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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 27, 1904)
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PORTLAND. TUESDAY, DEC. 27, 1904.
STATE'S ULEU-IAKD POUCT.
While there seems to foe no doubt that
the 2Ieti-land policy of 4be Geer admin
istration merits all the criticism it has
received from State Land Agent Oswald
West, it -was nevertheless In very poor
taste for tthe present incumbent of that
office to denounce in a personal manner
the acts of his predecessor. That it
was the duty of the State !Land Agent
to present in ills biennial report a full
and clear account of the affairs of his
office, no one will question, but It is
hardly fcls province to charge his pre
decessor wfth wrong, argue the case as
he sees it, and prpnounce the offender
guilty, Mr. West Is the successor, and
not the superior, of L. B. Geer. It
would have been sufficient for him to
Qt& fnrfli tfio rfnotcj n o i. A .
- aq4. left the conclusions and criticisms
for the Governor, or an investigating
a committee of the Legislature.
However, the manifestation of poor
I judgment by Mr. West does not excuse
whatever was wrong or -unwise in the
methods of State Land Agent Geer and
his favored friend, General W. H. Odell.
That the methods pursued by these men
during the Geer administration were
unwise is certain, in view of resulting
' conditions. That their acts were com
mitted with knowledge of the probable
tonsequences, and were therefore
wrongful, is a matter upon which opin
ions may differ, though the men who
tt good money by nayinc It to Octell
tertain little doubt upon this point.
ever the intentions of th CJpr
Odell combination, the result has lippn
trouble for tr.e State Land Department,
less of title for investors in lieu land
and discredit forthe State of Oregon.
There Is nothing illegal or morally
wrong In the business of adjudicating
mineral base" and furnishing the same
to Intending purchasers of lieu land, for
a consideration. . It was the manner in
which -the business was conducted that
brought disaster. The first mistake
was made when State Land Agent L.
B. Geer permitted a private lieu-land
operator to occupy a part of his office
in the Statehouse, thus giving the pur
chasers of lieu land some reason to be
lieve that they were safe in dealing
with that man. Another grave mistake
was made when General Odell under
took to adjudicate mineral base with
out checking off the alleged mineral
school sections on the records of -the
State Land Office. He undertook to
prove to the satisfaction of the Federal
Land Department that certain school
sections were mineral in character,
and therefore remained the prop
erty of the General Government, entitling-
the state to take other lands in
lieu ithereof. But all the time that
Odell was conducting these proceedings
in the local Land Offices ofvthe Gov
ernment there was nothing in the rec
ords of the State Land Office to indi
ate that there was any question as to
the right of the state to sell the school
sections alleged to be mineral. The
state therefore sold 50,000 acres of
school land which Odell alleged to be
mineral and which he and Geer were
trying to prove were not the property
of the state.' The proof offered was ac
cepted and lieu-land selections ap
proved by the local Land Offices,
whereupon the state sold the Ileu land
t& the several applicants. The state
had thereby been placed in a position
where it could not give title to both
the purchaser of the school land and
of the lieu and, for one title must fail.
The result was a contest before the
General Land Office at Washington,
and, suspicious or the whole lieu-land
business, the department held all the
iieu-land selections for cancellation,
either -upon the ground that the mineral
character of the school sectlons'had not
been proven or that the state had al
ready asserted title by selling the land,
or for both these reasons.
It Is probably true, as General Odell
has asserted, that if the General Land
Office had accepted the same degree of
proof that it required when his pro
ceedings were commenced, the minral
base would have been approved andthe
state's title to the lieu land would have
been sound. It Is also true that -if Odell
had not put the state into the position
of trying to defeat its own sales, there
would have been no trouble in securing
approval for all lieu-land selections on
mineral 'base. The manifest inconsist
ency of the state's representatives in
land rrftnsjinf Inns cnet atinntrn
all lieu-land business. General Odell
5 : served four years as Clerk of the State
: Land Board, and knew that his course
i of procedure might involve the state In
Ijust such a tangle as finally resulted.
It is also true, as Geer has asserted,
ihat it was formerly required by law
that the state should sell lieu land as
soon as the selection had been ap
proved by the local Land Office. But
Is fact only makes the circumstances
iorse for the lieu-land operators. The
t that the law was repealed cannot
looked upon as anything else than
expressed intention that the state
should cease to sell lieu , land upon the
mere approval of the local Land Office.
