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About The Hood River glacier. (Hood River, Or.) 1889-1933 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 10, 1903)
Mimes H. IIS,-i t.y hull
"IT'S A COLD DAY WHEN WE GET LEFT."
HOOD RIVER, OREGON, THURSDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1303.
HC OP RIVER GLACIER
Juiued every Thursday It
S. F. BLVTHB A SON, Publishers.
8. F. liLYJHE. " E. N. BLVTHE.
1 ernis of subscription $1.60 a Tear when paid
ARRIVAL AND DEPARTURE OF RAILS.
The p- utofflce i ojien dally between (am.
a d K p. m, ; l-tnu ny rnm ii to I o'clock. Mailt
f r the EArttinseiit ll:e. m. am p. m; lor
the Weal at 7:10 a ni. and 1:40 p. m.
The carr iers on It. v. i. mules No. 1 and Mo.
2 li are tfte nostotliee at 8:80 daily. Mall leaves
tot Mt. Hood, dally at 12: bo p. m.; arrives,
It-:' a. in,
Fi r ( hinrweth, Wash., at 7:90 a. m. Tuet
da a, T iir.uiays a' d Saturdays; arrlvea same
days at C p. m.
t.r I'mlurwood, WaHh., at 7:30 a. m. Tues
days, 1 huratays and Saturdays; arrlvea same
daya at 6 p. m.
For White Salmon, Wash., daily at 2:45 p, m.;
arrlvea at 11 a. m.
For Hood River dally at 9 a. m.; arrlvea at
4:44 p. m.
- ForiluHum, Trout I.alte and Ouler, Wash,,
daily at 7:MI a. m.; arrlvea at 12 m.
Fur uleuwuod, (ijlmer and Kulila, Waah.,
dally at a in. t arrlvea at 9 p. m.
For I'ineflai and Hnowden, Vah., at 11:90
a. ni. Tuesdays said Saturdays; arrlvea aame
daya, ln:So a. in.
l or Kin en, Wash., dally at 4:45 p. m.; ar
rives at fAh a. m.
i lOl KT IKioD lilVEK No. 42, FORE8TKR80F
) AM Kkil'A Meeta second and Fourth Mon
days In each month in K. of V. hall.
H.J. FREUlHtct, C. E.
8. F. Fours, Financial Secretary.
OAK DROVE COl'NCIL No. 142, ORDER OF
TEN 1)0. Meets the Second and Fourth
rridaysoi the mouth. Visitors cordially wel
comed. U. Ukosius, Counsellor.
Musi Nai.ua Clabk, Secretary.
0 RDER OF WASHINGTON. Hood River
Villon No. 142. meets lu Odd Fellows' hall
"second and fourth Saturdays in each month,
7:8o o'clock. . 1,. Roou, President.
C. U. Dakin, Secretary..
JAl'REL REBEKAII DEGREE LOIMtK, No.
I 87, 1. O. O. F.-Meeta first and third Frl
ayt in each month.
Mint Edith Moore, N. Q.
L. E. Morse, Secretary.
(IAN BY POST, No. 16, O. A. K.-MeeteatA.
J O. U. Y. Hail second and fourth Saturdays
of each month at 2 o'clock p. in. All U. A. k,
members iuvlled to meet with us.
W. H. 1'ibky, Commander.
T. J. Cunning, Adjutant.
C1ANBV W. R. C, No. 16-Meets second and
) fourth Saturdays of each month In A. O, U.
W hall at l p. in. Mrs. Fannis Bailet, iTea.
,Mk. T'. J. Canning, Secretary.
110OD RIVER LODGE No. 106, A. F. and A
Jl M. Veeta Saturday evening on or before
eat h full moon. V. u. M. Sates, W. M.
C. I). Thohfson. Secretary.
HOOD RIVER CHAPTER, No. 27, R. A. M.
Weeti third Friday ninlit of each month.
O. it. Castneb, H. P.
A. 8. Blow, Secretary.
RIVER CHAPTER, No. 24, O. K. 8.
I Meeta second and fourth Tuesday even
ings of each month. Visitors cordially wel
comed. Mas. May Yates, w. M.,
Una. Maey B. Davidson, Secretary.
0LETA ASSEMBLY No. 103. United Artisans,
Meets first and third Vtedneeilaya, work;
'second and fourth Vtednoedaya social; Aril
aans hall. F. C. HBOstus, m. A.
F. B. Barnes, Secretary.
'Al'COMA I.ODOE, No. SO, K. of P. Meet
V In K. of P. hall every Tuesday night.
m F. L. Davidson, C, C.
C. E. II EMM AN, K. of R. 4 8.
KIVER8IDK LODGE. No. S8, A. O. U. W.
Meeta first and third Saturdaya or each
month. F. B. Barms, W. M.
E. K. Bradley, Financier.
Chester shuts, Recorder. '
IDI.EW1LDB LODtiE, No. 107, I. O O. F.
Meeta in Fraternal hull every Thursday
night. Oko. W. Thompson, N. o.
J. Iu Henderson, Secretary.
"MOOD RIVER TENT, No. , K. O. T. M..
J 1 meets at A. O. U. W. hall on the flrat and
third Fridays of each month.
Waltkr uk rhino, Commander.
O. E. Williams, Secretary.
SIVKRSIDK LODGE NO, 40, DEGREE OF
HONOR, A. O. U. W. -Meets flrat and
rd Saturdays at 8 P. M.
