud not be surprising to find other womon beginning to act upon the same plan. If one has jewels, why not show them? "Sissificd asses" are no longer to be tot crated in the Presbyterian ministry, ac cording to a. resolution introduced in the Pittsburg Presbytery. "Resolved," coa tinued the resolution, "that their admls slon be discouraged; that the ministers be Instructed to no longer part their hair In the middle." How much more sensible to discourage ungrammatical asses and to resolve that the ministers be Instructed "to ho longer part" their Infinitives In the middle. Sarah Bernhardt, vigorously condemns the proposed perhaps threatened would be the better adjective resurrection of the crinoline, but Mile. Sorol. of the Thea trc Francalse, Is rathor inclined to favor such a return to a former mode. One thing Is certain the crinoline was never meant for use In a street-car age. Fancy two or three ladles of equatorial girth trying to do the strap-hanging stunt in a wib-wobbledy car there would be a crlnk ling and crumpling of hoops straightaway. American Medicine refers to drunkards as ola alcoholics. ' Portland will soon-begin to feel that it Is not Itself when no grand jury is In session. Bogus dollars are boing circulated hero. Persons catholic enough to accept "taint cd" money will doubtless draw the line at this. Rojestvcnsky may settle matters by cut ting Togo when he meets the Japanese The Admirals have never been introduced you know. Mrs. Chadwlck's effects were sold for a song, which didn't contain any of the famous notes. There is a sort of worked-up sontiment about rcburlals. Had Napoleon's body been left in St. Helena, would Franco have lost anything Would the contempla tive heart not be touched more deeply? Drake's bones are coral made In the Spanish Main, a fitter resting place than even Down. Who would dig up the bones of Shelley and of Keats from their Ital ian resting-places? There Is something artificial about second burials, which re ly, too much for effect upon mere empty pomp. WEX. J. Safe and Safer Games. Lafayette (Ind.) Journal. Checkers Is a less dangerous game than chess. Few checker-players go crazy, although many are crazy t6 playC A safer game than any of them Is seven-up, and there is nothing the mattor with four-handed euchre. And then there are crlbbage and sixty-six, both of which are almost entirely safe, as very few crlbbage or slxty-slx players evor get more than half-crazy, and then only when they lose seven or eight games In succession. Born Before Ills Time. Philadelphia Bulletin. The poet Chdtterton was starving In a garret. "I live too soon," ho despairingly cried. "Now, if this were 1005, I could -n-rlte street-car poetry and take my pay In brookfast food." But It was before the days of street cars. .So the poor follow starved to death. The Unfortunate Orcgonlan. The Irrlgon Irrigator. The Oregonlan has been doing ome high and lofty tumbling, having turned a complete flop. It Is now on the side of aiitche.ll. "Why? Has it -seen a light? If Mitchell was guilty a month ago ho is still guilty. If the Oregonlan was right a month.ago it Is wrong now. The Music's the Thin?. Albany Democrat. Senator Mitchell ct al, have injured their cause and themselves by their grasping at nothing but technicalities. Face the music on the merits of the cases, that's what the people want. Medical Advice. - - Butcher, baker, merchant, weaver! " I xour lack of custom chronic? Has your business got "Spring- fever? Give It advertising tonic! ARE OUR RAILROAD RATES TOO HIGH? Interesting: Figures by an Expert, Compiled in Behalf of the Railroad . Companion Relation of Revenue to Wages Fore ism Statistics. Washington, D. C Special to the Chi cago Inter-Ocean.) The interest In the Senate committee hearings on railway rate regulation is growing. Railroad men and attorneys have been heard, and more are to follow. A number of shippers have requested to be heard. The committee itself has called on several experts. One of these is the well-known Chicago jour nalist, Slason. Thompson, who has become recognized as one of the leading statisti cians in the country, especially in railroad matters. As to American Freight Rates. That frelcht rates on American railways are the lowest in the world, and had steadily tended downward until the recent advance in wagea and material, is proved by the following statemerts compiled by Mr. Thompson: ray or Average revenue per ton per mile, trackmen. Rate. Kate. wages, Year. cents. Tear. eents. lear. per day 1S70 1.990 1S05 .810 1S03 $1.17 1882 1.240 1896.... .SOU 1SOO.. 1.1 1887 1.030 1897 .70S 1S07.. .753 18SS.. .724 1809.. .721) 1900.. .750 1H01.. .737 1902.. .703 1003.. 