More than that, the warning given by
State Land Agent T. W. Davenport In
1S97 should have been sufficient to pre
vent a repetition of the methods which
brought the state Into discredit on a
A word may be offered In this connec
tion regarding the obligation of the
state toward the purchasers of lieu landi
whose titles have failed. Neither the
United States nor the State of Oregon
warrants itle .to any land it offers for
sale. The state and the United States
sell only the title they have, and the
purchaser takes the land,- at his own
risk. The state is therefore under
neither legal nor moral obligation to
make the titles good, for the purchasers
knew that no warranty was given. The
state has repaid the purchase price, or
stands ready to repay it upon demand,
and this is the most the purchasers
have a right to expect. Some have
claimed the right to receive interest
upon their money, and -assert ithat the
law authorizes the payment of interest,
though the Attornoy-General has held a
different view. While the payment of
Interest would be an act of generosity
on the part of the state, it would also
be an act of Injustice toward the great
body of the people, who are in no' way
way connected with the lieu-land trans
actions. A very great number of the
lieu-land purchasers were speculators,
and, having been caught in a bad deal,
they should be well satisfied to get back
the original investment. The state is
under no obligations to repay any
money paid to General Odell. Every
man who bought base from Odell did so
after being told that the state could not
supply him. The state should repay
every dollar for which it has issued a
receipt, if the title to land! has failed,
but the man who holds a receipt from a
private lieu-land operator should look
to the signer of the receipt for his
It is old as the hills to find men say
ing they don't like their own calling,
whatever It may be, and remarking
further that any other pursuit would
be better. So it is not surprising to
find in The World's Work a statement,
In line with thls'babit, of the results
of the writer's inquiry among twenty
clergymen, all of high standing and
all "successful," on the point whether
if they had their ILyes to live over
again they would select and pursue the
same calling. Seven of the twenty
answered with a positive "Yes"; three
were uncertain what they would do;
one answered that he would follow the
same callipg provided he could avoid
being ordainedsupposedly on the
ground that he would thereby have
more freedom; and nine gave in reply
an ernphatic negative. If "successful"
men In this profession one that cer
talnly should awaken enthusiasm if any
could make answer in this was', what
wonder that the same judgment is so
often given by others as to thefr own
It is," in fact, only a trait of which
we have a record almost since history
and literature began. Two thousand
years ago Horace dwelt upon it, and it
is known that he merely expanded an
Idea borrowed from the Greek comedy
writers. "How happens It, Maecenas,"
says Horace, "that no onellves content
with his condition, whether his personal
choice directed or chance threw it in his
way, but praises those who .follow pur
suits different from his own? 'O happy
traders!' says the soldier oppressed with
years, and now broken down Jn his
limbs through excess of exposure. On
the other side the vmerchant, when
the south winds toss his ship, cries
'Warfare is better!' " Horace In his In
imitable way, which is really be
yond translation, pursues this inquiry
among men of many other' callings with
like results. Yet the general tendency
of his satire is that men will be con
tent with such pursuits as they engage
in if they are not too covetous; but
the great majority of mankind think
no sum enough. Even clergymen have
been known, as the author of the.
"Night Thoughts" says in his solemn
verse, in which a touch or tinge of
satire, to be "bit with the rage canine
of dying rich." The trqubje Is that
most of us are as "poor createers" as
poor Mrs. Gummldge was.
TIOS BETTER PART OF VALOR.
The war spirit in Japan is stimulated
rather than checked by the menace
which the Baltic fleet is bearing to the
coast. It is evident that .If the squad
ron of Russia gets control of the Yellow
Sea its officers will first know that
they have been to a fight, and; that
their vessels will number less than
when they opened fire upon the British
fishing fleet in the North Sea. Brave,
active, persistent; fighting for the very
breath of -life, with the chances in favor
of their ultimate success, the Htt)e
brown men of the Orient are bending
cheerfully to the mighty task that they
If Russia succeeds In destroying the
sea power of .Japan, the fight is over;
if otherwise, Russia would show wis
dom by swallowing her mortification
at the failure of her plans of conquest
in the East and opening negotiations
for peaces In the estimation of the
best judges of the situation It would be
folly to continue to throw ships and
men into the maelstrom into which so
many have already been lost. Even If
Russia could by next Summer place
three-quarters of a million of men in
Manchuria against the half million that
are now being mobilized in Toklo. she
could not feed them there. The re
sources of the country have literally
been exhausted by the armies that
have for months been quartered upon
its territory. To carry the enormous
bulk of food that is daily required to
maintain such an army in camp or on
the field from a base thousands of miles
distant, over a single-track railway
that is already taxed to fhe utmost
limit of its capacity In carrying troops
and munitions of war. Is manifestly Im
possible. All things considered. It would seem
that the Russian Government has es
sayed a task which every motive ex
cept the hope to retrieve Its tarnished
military prestige should prompt it to.
abandon by making peace on the best
terms that can be secured These would
proba"bly be the evacuation of Man
churia, the recession of the Llao Tung
Peninsula to China, and a recognition
of Japan's protectorate 'over Corea. It
would be cheaper. Indeed, for Russia
at this stage in the proceedings to pay
a large pecuniary indemnity for losses
suffered by Japan In the war that was
forced upon her, than to continue the
enormous waste of war. As yet-there
is no sign that she -will follow the sug
gestion of wisdom, which declares that
discretion is the better part of valor,
but it is not unreasonable to suppose
that the coming of Spring will find the ,
government of the Czar strongly dis
posed to treat, on the best terms ob
tainable, for peace.
"RELIGION AXD POLITICS."