Kate M. Frederick, C. of B.
Mim Annie Smith, Recorder.
ood river Camp, No. 7,702, m. w. a..
meets in Odd Fellows' Hall the first ana
third Wednetsdava of each month.
J. R. Bees, V. C.
C. U. Dakin, Clerk.
.-DEN ENCAMPMENT No. 48, I. O. O. F.
Regular meeting aecvnd and fourth Mon
ays 01 each month. W.O. AsH, C. P.
. L. Hkndeuson, Scribe.
II. JENKINS, D. M. D. '
Specialist on Crown and Bridge Work.
Telephones: Office, 281; residence, 94.
Of&ce over Bank Itlilg. Hood River, Oregon
Gold crowns and bridge work ami all kinds of
BOOD RIVER OREGON
L L. HUMBLE,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
Successor to Dr. M. F. Shaw.
Calls promptly answered In town or 00s n try,
Day or Nlaht.
Telephones: Residence, 611; Office, (13.
Office over Reed's Grocery.
J r. WATT, M. D. '
Physician and Surgeon.
Telephone!: Office, 281; residence, 281
BCRGKON O.laS. CO.
011N LELAND HENDERSON
ATTORNKY-AT-LAW. ABSTRACTER, MO-
1AK Y PUBLIC and KaAI
EST AT K ACiEST.
For 29 years a resident of Oregon and Waah
Inaton. Has bad many years experience in
Krai Estate matters, aa abstractor, eeercher of
titles and agout. Satisfaction guaranteed or
pKEDEKlCK 4 ARNOLD
CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS.
KetimaU"! furniahed for all kind ot
work. Repairing a tpeoialty. All kinds,
of shop work. Shop on 8uta Street,
between First and Second.
Abstract! Famished. Money Loaned.
Hood River, Oregon.
p C. BROSiUS, M. D.
" FHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
Thone Central, or 121.
Office Honrs: 10 to 11 A. M.j t to I
and 6 to 7 P. M.
gUTLER A CO.,
Po a iteneral bankinf botineew.
HOOD RIVER, OREGON.
HANDLES MATTERS BEFORE PUBLIC
Favors Lewis and Clark Exposition Undesirable
Class of Immigrants Should be Kept Out Ap
point Commission to Inquire Into Needs of Ship
pingExtend Rural Free Delivery Better Legis
lation for Alaska Panama Canal Question.
WAFHINGTON. Dec. T.-President
Hooaivelt'a message to Congress was read
before the Senate and House today. The
text of the measage follows:
To the Senate and House ot-Jlepresenta-
The country la to be congratulated on
the amount of substantial achievement
which hag marked the past year, both
as regards our foreign and as regards our
With a nation as with a man the most
important things are those of the house
hold, and therefore the country is espe
cially to be congratulated on what has
been accomplished in the direction of pro
viding for the exercise of supervision over
the great corporations and combinations
of corporations engaged In Interstate com
merce. The Congress has created the De
partment of Commerce and Labor, includ
ing the Bureau of Corporations, with for
the first time authority to secure proper
publicity of such proceedings of these
great corporations as the public has the
right to know. It has provided for the
expediting of suits for the enforcement of
the Federal anti-trust law; and by an
other law It has secured equal treatment
to all producers in the transportation of
their goods, thus taking a long stride
forward in making effective the work of
the Interstats Commerce Commission.
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES
Indications Are That the Surplus of
the Present Ysar Will Be Small.
From all sources, exclusive 'of the pos
tal service, the receipts of the Government
for the last fiscal year aggregated $560,396,-874.-
The expenditures for the same period
were 606,099,007, the surplus for the fiscal
year being $64,297,667. The Indications are
that the surplus for the present fiscal year
will be very small, If Indeed there be any
surplus. A large surplus la cer
tainly undesirable. Two years ago the
war taxes were taken off with the express
Intention of equalizing the Governmental
receipts and expenditures, and though the
first year thereafter still showed a surplus
It now seems likely that a substantial
equality of revenue and expenditure will
be attained. Such being the case it is of
great moment both to exercise care and
economy In appropriations, and to scan
sharply any change in our fiscal revenue
system which may reduce our Iricome.
Needs of Financial Situation.
The Integrity of our currency Is beyond
question, and under present conditions it
would be unwise and unnecessary to at
tempt a reconstruction of our entire mone
tary system. The same liberty should be
granted the Secretary of the Treasury to
deposit the customs receipts as Is granted
him in the deposit of receipts from other
sources. In my message of December J.
1902, I called attention to certain needs of
the financial situation, and I again ask
the consideration of the Congress for these
Commission Is Recommended to In
quire Into Needs of Shipping.
A majority of our people desire that
steps be taken In the Interests of Amer
ican shipping, so that we may once more
resume our former position in the ocean
carrying trade. But hitherto the differ
ences of opinion as to the proper method
of reaching this end have been so wide
that It has proved impossible to secure
the adoption of any particular scheme.
Having In view these facts, I recommend
that the Congress direct the Secretary of
the Navy, the Postmaster-General and
the Secretary of Commerce and Labor,
associated with such a representation
from the Senate and House of Repren
tatlvea as the Congress In Its wisdom
may designate, to serve as a commission
for the purpose of Investigating and re
nortlns to the Congress at its next ses
sion what legislation ts desirable or nec
essary for the development of the Amer
ican merchant marine and American com
merce, and Incidentally of a National
ocean mall service of adequate auxiliary
naval cruisers and naval reserves.