1.18 1.1(5 1.18 L23 1.25 1.31 18SS 1.001 1S9S.... I860 922 1S99.... 1S90 041 1900 1891 803 1001.... 1892 80S 1902 1893 879 1903..... 1S94 860 Compare the advance of 5.4 per cent in the rate since 1SD9 with 12.3 per cent in wages of the most numerous body of rail way employes since 1S3S. The cost of all railway supplies has advanced even more rapidly. Foreign Freight Rates. In England, the North Eastern Railway, the only British road giving intelligible statistics, shows the following average receipts per ton mile In It-OS: Cents. On minerals 1.98 On merchandise and livestock , 2.94 On all commodities 2.32 Pcntf. R. XL. on much the same classes.... 0.5S In Germany, av. revenue per ton mile. ...1.42 In France, av. revenue per ton mile 1.65 In Austria, av. revenue per 'ton mile....!. IB In Hungary, av. revenue per too mile. ...lot The rates of American railways are low in order to move the greatest quantity of freight. As wages are high they have to depend on rigid economies of operation to make their small margin of profit. It costs 23 cents a mile to move a ton of freight from the farm or the factory to the station; It costs less than three fourths of a cent h mile to transport it thence to Ua destination. As to Passenger Rates. The average revenue of the railways for carrying passengers one mile since the or ganization of the Interstate Commerce Commission has been as follows: Cents. Cents. Cents. 1SSS 2.35 1S0S 2.11 150S l."7 1889 2.17 ISM 1.80 1899 1.98 1890 2.17 1803 2.04 1000 2.00 1891 2.14 ISOf. 2.KJ 1901 2.01 1892 2.13 1897 2.02 1002 1.99 1003 2.01 Where passenger rates have declined nearly 6 percent since 1SD2 the average dally wages of the men most directly em ployed In train service have Increaiwd as follows: P.C. P.O. Bngihcmen '..Conductors 10 Firemen 10Othcr trainmen 14 The recent Increase in receipts per pas senger mile is due to losing the choapeat passenger traffic, which Is traveling by trolley, and not to an increase In rates. The cost of passenger service Is con stantly increasing to meet the demand for more trains and greater speed. Foreign Passenger Rates. England First class. -1 cents: second, 15 cents: third, 2 cents. Average receipts per passenger mile, about 2 cents. Germany Fast trains: First class. 3.45 cents: second, 2.55; third, 1.7. Ordinary trains: J? irst, 3.uicenis: sccona, iniru. 1.53. and fonrth. O.i" (not allowed on fast trains). Average receipt per passenger mile about 1.07 cents, due to 90 per cent of travel being third and fourth-class on cars little better than American boxcars. Travel for One Day's Pay. Distance one days' pay of labor will carry him In different countries: Country , miles. Per day a pay. United States THE ITALIAN RAILWAY STRIKE Muny reports on the strike on tne railwav. Of Italy have boon furnisaeu. by the cable service ot the Associated ; Press. A writer in the Milwaukee AVis j consin supplies these explanatory j statements: There ar 9318 miles of railway In Italy, j three-fourths of which are owned by ths sov- i ernmcnt. but government operation of the rail- ' ways ceased In 18S5. On April 27 of that year the government entered Into contract leas ing the roads to private corporations for tW years, retaining the privilege, however, ot terminating the contracts at the end of 20 years or at the ond of 40 years. The flret option to resumo the operation of the rail roads will mature on the 27th of the present month. The 4-prrlt of socialism is at present verv strontr In Italy, and a bill is now pend ing in the Italian Parliament which provide or state management and administration of flve-slxtbs of all the railway lln of the country- If It is enacted a sum equivalent to "flOO.OOO.COO will have to be immediately d burd to liquidate the claims of the compan ies. The plan Is to make this department of Kv ernmental activity Independent of pomieal ehanRes by cntrustlns it to a nonpartisan council of administration, concHstins of a cen tral board jt Romo and a number of depart mental boards of directors- The bill is a min isterial measure and was drawn with great care, in the hope of foroatalMnc any possi bility ot clashes between the railway em ployes and the government when the govern ment resumes toward the employe, the rela tion of? employer. With this end in view, the preamble of tho measure promises