The New York Evening Ppst lias this
paragraph, which it seems to think
contains a lot of satire or sarcasm:
General Wood has discovered that tho
Filipino soldiers are too well fed. He .re
ports thftt they do not work so well on
Uncle Sam's generous rations as when they
had only a little flh and rice to cat. This
may be proper matter for a military re
port, but it reflects unconsciously the true
Imperialist point of view. The chief end o
the natives is to work for their conquerors
or to bo "worked" by them. This, doctrine
was set forth with all Innocence by the
London Morning: Post recently. In discussing
the labors of missionaries amonp the Kaf
firs. Might not Christianity disincline them
to work? Hard labor was the real blessing
for them, and beside It "a knowledge of
spiritual ' technicalities" was unimportant,
gravely said this organ of British Imperi
alists. And then, with delicious Inability to
pereelve its own humor, It added that the
missionaries ought to be warned that "what
they preach about religion Is readily applied
to politics by the half-educated Kaffir."
The delightful Implication Is. of course, that
the fully educated Englishman keeps his
religion and his politics severely apart,
But can anything better be done for
a lazy, unenterprising and naturally
worthless people than to make them
work that is, to make conditions un
der which they are compelled to work,
or perish.? Of course the educated Eng
lishman "keeps his Teligion and Iris pol
itics severely apart." Educated men
in Rome did the same; and so do edu
cated men In France and Germany, as
well as In England. Russia doesn't,
but it is a "raw" country. Italy has
separated religion and politics, and is
making progress. Spain, some centuries
ago, moulded religion and politics into
a, single system. But what Is Spain
now? In our own country there is
some residuum of a similar system,
which manifests Itself in various waj's;
but Its power is gopo. A curious relic
of it is the spirit that utters itself as
above, in the paragraph from the New
York Evening Post.
DAMAGING CHARGE REFUTED.
The Tacoma- Ledger hurries to the
rescue of Senator Foster from the hein
ous charge of "being stingier than a
down-T3ast farmer and closer than the
bark on a tree." The Ledger does not
say from whence these Infamous accu
sations emanate, but nevertheless it
understands perfectly the damaging
impression they are likely to make on
the sensitive legislative mind, and with
proper Indignation says that "this kind
of abuse" is "contemptible as it is
untruthful and undeserved. The sole
occasion for it is Senator Foster's un
willingness to make a criminal effort to
debauch the Legislature and purchase
his re-election." The Ledger does not
saj so, but we can readily perceive
that the great endeavor of the Pierce
County Senatorial management will be
to pitch the campaign on a highly
moral plane. The recent Lucullan ban
quet given by Mr. Sweeny to Senator
Foster's immediate supporters was but
a part of this virtuous purpose. Mr.
Sweeny could have had no possible no
tion that he could get support Qut of
Pierce County; and therefore, when he
proposed a friendly session around the
convivial board. It was understood and
agreed on all sides that Mr. Sweeny's
purposes were purely social, and the
whole affair -was removed from the vul
gar domain of mere politics into the
empyrean realms of high-minded phil-anthropj-.
There is honor even among
The Ledger does not stop with vigor
ous assertion of the integrity of the
Foster campaign. It goes ahead and
says that a "fund is being raised in Se
attle which is a corruption fund pure
and simple." The Ledger says a great
deal on this subject which it Is need
less to repeat; and besides it says it is
"aslanderupon the state to say that.Se
attle MUST have a Senator." Go slow,
neighbor. Slander Is ar harsh word.
Remember Seattle's multitude of griev
ances against the United States Gov
ernment, the neglect and contempt
.'with which that unhappy city has been
treated. All it has had so we learn in
part from that celebrated bill of par
ticulars presented to the consideration
of a sympathizing world in the Invita
tion to the Piles banquet is a new Fed
eral building, an Army post, a battle
ship contract, and a vast proportion of
the transport business. No wonder Se
attle drops a tear or two o'er its mis
fortunes. Tacoma has had everything
a Federal building and a large
amount of money for the Puyallup
River improvement, to say nothing of
an entire mountain which it stole from
We suppose that Tacoma may en
deavor to respond to Seattle's just and
reasonable demands by pointing out
tbat few states choose their Senators
with reference to their residence in
their principal cities. Alabama, Arkan
sas, California, Georgia, Illinois, Jowa,
Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massa
chusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New
Jersey, Texas, Virginia and others have
entirely overlooked their leading citlejL
But Chicago, Baltimore, Boston and
others seem to worry along. Of course
it is different with Seattle.
THE LOCAL PARCELS POST.
The Postal Progress League is Inde
fatigable in the effort expressed by Its
title. Its latest scheme, as outlined
and urged by its secretary, James L.
Cowles, in a letter to the New York
Evening Post, proposes as a remedy for
the present postal deficit of $9,000,000
the introduction of the rural parcels
post. Even without looking into it one
Is ready to champion the scheme, and,
after following Secretary Cowles' line
of presentment and argument, to give
it full Indorsement.