Undesirable Class Must Be Kept Out,
That Wanted Better Distributed.
We can not have too much Immigration
of the right kind, and we should have
none at all of the wrong kind. The need
la to devise some system by which unde
sirable Immigrants shall be kept out en
tirely, while desirable Immigrants are
orouerly distributed throughout the coun
try. At present some districts which need
Immigrants have none; and In others. 1
where the population la already congest- j
ed. Immigrants come in such numbers as i
to depress the conditions of life for those
already there. During the last two years
the Immigration service at New York has
been greatly Improved, and the corruption
and Inefficiency which formerly obtained
there have been eradicated. This service
has Just been Investigated by a commit-1
tee of New fork cltlaena of high atand- 1
Ing. Messrs. Arthur V. Brlesen, Lee K.
Frankel, Eugene A. Phllbln, Thomas W.
II .. n Anjt tl.lnh TraiifmiH Thpl. rnnr
deals with the whole situation at length,
and concludes with certain recommenda
tions for administrative and legislative
action. It Is now receiving the attention
of tha Secretary of Commerce and Labor.
FRAUDS IN PUBLIC SERVICE.
Appropriations Urged to Investigate
Land and Postal Affairs,
In my last snnual message. In connec
tion with tha aubject ot the due regula
tion of combinations of capital which are
or may become Injurious to the public, 1 1
recommend a special appropriation for the
better enforcement of tha antitrust law
aa it now stands, to be expended under
the direction of the Attorney-Oeneral. Ac
cordingly (by the legislative, executive and
Judicial appropriation set of February 25,
14, SI Stat.. $64. S44). the Congress ap
propriated, for the purpose of enforcing
the various Federal trust and Interstate
commerce laws, the sum of $M0.(MS to be
expended tinder the direction of the Attorney-General
In the employment of spe
cial counsel and scents In the Department '
Sends Message to
of Justice to conduct proceedings and
prosecutions under said laws in the courts
of the United States. I now recommend,
as a matter of the utmost Importance and
urgency, the extension of the purposes of
this appropriation, so that it may be
available, under the direction of the Attorney-General,
and until used, for the
due enforcement of the laws of the United
States in general' and especially of the
civil and criminal laws relating to public
lunds and the laws relating to postal
crimes and offenses and the subject of
naturallxation. Recent Investigations
have shown a deplorable state of affairs
In these three matters of vital concern.
By various frauds and by forgeries and
perjuries, thousands of acres of the pub
lic domain, embracing lands of different
character ard extending through vari
ous sections of the country, have been
Decision of the Commission Removes
Question Which Caused Alarm.
For several years past the rapid de
velopment of Alaska and the establish
ment of growing American Interests in
regions therefore unsurveyed and imper
fectly known brought Into prominence the
urgent necessity of a practical demarca
tion of tha boundaries between the Juris
dictions of the United States and Great
Britain. Although the treaty of 1825 be.
tween Great Britain and Russia, the pro
visions of which were copied In the treaty
of 1S67, whereby Russia conveyed Alaska
to the United States, was positive as to
the control, first by Russia and later by
the United States, of a strin of territory
along the continental mainland from the
western shore . of Portland Canal . to
Mount St. Kllasv-following and surround
ing the Indentations of the coast and In
cluding the Islands to the westward. Its
description of the landward margin of the
strip was Indefinite, resting on the sup
posed existence ef a continuous rida or
range or mountains skirting the coast,
as figured In the charts of the early navi
gators. In 1878 ouea.
tlons of revenue administration on the
Stikine River led to the establishment of
a provisional demarcation, crossing the
channel between two high peaks on either
side, about 24 miles above the river
mouth. In 1899 similar questions growing
out of the extraordinary development of
mining Interests In the region about the
nead of Lynn Canal brought about a tem
porary modus Vivendi, by which a con
venient separation was made at the
watershed divides of the White and Chll
xoot passes, and to the north of luk
wan, on the Klehlnl River. These partial
and tentative adjustments could not, in
the very nature of things, be satisfactory
or lasting. A permanent disposition of
the matter became Imperative.
After unavailing attempts to reach an
understanding through a Joint High, Com
mission, lotiowea by prolonged negotia
tions, conducted in an amicable spirit, a
convention between the United States and
Great Britain was signed January 24, 1903,
providing for an examination of the sub
ject by a mixed tribunal of six members,
three on a aide, with a view to its final
disposition. Ratifications were exchanged
on March S last, whereupon the two gov
ernments appointed their respective mem
bers. This tribunal met 'In "London
on, September I, under the presidency of
Lord Alverstone. The proceedings were
expeditious, and marked by a friendly
and conslcentlous spirit. The respective
cases, counter cases, and arguments pre
sented the issues clearly and fully. On
the 20th of October a majority of the
tribunal reached and signed an agreement
on all the questions submitted by the
terms of the convention.
x .,e award la self -executing on the vital
points. To make It effective as regards
the others, It only remains for the two
governments to appoint, each on Its own
behalf, one or more scientific experts,
who shall, with all convenient speed, pro
ceed together to lay down the boundary
line in accordance with the decision of the
majority of the tribunal. I recommend
that the Congress make adequate pro
vision for the appointment, compensation
and expenses of the members to serve on
this joint boundary commission on the
part of the United States.
