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About The Hood River glacier. (Hood River, Or.) 1889-1933 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 6, 1901)
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- ; ; "IT'S A COLD DAY WHEN WB PET LEFT."
vol. xiii. ; ".'.' hood eiveh, oregok, feiday, December 6, 1901. no. 29.
HOOD RIVER GLACIER
Published Kvery Friday by
8. F. BLITHE.
Terms of subscription -11.50 year when paid
The mall arrives from Mt. Hood at 10 o'clock
a. in. Wednesdays and Saturdays; depart the
tame day. at noon.
for Chenoweth, leaves at I a. m. Tuesdays,
Tliursdaya and Saturdays; arrives at 6 p. in.
for White Salmon (Wash.) leaves dally alt :4S
ft. m.; arrives at 7 'Ah p. m.
From White Salmon leaves (or Fnlda, Gilmer,
Tiout 1ke and (ilenwood daily at 0 A. M. -
KorBin.eo (W ash.) leaves at ft: p. in. ; ar.
rives at 2 p. m.
IAUREI, REBEKAH DKtiREK LODGE, No
I i7, 1. O. U. F.MeeUtlrstaud third Mon
days lu each month.
Miss Kati Davenport, N. 0.
H. 1. Hibbard, Secretary.
CANBY POST, No. 16, O. A. R.-MeetsatA.
O. U. W. Hall second and fourth Haturiavs
of each month at 2 o'clock p. m. All U. A. k.
members Invited to meet with us.
T. 1. cunning, Commandor.
J. W. Right, Adjutant.
CANBV W. R. C. No. 16-MeeU first Satur
day of each month In A. O. U. W. hall at i
p. m. Mrs. B. K. shokmskkb, President.
Mrs. Ursula lakni. Secretary. .
HOOD RIVER LODGE, No. 105, A. P. and A.
M. Meets Saturday evening on or before
e-ch full moon. A N. Kahm, W. M.
A. P. Uatkuah, Secretary.
HOOD RIVER CHAPTER, No. 27, R. A. M.
MeeU third Friday nlglit of each month.
F. 0. Baosms, H. P.
H. P. Davidson, Secretary.
HOOD RIVER CHAPTER, No. 25, O. K. 8.
Meets secoud and fourth Tuesday e veil
ings of each month. Visitors coidially wol
ci.iiK'jil. Mrs. Kva B. Haynbh, W. M,
H. r. Davidson, becretary.
OLETA ABSF.MBt.Y, No. 103, United Artisans.
Meets second Tuesday of each month at
paternal hail. F. C. Baosina, M. A.
D. McDonald, Secretary,'
WAUCOMA I.ODOE, No. SO, K. of P.-Meets
iu A. O. U. W. hall every Tuesday night.
John Buck, C. O.
J. Liund Henderson, K. of tt. & S.
KIVER8IDE LODGE, No. 68, A. O. U. W.
Meets first and third Saturdays of each
month. N. C. Evan. M. W.
J. F. Watt, Financier. .
H. L, Howk, Recorder.
IDLEW'ILDE LODGE, No. 107, I. O t. F.
Meets lu Fraternal hall every Thursday
Light. A. U. UBTCHEL, N.U.
J. E. Hanna, Secretary.
HOOD RIVER TENT, No. 19, K. O. T. M.,
meets at A. O. U, W. hall on the first and
third Fridays of each month.
J. E. Rand, Commander.
RIVERSIDE LODGE NO. 40, DEGREE OF
It HONOR, A. (. U. W. Meets first and
third Saturdays at 8 P. M.
M as. Georoia Rand, C. of H.
Mm. Cms Clabki, Recorder.
SUNSHINE 80CIETY Meets second and
fourth Saturdays of each month at i
o'clock. Mihs Lrna Snkll, President.
M lbs Carrie Butler, Secretary ,
HOOD RIVER CAMP, No. 7,702, M. W, A.,
meets In Odd Fellows' Hall the first and
third Wednesdays of each month.
F. L. Davidson, V. C.
E. R. Bradley, Clerk.
Q H. JENKINS. D. M. D.
ALL WORK GUARANTEED.
Ofllce in John Lelnnd Henderson's residence.
Hood River, Oregon. '
JR. K. T. CARNS,
Gold crowns and bridge work and all kinds of
HOOD RIVER OREGON
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
Successor to Dr. M. F. Shaw.
Calls promptly answered In town or cosntty,
Dav or Nitrht.
Telephones: Residence, 81 ; Office, 83.
, Office over Everhart's Grocery.
JOHN LELAND HENDERSON
ATTORNEY-AR-LAW, ABSTRACTOR, NO
TARY PUBLIC and REAL
For 23 years a resident of Oregon and Wash
ington. 'Has had many years experience in
Heal Estate Burners, as abstractor, searcher of
titles and agent, satisfaction guaranteed or
J F. WATT, M. D.
8urgeon for O. R. A N. Co. Is especially
equipped to treat catarrh of nose ana throat
and diseases of women.
Special terms lor othce treatment of ahronlo
Telephone, office, 12. residence,
pREDERICK & ARNOLD
CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS.
. Estimates' furnished for all kinds of
work. Kepairirig a specialty. All kinds
of shop work. Shop.ou State Street,
between First and Second.