He shows, for example, that the aver
age rural carrier is costing the Gov
ernment 546G.SO a year, which maj' be
reckoned as dead loss. That is to say,
the rural carrier Is making forty-five
cents a day for the department and
spending three times that sum. The
average load that he carries round his
circuit In a wagon is less than twenty
pounds a. weight much less than the
city carrier bears on his shoulders up
and down and around about the city
streets and blocks and suburban lanes.
Secretary Cowles would establish a
schedule of mailable parcels up to 200
pounds in weight. He would have a
100-pound package carried from the
railway terminus, which it reaches as
freight, in the, rural carrier's cart to
its destination by virtue of a Govern
ment stamp of the value of two. cents
for a one-pound package, or 25 cents
for a package of the maximum weight.
The carrier, would then not tye'.jising
his horse and cart for a wage of "but
45 cents a day a dead loss but would
be promoting trade and commerce and
at the same time swelling the funds of
the Postal Department
WJioevr-r thinks, says the San Fran
cisco Argonaut, of a 1200-pound horse, a
harness, a cart and a civil service ex
aminer, traveling on an aYeragje' twenty
seven miles, supplying 127 homes with
aiv average -of. twenty-four pieces of
mall and thereby Incurring an expense
thrice the income derived, -will likely
see In this local parcels post a sensible
suggestion,, which, if qarrlcdinto eL
feet, would work wonders financially'.
and soglally." .
The 'legitimate object is that of a
postal service rural or parcels that
will not be a dependent upon the Gov
ernment, as achild upon the parent,
but one that will, like a husky ladwho
wants special privileges, get out and
NwYork City was buried under an
enormous bulk of snow on- Ctirlsffnas
day. The heavy snowfall was accom
A hard, dull bitterness of cold
That checked, mid vein the circling,, race
Of life-blood In tbc. "sharpened face.
And Idter by a bleak wind which blew
at the rate of thirty miles an hour.
The five inches of snow that fell dis-
pelled all fear of a green Christmas
and1 brought the record up to 29 Inches
forDecember the heaviest snowfall in
that city for this month in many years."
Whether or not the "lean graveyard"
that, according to tradition. Is the heri
tage of a "white Christmas" will fol
low this heavy fall of snow is yet to
be shown. The chances may be said
to be against it, especially In that part
of the city's burial place known as Pot
A Seattle real estate man has just
been convicted of swindling a blind
man out of $00. The -trick was turned
by the sale of alleged unincumbered'
property in an addition known as the
Garden of Eden. This is believed to
be the first time a Seattle man has been
arrested for selling lots in the Garden
of Eden, although numerous outlying
additions to Seattle are much closer to
the North Pole than the unfortunate
purchasers are led to believe they are.
Particulars are not at hand, but it Is
supposed that the blind man was a
stranger in Seattle. Otherwise the
transaction might not have occurred.
,The White Star liner Oceanic, which
sailed from New York early last week,
carried 1555 passengers. It will require
a good many passenger lists of this size
to equalize'- the score registered by the
vessels which last Fall and Summer
were dumplng-from 2500 to 3000 passen
gers on our shores every trip they
made. In .one respect the score has
been more than equalized, for It Is a
pretty safe assertion that the "Christ
mas crowd" on the Oceanic carried
away from this country more than
twice as much money as has- ever been
brought in by a ship with a correspond
ingly full passenger list.
Another of the Lelter family has wed
ded a titled Englishman. It Is, of
course, a matter of regret 4hat the
young ladies of the Leiter family, even
with the comfortable subsidies that are
supposed to go with them, could not
find suitable husbands in the land of
their birth. For the sake of posterity,
however, it is perhaps as well for
America that we occasionally get rid of
people of this class. The young lady
who is unable to find a suitable hus
band In America is necessarilj of a type
that can well be sparod.
The holiday number of the Nofthr
western Miller, of "Minneapolis, is the
handsomest publication that . has
reached this office this year. Interest
ing facts and fiction bearing on the
milling trade are Interspersed by nu
merous beautiful engravings. The Port
land Flouring Mills Company, of this
city, covers nearly.an entire page of the
publication with a handsomely en
graved banner bearing the Inscription
"Don't forget the Lewis and Clark Fair
at Portland, Or.. In 1905."
The first kindergarten was opened in
St. Louis in 1S73. There are now 123 of
these schools In that city, employing
over 300 teachers and with over 10,000
pupils enrolled. The cost of these kin
dergartens is about $90,(300 a year, which
It Is said the citizens or taxpayers
cheerfully pay. With nearly a third of
a century of systematic, conscientious
effort behind them, the record of these
schools Is said to justify fujly the ex
penditure of all that they have cost In,
money and endeavor.