Improved conditions ot service, higher wager In the near future, an extension of pensions to wid ows and orphans of men losing their lives In the tervlce and participation by employes in the profits of tho business. Strikes are ta booed, probably on the theory under which In Holland and In Australia strikes on gov ernment railways have been trcatetd as prac tically equivalent to rebellion against the government. To render strikes unnecessary, the bill provides for a -system or arbitration. .Every branch of the service is to elect a co u nail of lt own. ami tne prpsiaenw or. these councils are to form a grand council, empowered to treat with the administrative board on all matters affecting the service. Serious controversies' are to be rof erred for final settlement to a tribunal consbstiB? of a councilor of state, two legal represcntatlvee, two members ot the railway administration and two representatives' of the employe. Evidently, the railway employes object to the proposition to deprive them of the right to strike. The labor leaders demanded certain changes, which were .conceded by the min istry. Then further changes were demanded, which were refused. The labor leaders re sponded by catling a strike. If all the rail way employes called out had obeyed the cail. 300.000 would have quit their positions; but the atrike order was obeyed by npt more than half of the men. Premier Fortl denounces the strike as an effort ot one class ot citizens to atscrt special rights In conflict with the in terests of the country, at large. He has pat the army la charge of the railroads, making It extremely dangerous for the strikers to at tempt to interfere with the service. It appears ver probable that the'strlks can not succeed in coercing- the ministry. If 't succeeda in defeating the passage of the bill it will be memorable as an uprisins of so cialist workingmen against a proposed meas ure which. It consummated, would have placed nearly ill the railways of Italy ou a social istic basis. The phenomenon is not so anomalous as It superficially appears. It reveals the fact that the workingmen of Italy who call themselves Socialists are not Socialists at heart, but in divlduallsts. They are unwilling to sacrifice their liberty. In tho nature of thlngss social ism Is synonymous with centralization of .power. A socialistic government would bo stronger and more highly centralized than any Great Britain 1' Germany (government railways) - oft France -government railways) .iti Belgium (government railways) 'M Italy (government railways) -to Russia (government railways) "a I ml la (government railways) -I Pay of Railway Labor. (American and Foreign.) It American railway freight rates were in proportion to American wages in com parison with foreign wages, they wouW be from four to eight times what they are. as the following figures, from official sources, prove: Average pay of railway laborers In va rious countries whose freight rates are more 'than double American rates: er dajn United State (a) $1. United Kingdom - Germany (atate railways) France (state railways) T.35J Belgium (state railways) 4. .48 Italy Cstate railways) -42 Rufia l state railways) India (state railways) .OS (a) The lowest pais class ef railway em ployes. Average pay of several classes of fail way employes in the United States. 'Groat Britain and Belgium. 1003: United. States. er day. Great Bel- Britain. ;tnm. per day. per da. Enginemcn $1.W ?pl.- Flremea 2JS -91 Conductors S-S- 1.22 Other tralnmeB 2-17 .N si.ui i.es .72 1.1.1 USX .84 Gen I office clerke. -.-1 Station agents 1.S7 Machinists 2. Carpenters 2.19 Switch and croesins: tenders and -watchmenMen 1-78 1.01 1.50 1.22 .91 -4S A Belgium is chosen for me cmiansn w catise the nay of railway labor tUr is les complicated with premiums ami a!wBg' tnan elsewhere on ths continent, s'ea BHOe tla Department of Labor. So." 20. and Kit annual report of the Commlesloaer oC Tjurfcc. Capitalization. In 19K the Interstate Commerce Com mission summarized their capitalization thus: stock ' Funded 'debt Tc4al railway capital. . Qwned by railrvado. . . $ R.135.35.042 .... .W.4Sl.g2ft $12,599,090.2 .... 2,5lS.391.t: Net railway capital $lU.2Sl."S.,i Cost of I tit 11 ways and Equiimumt. The Interstate Commerce Commission In 1806 reported as follows: Ceet ot road (lR.S2lt mlleJ....?llA278jai7,lt() Cow ot equipment t'lrj.77.i5: Total cost 5107.5U4tf: During the last tow years new ltxm(lvr, uaskenger and freight cars eoet upward ' 5KY4.frM.f4N). The cost of the oouIWHsm r- ported in 103 was prtxlmately: ( No. Av. cost. Total cost. ICOWOtlref .. 