CLAIMS AGAINST VENEZUELA.
Reference to The Hague Court a
Great Triumph for Arbitration.
It will be remembered that during the
second session of the last Congress Great
Britain, Germany and Italy formed an al
liance for the purpose of blockading the
ports of Venezuela and using such other
means of pressure as would secure a set
tlement of claims due, as they alleged, to
certain of their subjects. Their employ
ment of force for the collection of these
claims was terminated by an agreement
brought about through the offices of the
diplomatic representatives of the United
States at Caracas and the Government at
Washington, thereby ending a situation
which was bound to cause Increasing fric
tion, and which jeoparded the peace ot
the continent Under this agreement Ven
eauela agreed to set apart a certain per
centage of the customs receipts of two
of her porta to be applied to the payment
of whatever obligations might be ascer
tained by mixed commissions appointed
for that purpose to be due from her, not
only to the three powers already men
tioned, whose proceedings sgalnst her had
resulted In a state of war, but also to tha
United States, France. Spain, Belgium,
the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway,
and Mexico, who had not employed force
for the collection of the claims alleged to
be due to certain of tbelr cltlsens. j
A demand was then made by the so-'
called blockading powers that tha sums
ascertained to be due to their cltlsens by '
such mixed commissions should be ac-1
corded payment In full before anything
was paid upon the claims of any of the ,
so-called peace powers. Venezuela, on the
other hand. Insisted that all her creditors ;
should be paid upon a basis ot exact j
equality. During the efforts to adjust
this dispute it was suggested by the ,
powers In interest that It should be re
ferred to me for decision, but I was clear- (
ly ot the opinion that a far wiser course j
would be to submit the auesttoa to the ,
permanent court of arbitration et The
Hague, It seemed to me to offer an ad
mirable opportunity to advance the prac
tice of the peaceful settlement ot dis
putes between nations and to secure for
The Hague tribunal a memorable Increase
of its practical Importance. The nations
Interested In the controversy were so nu
merous and, In many Instances, so power
ful as to make It evident that beneficent
results would follow from their appear
ance at the same time before the bar' of
that august tribunal of peace. ,
Our hopes In that regard have been re
alized. Russia and Austria are represent
ed In the persons of the learned and dis
tinguished jurists who compose the tri
bunal, whfle Great Britain, Germany,
France. Spain, Italy, Belgium, the Neth
erlands, Sweden and Norway, Mexico,
the United States and Venezuela are rep
resented by tnetr respective agents and
counsel. Such an imposing concourse of
nations presenting their arguments to and
Invoking the decision of that high court
of international Justice and International
peace can hardly fall to secure a like sub
mission of many future controversies.
The nations now appearing there will find
It far ea.ner to appear there a second
time, while no nation can Imagine Its Just
priue will be lessened by following the ex
ample now nrw'rj'jfL VThis triumph of
is a subject of warm congratulation, and
offers a happy augury for the peace of
the world. .
RELATIONS WITH CHINA.
Signing of Commercial Treaty Cause
The signing of a new commercial treaty
with China, which took place at Shanghai
on the 8th of October, Is a cause for sat.
Isfactlon. This act, the result ot long
discussion and negotiation, places our
commercial relations with the great Ori
ental Empire on a more satisfactory
footing than they have ever heretofore
enjoyed. It provides not only for the
ordinary rights and privileges of diplo
matic and Consular officers, but also for
an Important extension of our commerce
by Increased facility of access to Chinese
ports, and for the relief of trade by the
removal of some of the obstacles which
havs embarrassed It In the past.
RURAL FREE-DELIVERY 8ERVICE
System Must Be Extended, and Sal
aries of Carriers Adjusted.
The rural free delivery service has been
steadily extended. The attention of the
Congress Is asked to the questsnn of the
compensation of the letter carriers and
clerks engaged in the postal service,
especially on the new rural free-delivery
routes. More routes have been Installed
since the first of July last than In any
like period in the department s history
While a due regard to economy must be
kept In mind in the establishment of new
routes, yet the extension of the rural free
delivery system must be continued, for
reasons of sound public policy. No Gov
ernmental movement of recent years has
resulted in greater Immediate benefit to
the people of the country districts.
LEWIS AND CLARK EXPOSITION
Congress Should Give It Support as
Well as Recognition.
I trust that the Congress will continue to
favor In all proper ways the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition. This exposition
commemorates the Louisiana purchase,
which was the first great step in the ex
pansion which made us a continental
Nation. The expedition of Lewis and
Clark across the continent followed there
on, and marked the beginning of the
process of exploration and colonization
which thrust our National boundaries to
the Pacific. The acquisition of the Oregon
Country, Including the present States of
Oregon and Washington, was a fact of
immense importance in our history; first
giving us our place on the Pacific sea
board, and making ready the way for our
ascendency In the commerce of the great
est of the oceans. The centennial or our
establishment upon the Western Coast
by the expedition of Lewis and Clark Is
to be celebrated at Portland, Or., by an
Exposition In the Summer of 1905, and this
event should receive recognition and sup
port from the National Government.
DEVELOPMENT OF ALASKA.
Legislation Is Needed and the Survey
of Public Lands Urged.