Yesterday was not as warm as some
of the Christmas daj-s of the past, but
the Portlanders who wandered over the
hills and out to the Fair grounds with
out feeling Uncomfortable were more
fond than ever of the Oregon climate
when they read of the antics of the
thermometer through , the Middle West
and of the snow storms and blizzards
sweeping over the East. No one in this
part of the country was ever frozen to
death in Winter or prostrated by heat
In the Summer,
A Japanese at Vancouver, B. C, is
reported to have committed suicide be
cause he was unable to reach his native
land and enlist Yor the war. If some
of the reports of Japanese battle
oharges in the face of insurmountable
odds are true, this Is not the first case
of Japanese suicide duo to the war with
Russia, and the Vancouver Jap accom
plished about as much as some of his
countrymen who committed suicide by
walking up to the muzzles of the ene
"Senator Fulton and Senator .Mitch
ell." says the San Francisco Argonaut,
"are, respectively, from Astoria and
Portland, Or., which are adjacent-,
towns." Portland's suburban districts
The fund for the election of Mr. Piles,
it is said in Tacoma, will reach from
$100,000 to $150,000. It Is subscribed with
the understanding that it shall be used
for the suppression of corruption at
Colorado has introduced a political
noveltj' in the "post-election oatri
paign," which appears to be the most
Important feature of Jhe election In
In playing its game of hide and seek,
the Baltic fleet should remember that
the Japanese are not blindfolded.
The death is announced of the In
ventor of the gpld brick. But his. works
live after him.
Yhen the Lantern Went'out..
New Yor.k Sun.
Diogenes was looking for an honest man.
"What's the use?" thoy protested; "your
daughter couldn't marry him to reform
Seeing tho waste of effort, thp philoso
pher desisted front the search.
NOTE AND COMMENT.
M "Say, ojd man, fiow is .your purse?"
ExltTCan Patterson. Enter "Cassle."
. Butier says " the 'eonsrtrucUon of the
.Morrison-street bridge wWan honest (?)
"Thank de lawd. Santa 'Claus is not
due for another 12 months" voices the
existing sentiment in Portland.
. We have an affair of our own. "Hit.
tho Trail." "
Yesterday telegraphfcdlspatches car
ried the story.of Thoma3.P'Brien's death
Ina. penl settlement. b'Brien-.was tho
originator of the famous "gold brick"
swindle. As Shakespeare said:
"The evils that men do live after them,
but oft is the good Interred with their
All , employe of . the French Foreign
Office must shave. Such Is the text of a
peremptory decree from the Minister.
Many protests have boon filed by the
Federation of Government Employes.
Their answer was "even the mustaches
are at the service of the state." Thei
order Is without precedent in the annals
of French history and without their
waxed mustaches and immaculately
twisted goatbes, the Frenchmen will look
quite Americanized. La tost reports ace
to the effect that Paris Is adin with In
dignant cries of "Mon Dleu" and "Sacre
Bleu." .; i.-
Portland had a day off yesterday.
George H. Howell is hot after Mr. But
ler and repeats his charge against the
Pacific" Construction Company. "Won-
der How'll it end?"
What's the matter with Multnomah?
Wow!- The "farmers" will now go back
to the plows and harrows.
Four days more In which to form your
Centralis, Wash., had a $15,000 fire
Christmas night. "That's going some.1'
. The teachers this morning are thinking:
"Will wo?" ''We won't," "We ought to,"
A feller in Boston or New York or
somewhere -is going to kill Lawson, so
he says. He will not,' but he would
shut off a lot of "guff" if he should.
There is nothing like breaking tho news
gently. Dispatches tell us that the an
nouncement of King Alfonso's engage
ment to the Princess Marie Antoinette
may be expected In February. Had the
announcement come upon us without a
preliminary warning, who could answer
for the consequences?
"According to the New York Press,
"one of the oddest fancies for a Christ
inas remembrance is a Brooklyn moth
er's idea of setting the first tooth In a
finger ring, with a tiny diamond on either
side to disguise the real character of the
central gem, which the glint does most
effectively. This particular mother has
treasured two of these precious Incisors,
one of the firsf-born and one of the sec
ond, and they' are identical in size, shape
and color." Save your milk-teeth!
The lines of the Australian poet are
going the rounds again. They are worth
. I,lfe Is mostly froth, And bubble.
Two things stand like tone,
Kindness in another's trouble.
Courage In thine, own.
Togo has been congratulating the men
of the Port Arthur blockading squadron.
If any persons are more deserving of con
gratulations we should like to know
where they are.
Harbin is booming. The Russians are
building enlarged bathhouses, churches
and a hospital there. The dispatches say
nothing about saloons, but there is not
so much neoessity for them when every"
soldier carries a bottle.
A Siberian merchant has been sending
vodka to the front labeled as medical sup
plies. Well. Isn't it?
The Baltia fleet has temporarily dis
appeared from view. On meeting the
Japs it will disappear from view perma
An airship has been doing great things
at Los Angeles, but then the CaUfornians
were always pretty fly.
Some families try to complete a string
of pearls. The Letter family Is collecting
a string of Earls.
There is a rising among the Palajanas.
The name sounds as If the people had
swallowed a few cakes of yeast.