43.571 SU.WO $ 482.S1.0W PaMKtftger cars r.l MI C.Oflu 22S.S40.dbU Freight cars. .1.715,24 70 1.20.674.aX) Total coH of ettuipntciH $ 1.0l2.W,Jul Ctant ot road a above I0.278.7r7.22. Cost ot 11.400 miles not repre sented 0OS.U73.00O Cost 9t rwd and equipment. .?12.794.SO.Otr.t This cost covers a total mileage for all tracks of 283.S21 miles. It Is the large coet of aiding, yard tracks, elevating tracks, and other facilities at terminal-, rather than the construction of ifw road, that hax e&ttticd recent additions to railroad capital. As to Kail way Accidents. Relatively to passenger and freight traf fic, fatalities to paascngerg and employes are lesj oh American than foreign rail ways, as the following table shows: ras- E scngerK. ployes Year. Country. Mileage. Killed. Killed. 1(01 Russian Europe.. 2S.9S2 ltHS-3 Norway 1.430 as 455. 4 21 23 - 311 23 St tss 407 ley l I iSott-t DemwH ".'.'.".'.. IfHK SH-rrtB i.isi 1 194 Germany ?4.6M ts llothntid 2.0ST. li2 BefctuiM ....1 2.S2. France 23.MS Switzerland 2,400 Spain 7.904 Italy 8.S70 Austria 12. Id" Hungary -IHia I'nltsd Kingdom.. 22.431 Het of liorupc.. S.JW7 8 5 19 u 11 loF 25 )!H 19C2 ieM ! ie israt IMC Total 17T.3KJ SHI 2.25" 1MW United Ptats....2o7,77 XIX 3.2R Since 1W0. French reporw cover ety aeet dents to trains. ' JT3: , trod the meant of nubal-Hcnec of every indl- ; vw,wi under its dominion. Every approach toward socniliam tend toward cantraltsatMHi i of powrr toward ring rule toward the moat odiotM despotism over the marses by an aspir ing and mw-rwukw few who can manage to clutch the reins. The present industrial sys tem has its disadvantage, but it is Paradtcn for the worhiegman compared with what tint socialistic aystem would be. If "he doe net like his Job under the present system, he cun qwfrt it. and he is still a citlsen. Under the octaHstic system, if he quit his Job be would be an ontlaw a traitor; a condemned "and hunted man. with no chance to obtain employ ntont. for the only, employer would be the slate, and the Mate would mean the govern ment, and tho ieovernment would mean Mho men in control of tho zovernmcHt, and the men in control of the government wwutd' have "him 'potted." Socialism, reduced to practice, would . in dustrial slavery. Xo wonder that Ration So- enUteui object to o!lligm whH thy realize wnat soviaHrMM means. A JJud listnkc. Montgomery (Ala.) Advertiser. George Bernard Shaw declares that' "ehihlren are the great deatreyaro .of home -lifo." Sucn an assertion craatAg a strong -suspicion that his birth rAuft a broad . mistake. Jtouiid the Bend. ' Sydney (X. S. U'.) Bulletin. Round the bend where the pungas' grow, I heard an asle groan, The clatter of linch-pine knocking slowv in a drowsy monotone. A great voice bellowed, ."Won back, there, Bin: "You Lion-cow, eemc here!" Then I heard the "plunk" ef a banjo shrill! Its mwsic sounding clear. Round the bend the leader's came "With lary shouldering stride. Toughened muscta and solid frame. Under the tawny hide. Sturdy bullocks, and well they hauled. Yet I saw no driver there. And "plank! plunk! plank!" the banjo 'aaned. Playing a reckless air. f Round the bend the wagon swayed. With a led horse tied behind. While the ghostly banjo twanged and played. And the axles squealed and whined. Oit there. Sergeant: Dickie! Dan!" Vou megatheriums!"' I looked In vain for sign of man. Kven up In the gums. - " Round the bend the dust swept down" ' Till I saw the wagon-tail. And a lazy teamster, tanned and brown, Lying there on a. hale. H sparred and struek at the hovering files. lite banjo on his chest. H damned the heat and his horse's eyes. But he cursed his bullocks best. Round the bend he looked at me. And ii mlded a curt '"Good-day," Then let a passionate melody Over the pungas stray, 4 With "cllnka: clunka! clang! clangl olangl- Ile soothes his sleeping dog So full of harmony and slang "You Major-cow! You hog!" Round the bend I watched him go Vnder tho noon-day glare. With llneh-plns knocking soft and low. ' ' Playing a dainty air. He yelled at the bullocks he could net I heard the wagon groan, . And his banjo's t wanking came to me In a drowsy monotone. Round the bend tho dust dropped down And covered the -wagon-tall. And I envied that tearopter, tanned and brown. Lying there on a bale: Heavy and alow, his bullocks swung; His horje dreamed on behind: His dog slept sound, and his banjo rung And his was an easy mind.