I call your special attention to the Ter
ritory of Alaska. The country Is develop
ing rapidly, and it has an ass il red future.
The mineral wealth is great and has as
yet hardly been tapped. The fisheries, If
wisely handled and kept under National
control, will be a business as permanent
as any other, and of the utmost Import
ance to the people. The forests, if
properly guarded, will form another great
source of wealth. Portions of Alaska
are fitted for farming and stockraislng.
although the methods must be adapted to
the peculiar conditions of the country.
Alaska Is situated In the Far North; but
so are Norway and Sweden and Finland;
and Alaska can prosper and play Its part
In the New World Just as those nations
have prospered and played their parts In
the Old World. Proper land laws should
be enacted and the survey of the public
lands Immediately begun. Coal-land laws
shold be provided whereby the coal-land
entryman may make his location and se
cure patent under methods kindred to
those now prescribed for homestead and
mineral entrymen. Salmon hatcheries, ex
clusively under Government control,
should be established. The cable should
be extended from Sitka westward. Wagon
roads and trails should be built, and the
building of railroads promoted in all le
gitimate ways. Lighthouses should be
built along the coast. Attention should be
paid to the needs of the Alaska Indians;
provUton should be made for ah officer,
with deputies, to study their needs, re
lieve their immediate wants, and help
them adapt. themselves to the new con
Greater Power Should Be Vested In
I recommend that an appropriation be
made for building lighthouses In Hawaii,
and taking possession of those already
built. The territory should be reimbursed
for whatever amounts It has already ex
pended for lighlhousea. The Governor
should be empowered to suspend or re
move any official appointed by him with
out submitting the matter to the Legis
lature. INSULAR POSSESSIONS.
Philippines Should B Knit Closer by
Of our Insular possessions the Philip
pines and Porto Rico it Is gratifying to
say that their steady progress has been
such aa to make It unnecessary to spend
much time In discussing them. Tet the
Congress should ever keep In mind that
a peculiar obligation rests upon us to
further In every way the welfare of
these communities. The Phllllppines
should be knit clorer to us by tariff ar
rangementa. It would, of course, be Im
possible suddenly to raise the people of
the Uiands to the hleh pitch of Industrial
prosrerity and of governmental efficiency
to which they will In the end by degrees
attain; and the caution and moderation I
shown In developing them have been !
among the main reasons why this devel
opment has hitherto gone on so
smoothly. Scrupuloua care has been !
taken In the choice of governmental
agents, and the entire elimination of par- j
tlsan politics from the public service. The
concltion of the Islanders is In material
thlpia far better than ever before, while
their governmental. Intellectual,' and
moral advance has kept pace with their
mtteiinl advance. No one people ever
benefited another people more than we
hare benefited the Filipinos by taking
possession ol the Islands.
Necessity for Revision of the Laws Is
. Pointed Out.
The cash receipts of.the General Land
Office for the last fiscal year were
$11,02-1,743.63, an Increase of $4,762,816.47
over the preceding year. Of this "sum,
approximately, $8,461,493 will go to the
credit of the fund for the reclamation
of arid land, making the total of this
runa. up to the 30th of June, 1903, ap
A gratifying disposition has bren
evinced by those having unlawful lnclos
uies of public land to remove their fences.
Nmrly $,000,000 acres so Inclosed have ren
thrown open on demand. In but com
paietively few cases has It been neces
sary to go Into court to accompl'sfj tivs
purpose This work will be vigorously
prcaeuited until all unlawful Inclosurcs
have been Temoved. '
Experience has shown that In the West
ern States themselves, as well as In the
rest of the country, there Is wldesans
conviction, that certain of the public-. find
laws and the resulting adminlstritlve
practice no longer meet the present n'Ja.
The character and uses of the remaining
public lands differ widely from those of
the public lands which the Congress had
especially in view when these laws were
pnsed The rapidly Increasing rate of
disposal ot the public lands Is not fol
lowed by a corresponding increase In
home-bulldlng. There Is a tendency to
mass in large holdings public lands, es
pecially timber and grazing lands, and
thereby to retard settlement. I renew and
emphasize my recommendation of lat't
year that so far as they are available for
agriculture In Its broadest sense, anO to
whatever extent they may be reclal.ned
urder the national Irrigation '.aw, the re
maining public lands should be held
rigidly for the home-builder. The atten
tion of the Congress Is especially directed
to the timber and stone law, the desort'
land law, and the commutation clause
of the homestead law. which In thlr nper
atlon have In many respects conflicted
with wise public-land policy. The discus
sions in the Congress and elsewhere have
made It evident that there -is a wide di
vergence of opinions between '.hose holc
lng opposite views on these subjects; r r.d
that the oDDOsing sides have strong ind
convinced reoresentatives of weight beth
within and without the Congress; the dif
ferences being not only as to matters of
opinion, but as to matters of fact.
Reclamation of Arid Lands.