Asks the Walla Walla Union, "Can you
give a good reason for living?" We could
give a better reason for dyeing.
He Is Financially Responsibility.
New York World.
Thomas W. Lawson, whatever may be
said of bis character, methods and pur
poses, is financially responsible. Those
aggrieved at his printed charges would
present a better appearance by proceed
ing against. him under laws which amply
cover the case than by threatening a dis
tributor in advance of the distribution
of tho magazine containing those charges.
.. t 'A Geisha.
Nora Chcsson In Slack and White.
O Shlro Kuro was a danqing girl.
Fairer than Love that feeds on bttor fare.
And paler than a pearl.
Agate and coral blossomecf In her hair;
Te set a Illy there she did not dare.
A rose she would not wear.
Moonshine and water net more softly meet.
Than swelled the bountiful brown earth to
The touches of her feet.
S)ie sang: and when she san?, tho nightin
gale, HIdlnp ami singing In a wlllowod vale.
Forgot her own sad tale.
She danced: and waves that danced out In
Knew her their mistress, and In tears of
Dissolved themselves "away.
But she grew, tired 'of danqing. Even so
Before the darkncwi gives, them leave to go
The wayward sunbeams, grow.
The birds grbw fired of singing.- and their
Is all for mate and nestltngs In a nest.
The bird tired In her breast.
Sho had no mate, for she was of that clan.
T.he wind's own "kindred, 'made since Time
,- began '-
To serve the'lust of irjan
$Vna not his -love: tp fill his empty hours
With laHghtr and with song, to build him.
. bowers ' v "
Made. bright with rootless flower?..
A Bird without the knowledge of nst.
A rootless Flower wag she that took no care
Of Autumn's coming. ICow she Is the guest
Of root and worm, and knows that sleep Is
Siren, with no dreams to bear.
GREAT WOMEN OF MODERN TIMES
CATHERINE DE MEDICI
(By Arrangement with the Chicago Tribune.)
CATHERINE BE MEDICI was the
wife of one King and the mother of
three. Between her marriuge in 1533
and her death In 15E9 she Jived in France
under five reigns. She had no Influence
upon the government of her father-in-law,
Francis I, and hardly more under that of
her husband. Henry II. She made Ifcrself
but little felt when her son, Francis II.
was on the throne. During the reigns of
her sons. Charles IX. and Henry III, sho
was the real monarch of France. Had
sho. used her commanding position and
undoubted abilities solely for the good of
the country, she might have saved it
many miseries. But selfish ambition, not
public virtue, was the key to Catherine's
character. She emploj'ed her Italian cun
ning and skill In statecraft, not for the
good of France, but to strengthen the
position of herself and her sons. The re
sult was she almost disrupted ami
wrecked the French nation. Her char
acter must not. however, be measured by
the high moral standards of the present
time. Her age was one of private licen
tiousness political Intrigue, and of pub
lic crimes. If Catherine was no better
than her age, she was no worse.
Catherine was the daughter of Lorenzo
de Medici, the magnificent and celebrated
Duke of Urblno, and was born at Flor
ence. Sho was taken to France and mar
ried to Henry, second son of King Fran
cis I, in her 14th year. Her situation at
court was a secondary and even precari
ous one. but she sot to work with line
Italian tact to fortify it. She affected to
shun and be Ignorant of affairs of state.
At the earns time she kept her eyes and
ears open, and abon knew more about
them than any other woman of the court.
The King, her father-in-law, was much
Influenced by his mistress, the Duchess
d'Etampes. Her own husband had for
mistress the beautiful Diana of Poitiers,
later Duchess of Valentlnos. Catherine
repressed her womanly and wifely feel
ings and adroitly paid court to both of
them. By the death of his eldest brother
Henry became heir to the throne. As
Catherine bore him no children for ten
years there was talk of divorcing her.
Catherine threw herself at the feet of
Francis I, her father-in-law, and pro
fessed her readiness to remain the wife
of, his son, or, if another were chosen,
to be the humblest of her attendants.
The old icing's heart was touched, he
ended tho divorce talk, and Catherine
bore him grandchildren. In fact, she had
ten children, all weak In mind and In
Henry II became King in 1547. In his
later years he went often to see his
Queen, and she began to give a foretaste
of the part she was later to play.
Henry II died In 1559. The new King,
Francis II, a poor creature, was under
the spell of his wife, the beautiful Mary
Queen of Scots, and she was guided by
her uncles, ther Duke of Guise and car
dinal of Lorraine. The Queen mother,
Catherine, therefore, still' had a secondary
place. But her influence slowly but
steadily increased. France was agitated
by the struggles of two powerful parties
that of the Catholics, led by the Guises,
and that of the Protestants, or Hugue
nots, under Admiral Coligny. Catherine,
although a Catholic, took neither side, but
tried to build a third or middle party
which would be docile to her and. by al
ways supporting tho weaker of the two
great parties, would prevent control of
the government from falling Into the
hands of either. In 15G0 Francis II died,
and Charles IX, a child 10 years old, be
came King. Catherine's indefatigable
patience was at last to be rewarded. Her
time had come. The full effects of her
trimming and unscrupulous policy were
at last to show themselves.
Catherine was fond of ease and pleas
ure. She ate and drank heavily, and was
fat. which spoiled the doubtful beauty of
her youth i but she still had brilliant black
eyes and a fine olive complexion. She al-
BITS OF NORTHWEST LIFE,
Nine Ducks at One Shot.
Frank Castoel, the champion hunter
of Hooper, killed nine ducks at one
Ye Editor's Merry Christmas.
Tho Leader wishes its friends and
patrons a merry Christmas. Incident
ally, we will remark that if you owe us
anything we hope Yule-tide us over
until July 4.
W'lat Became cf the Window.
W. Briscoe walked through a plate
glass window last week and escaped
without a scratch. "Will had forgot his
hammer, and while working outside xf
Vern Smith'3 new store, started to get
it by going through the window, the
glaziers having put in the glass during
The Swivel Gun in Sport.
Olympia Dally Recorder.
Sheriff McClarty went to Nesqually
today to Investigate complaints that
have been made of parties infringing
on the game laws by shooting ducks
for market. It is alleged that a swivel
gun. mounted on the bow of a boat,
has been used with deadly effect by a
couple of strangers. The Sheriff, It
might be added, took along his gun
and hunting dogs.
Mr. Desmond's Great Bear.
Pitner Correspondence Tillamook Her
ald. We wish some of those bear hungers
would relieve Charles Desmond, for; ho
said there is such a large bear on his
place and he Is so fat that he almost
drags his tracks out when crossing on
his premises. He will not go out in
the woods without nls mastiff dog.
Bruney, with himv but if it would snow
he thinks the bear would disappear.
Notes From Willow Creek.
Crook County Journal.
The weather Is looking more like
Winter the last day or two.
Mrs. William Joslin has moved to
Willow Creek to send her children to
P. Chitwood. after a few weeks ill
ness, is improving vey fast.
L. Hamilton is going to move closer
to the schoolhouse to send his children
Walter Newbill' and. wife left for
Washington the first of the week. They
will remain there all Winter.
Mr. Lovelet was seen on the streets
at Grizzly Monday.
The Washington correspondents are
quite generally agreed that Pension Com
missioner Ware retires from office the
most hated man who ever set foot In
Washington. That Is to say. he was hated
by the Government clerks and other at
taches of the Pension Office, whom Com
missioner Ware held up to a rigid ac
countability. It is cold fact, not de
nied, that the office has never been run
In so business-like a manner as during
his term, and that the Government never
before got anything like so much for its
money. For the finrt. time In the entire
history of the Pension Office the work is
Atchison Globe. j
A number of Atchison men will bring i
suit for damages against Doc Morrison, j
the milkman. They claim that while he
talks to their wives in delU'ering milk, the
bread burns in the oven, tho fire dies out
In the furnace, the steak is cooked to
leather, and other waste is incurred.
ways joined the- young King in his stag
chases, and was a good and even reckless
rider. But 3he let nothing Interfere with
business. She assumed complete manage
ment of the King and kingdom. The
Guises-and the Catholic party were now
in tho ascendant. True to her trimming
policy, Catherine leaned toward the Pro
testants. In the ensuing civil war. how
over, the Protestants got the upper hand.
At the siege of Orleans the Duke of
Guise was killed. Admiral Coligny, the
Protestant leader, came to court after
the treaty of Amboise. and by 'his engag
ing manners, great ability and noble char
acter won tho affection and admiration of
the unstable young King. Catherine
feared Coligny and the Protestants would
get control of affairs. She and her son.
the Duke of Anjou, later King Henry III.
therefore, plotted with Henry, the new
Duke of Guise, and his followers to as
sassinate Coligny; and August 22. 157-'.
Coligny was shot by Maurevcrt, an old
tutor of young Guise." -
"By God's death, I will take such ven
geance it shall never be forgotten," said
Charles, in a fury, when he heard the
news. Latq in the night of the next da.
however, his mother and brother entered
his apartment, confessed their complicity
In the crimp, and urged upon tho King
that Coligny"s death was necessary to
prevent their betrayal and the destruction
of his throne and the Catholic religion.
"By God's death," his usual oath, the
King at last exclaimed, "since you think
proper to kill the Admiral, I consent; but
kill all the Huguenots in Paris, In order
that there remain not one to reproach
me." The Guises. Catherine and the Duke
of Anjou had already laid plans for a
wholesale murder of Protestants., and the
words were scarce out of the King'3
mouth when the historic and hideous, mas
sacre of St. Bartholomew began. Coligny
was one of the first to bo killed. In all
France a number of people estimated at
from 30,000 to 100,C00 were- butchered.
Charles IX died miserably two years
later, wailing almost -with his last breath
over the horrible crime to which his con
sent had been extorted.