The work! of reclamation of the arid
landa of the West Is progressing steadily
and satisfactorily under the terms of the
law setting aside the proceeds from the
disposal of public lands. The corps of
engineers known as the reclamation
service, which Is conducting the surveys
and examinations, has been thoroughly
organized, especial pains being taken to
secure under the civil service rules a
body of skilled, experienced and efficient
men. Surveys and examinations are
progressing throughout the arid states and
territories, plans for reclaiming worKS oe
InK DreDared and passed upon by boards
of engineers before approved by the Sec
retary of the Interior. In Arizona and
Nevada. In localities where such work Is
pre-eminently needed, construction has at
ready been begun, in otner parts 01 tne
arid West various projects are well ad
vanced towards the drawing up of con
tracts, these being delayed in part by
necessities of reaching agreements or un.
derstanding as regards rights of way or
acquisition of real estate. Most of the
works contemplated for consttuctirn are
of National Importance, involving Inter
state questions or the securing of stable,
self-supporting communities in the midst
of vast tracts of vacant land. The Nation
as a whole Is of course the gainer by the
creation of these homes, adding as they
do to the wealth and stability of the
country, and furnishing a home market
for the products of-the East and South.
The reclamation law, while perhaps not
Ideal, appears at present to answer the
larger needs for which It Is designed.
Further legislation is not recommended
until the necessities of change are more
PRESERVATION OF FORESTS.
Need There. f Is Recognlred Now as
The study of the opportunities of recla
mation of the vast extent pf arid land
shows that whether this reclamation Is
done by Individuals, corporations, or the
state, the sources of water supply must be
effectively protected and the reservoirs
guarded by the preservation of the for
ests at the headwaters of the streams.
The engineers making the preliminary ex
aminations continually emphasize this
need and urge that the remaining public
landa at the headwaters of the Important
streams of the West be reserved to In
sure permanency of water supply for Ir
rigation. Much progress In forestry has
been made during the past year. The ne
cessity for perpetuating our forest re
sources, whether In public or private
hands, Is recognized now as never be
fore. The demand for forest reserves hns
become Insistent In the West, because the
West must use the water, wood and Sum
mer range which only such reserves can
supply. Progressive lumbermen are striv
ing, through forestry, to give their busi
ness permanence. Other great business
Interests are awakening to the need of
forest preservation as a business matter.
The Government's forest -work should re
ceive from the Congress hearty support,
and especially Support adequate for the
protection of the forest reserves against
Are. The forest-reserve policy of the Gov
ernment has passed beyond the experi
mental stage, and has reached a condi
tion where scientific methods are essential
to Its successful prosecution. The sdmln
Istratlve features of forest reserves are at
present unsatisfactory, being divided be
tween three bureaus of two defiartmenta.
It Is therefore recommended that all mat
ters pertaining to forest reserves, except
those Involving or pertaining to land
titles, be consolidated In the Bureau of
Forestry of the Department ot Agricul
Agent Should Not Be Dependent
Upon Partisan Politic.
The Indian agents should not be depend
ent for their appointment or tenure of
office upon considerations of partisan poli
tics; the practice of appointing, when
possible, ex-army officers or bonded super
intendents to the vacancies that occur Is
working well. Attention Is Invited to the
widespread Illiteracy due to lack of pub
lic schools in the Indian Territory. Prompt
heed should be paid to the need of edu
cation for the children In this territory.
No Other Class Deserve So Well of
the Nation a the Veterans.
No ether class of our citizens deserves
so well of the Nation as those to whom
the Nation owes Its very being, the vet- property right carved out of the rights
erana of the CM1 War. 8peclal attention of sovereignty snd property which New
Is asked to the excellent work of the Granada then had and possessed over the
Pension Bureau In expediting and dls- 1 said territory- .The native of New Granada
poaing of pension claims. Piirtng the haa passed away and lu territory has been
fiscal year ending July L 1901. the Bureau ; divided. Its successor, the Government
settled l.a claims, an average of $3 of Colombia, has ceased to own any prop
claims for each working day of the year, lerty In the isthmus. A new republic, that
The number ef settlements since July L ' of 1'anama, which was at ons time a aoy-
1903, has been In excess of last year's e reign state, snd at another time a mere
average, approaching 100O claims for each department of the successive confedtra
worklng day, and It Is believed that the tlons known ss New Granada and Co
work of the Bureau will be current at lombla, has now aucceeded to the rights
ths close of the present fiscal year. i which first one and then the other for-
CIVIL SERVICE RULES.
Competitive Examinations Promote
Efficiency and Economy.
During the year ended June 30 last 25.
566 persons were appointed through com
petitive examinations under the civil
service rules. This was 12,671 more than
during the preceding year, and 40 per
cent, of those who passed the examina
tions. This abnormal growth, was largely
occasioned by the extension of clasal.
ficatlon to the rural free-delivery serv.
Ice and the appointment last year of over
9000 rural carriers. A revision of the
clvil-servlce rules took effect on April
15 last, which has greatly Improved their
operation. The completion of the reform
of the civil service Is recognized by good
citizens everywhere as a matter, of the
highest public Importance, and the suc
cess of the merit system lamely depends
upon the effectiveness of the rules and
and the machinery provided for their en
forcement. A very gratifying spirit of
friendly co-operation exists In all the de
partments of the Government In the en
forcement and uniform observance of
both the letter and spirit of the civil
System of Promotion by Mere Senior
ity Is Not Well.
The effect of the laws providing a gen
eral staff for the Army, and for the more
effective use of the National Guard, has
been excellent. Great Improvement has
been made In the efficiency of our Army
In recent years. Such schools as those
erected at Fort Leavenworth and Fort
Riley and the institution of Fall maneuver
work accomplished satitifactory results.
The good effect of these maneuvers upon
the National Guard is marked, and ample
appropriation should be made to enable
the guardsmen of the several states to
share in the benefit. The Government
should as soon as possible secure suitable
permanent camn sites for military nun-
euvers In the various sections of the coun
try. The service thereby rendered not
only to the regular Army, but to the Na
tional Guard of the several states, will be
so great as to repay many times over the
relatively small expense. We should not
rest satisfied with what has been done,
however. The only people who are con
tented with a system of promotion by
mere seniority are those who are con
tented with the triumph of mediocrity
over excellence. On the other hand, a
system which encouraged the exercise of
social or political favoritism in promo
tions would be even worse. But it would
surely be easy to devise a method of pro
motion from grade to grade In which the
opinion of the higher officers of the serv
ice upon the candidates should be decisive
upon the standing and promotion of the
latter. Just such a system now obtains
at West Point.
There Must Be No Let-Up In Work
of Increasing It.
Shortly after the enunciation of that fa
mous principle of American foreign pol
Icy now known as the "Monroe Doctrine,'
President Monroe, In a special message
to Congress, on January 30, 1824, spoke as
follows: "The Navy Is the arm from
which our Government will always derive
most aid In support of our . . . rights.
Every power engaged in war will know
the strength of our naval power, the
number of our ships of each class, their
condition, and the promptitude with
which we may bring them into service,
and will pay due consideration to that
I heartily congratulate the Congress
upon the steady progress in building up
the -merican Navy. We cannot afford a
let-up in this great work. To stand still
means to go back. There should be no
cessation In adding to the effective units
of the fighting strength of. the fleet.
Meanwhile the Navy Department and the
officers of the Navy are doing well their
part by providing constant service at sea
under conditions akin to those of actual
warfare. Our officers and enlisted men
are learning to handle the battleships,
cruisers and torpedo boats with high effi
ciency In fleet and squadron formations,
and the standard of marksmanship is be
ing steadily raised. The best work ashore
is indispensable, but the highest duty
of a naval oltlcer is to exercise command
The establishment ef a naval base In
the Philippines ought not to be longer
postponed. Such s base is desirable In
time of peace; in time of war it would
be Indispensable, and Its lack would be
ruinous. Without It our fleet would be
helpless. Our naval experts are agreed
that Sublg Bay Is the proper place for the
purpose. The national Interests require
that the work of fortification and develop
ment of a naval station at Subig Bay be
begun at an early date; for under the
best conditions It is a work which will
consume much time.
Review of Dealings With Colombia
and Recent Events.
By the act of June 28, 1902, the Congress
authorized the President to enter Into
treaty with Colombia for the building of
the I'snal across the Isthmus of Panama;
It being provided that in the event of
failure to secure such treaty after the
lapse of a reasonable time, recourse should
be had to building a canal through Ni
caragua. It has not been necessary to
consider this alternative, as I am enabled
to lay before the Senate a treaty provid
ing for the building of the canal across
the Isthmus of Panama. This was the
route which commended Itself to the de
liberate judgment of the Congress, and
we can now acquire by treaty the right
to construct the canal over this route.
The question now, therefore. Is not by
which route the Isthmian canal shall be
built, for that question has been definitely
and Irrevocably decided. The question la
simply whether or not we shall have an
When the Congress directed that we
should take the Panama route under
treaty with Colombia, the essence of the
condition, of course, referred not to the
Government which controlled that route,
but to the route Itself; to the territory
across which the route lay, not to the
name which for the moment the territory
bore on the map. The purpose of the
law was to authorize the President to
make a treaty with the power In actual
control of the Isthmus of Panama. This
purpose has been fulfilled.
In the year IMS mis government en
tered Into a treaty with New Granada,
the predecessor upon the Isthmus of the
Republic of Colombia and ot the present
Republic of Panama, by which treaty It
waa provided that the Government and
citizens of the United States should al-
ware have free and open right of way
or transit across the Isthmus of Panama
by any modes of communication that
might be constructed, while in return our
Government guaranteed the perfect neu
trality of the above-mentioned Isthmus
with the view that the free transit from
the one to the other sea might not be
interrupted or embarrassed. The treaty
vested in the United States a substantial
merly exercised over the Isthmus. But as
long aa the Isthmus endures, the mere
geographical fact of Its existence, and
the peculiar Interest therein which Is re
quired by our po-itlon, perpetuate the
solemn contract which binds the holders
of the territory to respect our right to
freedom of transit across it, and binds
us in return to safeguard for the Isthmus
and the world the exercise of that ines
timable privilege. The true interpretation
of the obligations upon which the United
States entered In this treaty of 1846 has
been given repeatedly In the utterances
of Presidents and Secretaries of Stats.
Repudiation of Treaty by Colombia.