The Duke of Anjou, now King of Po
land, fled from that country in disguise,
and, without abdicating Its throne, took
the throne of France as Henry III. He
was Catherine's favorite son. It was
even charged she had poisoned Charles
IX to make way for him. An indolent
voluptuary, and at the same time a re
ligious fanatic, his mother's power became-
under his reign greater than ever.
St. Bartholomew had widened the breach
between Catholics and Protestants, and
Henry's reign was a period of incessant
war between them. At first Henry and
his mother supported the Catholics, now
organized into the famous league. Henri
being childless, the next heir to the throne
was the gallant Henry. King of Havarre.
now leader of the Protestants, and Honry
Duke ofc Guise laid claim to the succes
sion. Henry of Navarre, sure of the
validity of his title, was willing to wait
until Henry III was. dead. Henry of Guise,
less certain of his and fearful jest the
King should join the Protestants. Seemed
bent on seizing tho throne while Henry
HI still lived. In May, 15SS, Henry of
Guise, under pretense of presenting a
petition, took possession of Paris and
made the King practically a prisoner. For
once Henry III acted an his own hook.
Without consulting his mother, ho had
Guise assassinated. "When the Catholics.
In consequence, arose against him. he fled
to Henry of Navarre. Tha two sovereigns
marched on Paris with a Huguenot army.
August 1, 15S9, Henry III was stabbed to
death by a Dominican monk, and Henry
of Navarre became King, of France
Meanwhile, six months before. Catherine
de Medici, the principal author of all
these crimes and miseries, had died. Her
death was almost unnoticed, and was soon
forgotten by her contemporaries. Time,
as Guizot says, has restored her to her
proper place In history. S. O. D.
THE SO-CALLED OPEN-AIR CURE.
Paterson, N. J., the Scene of a Health
Experiment That Is interesting.
The doctors are putting a young man
named Scott through a course of treat
ment at Paterson calculated to show
that ono need not go to the Adlrondacks
or Colorado for the benefit of the open
air cure for consumption. Young Scott
was attacked by pulmonary disease some
months ago. the doctors declared that he
had quick coon3umpt!on and must sleep
in the open air. At first they were con
tent with the removal of the window
sashes from the young man's room and
he showed marked improvement after
sleeping in that atmosphere. When Win
ter came on the young man did not want
to freeze the other people in the house,
so he had an' open house made in tho
yard, with a tight roof and with tho slde3
made of windows on pivots. Before ho
goes to bed the patient warms this room
somewhat with an oil stove. Then
someone comes in, turns out the oil stove
and opens all the windows and the pa
tient sleeps till morning wrapped In army
blankets. In the morning the process ia
reversed so that ho may have tho edge
taken off the air before he dresses. The
progress toward recovery 13 declared "to
be excellent under this heroic method, as
it has been in various mountain sanitorl?
where the open-air treatment is the chiet
remedial agent relied upon. It 1 to be
observed that young Scott Is undergoing
this treatment under tho eye of a physlr
clan and by order. Tho publicity being
Slven to his case should not tempt per
sons with weak lungs to try open-air
experiments on their own account. No
doubt pine-tenths of U3 who are in aver
age health might be better for windows
wider open at night, provided the change
was made with duo precautions against
over exposure, but tuberculosis is, too
serious a matter for guesswork. Persons
whose lungs are In the last affected
should be under competent medical care
from tho first. Open-air cures, encour
aging as they are, are for the guidance
Of physicians and are not to be under
taken except under medical orders. And
as there are doctors and doctors, so will
there be "orders" of different kinds. And
as scarcely two cases or two constitu
tions are alike, it will be well for each
patient to obey and believe In his own
doctor, "live or die."
The Census of British South Africa.
London Geographical Journal.
The tabulated results of the census of
the various South African colonies, car
ried out early in the present yar. arc:
Whites. Colored. Total
Cape Celony 5S0.3SO 1.S25.172 2.405.532
Transvaal and Swaz
iland H0O.223 1.033,075 3.334,200
Orange IMver Col
ony 14X419 241,623 SS3.V3
Southern Rhodesia.. 12.G2.:
Jfatal D7,l 1S7.5S2S 284.631
The increa.e in the total population of
Cape Colony Is 37.51 per cent, since 1S91,
while tho percentages for the white and
colored population arc 5:5.96 and 5S.6S re
spectively. In the Orange River Colony
the percentage of total population of white
and colored, respectively, which in 1S90
had been 37.45 and G2.55. amounted in 1KM
to S7.25 and 62.75. respectively, or a very
slight increase of natives. The relative
Increase of natives since 1SS0 is-, how
ever, much more considerable. In South
ern Rhodr.ela the total net increase of
whites has been 1,591 in the last three
years. Tho colored population of the
Transvaal includes a small proportion
(1.7 per cent of total population) of non
native races, while in Natal the number of
Indians alone reaches 160,018.
They didn't sing "Beloved. It Is Morn"
at the wedding of a certain Atchison
woman, but she has been told every morn
ing since, thouch In dlfforent language,
that it Is time for her to get up.