Last Spring, under the act above re
ferred to, a treaty concluded between ths
representatives of the Republic of Colom
bia and of our Government was ratified by
the Senate. This treaty was entered Into
at the urgent solicitation of the people
of Colombia, and after a body of experts
appointed by our Government especially
to go Into the matter of the routes across
the Isthmus had pronounced unanimously
In favor of the Panama route. In draw
ing up this treaty every concession was
made to the people and to the Govern
ment of Colombia. We were more than
Just in dealing with them. Our generos
ity was such as to make It a serious ques
tion whether we had not gone too far in
their Interest, at the expense of our own;
for In our scrupulous desire to pay all
possible heed, not merely to the real, but
even to the fancied rights of our weaker
neighbor, who already owed so much to
our protection and forbearance, we yield
ed in all possible wt.ys to her desires In
drawing up the treaty. Nevertheless the
Government of Colombia not merely re
pudiated the treaty, but repudiated it In
such manner as to make it evident by
the time the Colombian Congress ad
journed that not the scantiest hope re
mained of ever getting a satisfactory
treaty from them. The Government of
Colombia made the treaty, and yet when
the Colombian Congress was called to
ratify It the vote against ratification was
unanimous. It does not appear that ths
government made any real effort to se
Immediately after the adjournment of
the Congress a revolution broke out In
Panama. The people of Panama had long
been discontented with the Republic of
Colombia, and they had been kept quiet
only by the prospect of the conclusion of
the treaty, which was to them a matter of
vital concern. When it became evident
that the treaty was hopelessly lost, the
people of Panama rose literally as one
man. Not a shot wets fired by a singls
man on the Isthmus in the Interest of
the Colombian Government. Not a life
was lost In the accomplishment of the
revolution. The Colombian troops sta
tioned on the Isthmus, who had long been
unpaid, made common cause with the peo
ple of Panama, nd with astonishing
unanimity the new Republic was Btarted.
The duty of the United States in the
premises was clear. In strict accordance
with the principals laid down by Secre-ta--lrs-Cass
and Seward In tne official docu.
ments above quoted, the United States
gave notice that it would permit the
landing of no expeditionary force, the ar
rival of which would mean chaos and de
struction along the line ot the railroad
and of the proposed canal, and an Inter
ruption of transit as an Inevitable conse
quence. The de facto Government of
Panama was recognized In the following
telegram to Mr. Ehrman;
"The people of Panama have, by appar
ently unanimous movement, dissolved
their political connection with the Repub
lic of Colombia and resumed their Inde
pendence. When you are satisfied that a
de facto government,, republican In form
and without substantial opposition from
Its own people, has been established In
the State of Panama, you wl.l enter Into
relations with It as the responsible gov
ernment of the territory and look to It
for all due action to protect the persons
and property of citizens of the United
States and to keep open the Isthmian
transit. In accordance with the obligations
of existing treaties governing the rela
tions of the United States to that terri
tory." The Government of Colombia was noti
fied of our action by the following tela,
gram to Mr. Beaupre:
"The people of Panama having, by an
apparently unanimous movement, dis
solved their political connection with the
Republic of Colombia and resumed their
Independence, and having adopted a gov.
ernment of their own, republican In form,
with which the Government of the United
States of America has entered Into rela
tions, the President of the United States,
in accordance with the tits of frlendshlo
which have so long and so happily existed
between the respective nations, most earn
estly commends to the Governments of Co
lombia and of Panama, the peaceful and
equitable settlement of all questions at is
sue between them. He holds that he la
bound not merely by treaty obligations,
but by the lnteresta of civilization, to see
that the peaceful traffic of the wtorld
across the Isthmus of Panama shall not
longer be disturbed by a constant succes
sion of unnecessary and wasteful civil
The control, In the Interest of the com
merce and traffic of the whole civilized
world, of the means of undisturbed tran
sit across the Isthmus of Panama has be
come of transcendent Importance to ths
United States. We hnve repeatedly exer
cised this control by Intervening In the
course of domestic dissension, and by
protecting the territory from foreign In
vasion. In 1853 Mr. Everett assured the
Peruvian Minister that we should not hes
Irate to maintain the neutrality ot the
isthmus In the case of war between Peru
and Colombia. In 1864 Colombia, which
has always been vigilant to avail itself
of Its privileges conferred by the treaty,
expressed its expectation that In the event
of war between Peru end Spain the United
States would carry Into effect the guar
antee of neutrality. There have been few
administrations of the State Department
In which thla treaty has not, either by
the one side or the other, been used ss a
basis of more or lees Important demands.
It was said by Mr. Fish In 1871 that the
Department of Stale had reason to be
lieve that an attack upon Colombian sov
ereignty on the Isthmus had, on several
occasions, been averted by warning from
Every effort has been made by the Gov
ernment of the United States to persuads
Colombia to follow a course which was
essentially not only to our Interests snd
to the Interests of the world, but to the
Interests of Colombia Itself. These efforts
have failed, snd Colombia, by her persist
ence In repulsing the advances that have
been made, has forced us, for the sake of
our own honor, and of the Interest and
well-being not merely of our own people,
but of the people of the Isthmus of Pan
ama and the people of Oie civilized coun
tries of the world, to take decisive steps
to bring to an end a condition of affairs
which had become Intolerable. The new
Republic of Panama Immediately offered
to negotiate a treaty with ua. This treaty
I herewith submit. By It our Interests
are better aafeguarded than In the treaty
with Colombia, jvnicn was ratified by the
Senate at lu last session. It Is better In
lu terms than the treaties offered to us
by the Republics of Nicaragua and Costa
Rica, At last the right to begin thla great
undertaking la made available. Panama
has done her part. All that remains Is
for the American Congress to do Its part,
and forthwith this republic will enter
upon the execution of a project colossal
in Ite size end of well-nigh Incalculable
possibilities for the good ot this country
and the nations of mankind.
White House, December T, Uut,