THE KLONDIKE CONFECTIONERY
Is tlit place to rot the latent and beat in
4 onft-ctioneries, Canities, Nate, tobacco,
....ICE CREAM PARJ-ORS....
COLE & GRAHAM, Props.
p C. BROSiUS, M. D.
" rilYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
'Phone Central, or 121. t
Office Honrs: 10 to 11 A. M.; t to S
and 6 to 7 P. M.
Q H. TEMPLE.
Practical Iitchmiier I Jeweler.
My long experience enables me to do
tliebest possible work, which I fully
guarantee, and at low price.
JJUTLKR A CO.,
Do a general banking business.
HOOD RIVER, OREGON.
Q J. HAYES, J. P.
Office with Bone Brothers. Fruitless will be
attended to at anv time. Collections .(.
Vt ill locate on (food govern me at lands, either
timber or fanning
TO THE NATION
Roosevelt's First Message For
Publicity Is Best Remedy For Unsafe Com
binesExclude Chinese and Guard All
Immigration Develop Our Islands and Let
Cuba Come to Stand Alone Increase the
Navy, Improve the Army and Remain the
World's Leading Nation
WASHINGTON, Dec. I. President
Roosevelt's message to Congress followi.:
To the Senate and House of Represents,
The Congress assembles this year under
the shadow of a great calamity. On the
(ith of September Presldent'McKln'.ey was
shot by an anarchist, while, attending, the
Pan-American Exposition, at Buffalo?-and
died In that city on the 14ih of that month.
. Grief of the People.
The .smock, the grief of the country are
bitter in the minds of all who saw the
dark days while the President yet hov
ered between life and death
When we turn from the man to the Na
tion, the harm done is so great aa to ex
cite our gravest aiprehenslona and to de
mand our wisest and most resolute action.
This criminal was a professed anarchist,
inflamed by the teachings of professed
anarchists, and probably also by the reck
less utterances of those who, on the stump
and In the pub ic press, appeal to the
dark and evil spirits of malice and greed,
envy and sullen hatred
The Anarchist la a Malefactor.
The Federal Courts should be given
Jurisdiction over any man who kills or at
tempts to kill the President or any man
who, by the Constitution or by law, la In
line of succession for the Presidency,
while the punishment for an -unsuccessful
attempt should be proportioned to the
enormity of the offense against our lnstl
tutions. Anarchy Is a crime against the
whole human race; s,nd all mankln I
should band against the anarchist.
His crime should be made an offense
against the law of nations, like piracy and
that form of man-stealing known as tha
slave trade i for it la of fir blacker Infamy
than either. .It should be so declared by
treaties among all civilised powers. Such
treaties would give to the Federal Gov
ernment the power of dealing with the
Restoration of Confidence and Re
torn of Prosperity.
During the last five years business con
fidence has been restored, and the Na
tion is to be congratulated because of its
present abounding prosperity. Such pros
perity can never be created by law alone,
although It is easy enough to destroy it
by mischievous laws. Fundamentally, the
welfare of each citizen, and, therefore.
the welfare of the aggregate of citlaens
which makes the Nation, must rest upon
Individual thrift and energy, resolution
and intelligence. Nothing can take the
place of this Individual capacity; but wise
legislation and honest and intelligent ad
ministration can give it the fullest scope,
the largest opportunity to work to good
effect. . . ,
Caution In Dealing; With Trusts.
An additional reason for caution In
dealing with corporations Is to be found
In the International commercial conditions
of today. The same business conditions
which have produced the great aggrega
tions of corporate and individual wealth
have made them very potent factors In
International commercial competition.
Business concerns which have the largest
means at their disposal and are managed
by the ablest men are naturally those
which take the lead in . the strife for
commercial supremacy among the na
tions of the world. America has only
Just begun to assume that coiflmanding
position in the International business
world which we believe will more and
more be hers. It Is of the utmost Impor
tance that this position be not jeopar
dized especially at a time when the over,
flowing abundance of our own natural re
sources and the skill, business energy and
mechanical aptitude of our people make
foreign markets essential. Under such
conditions It would be most unwise to
cramp or to fetter the youthful strength
of our nation.
In dealing with business Interests.
for the Oovernment to undertake, by
crude and ill-consl-lered legislation, to do
hat may turn out to be bad, would be
to incur the risk of such far-reacblng
national disaster that It would be pref
erable to undertake nothing at all. The
men .who demand the Impossible or thi
undesirable serve as the allies of thi
forces with which they are nominally al
war, for they hamper those who would
endeavor to And out in rational fashion
what the wrongs really are and to what
extent and In what manner It is practi
cable to supply remedies.
All this true; and yet It Is also tru
that there are real and grave evils, on
of tbe thief being over-capitalization be
cause of its many baleful consequences
and a resolute and practical effort mut
be made to correct these evils.
Reanlatton of Corporations.
There is s widespread conviction In thi,
Minds of the American people that thi
great 'corporations known as trusts art
in certain of their features and tauten
ciea hurtful to the general welfare. Thh
springs from no spirit of envy or un
charitablenens, nor lack of, pride In thi
great Industrial achievements that havi
placed this country at the bead of thi
nations struggling for commercial su
premacy. It Is based upon sincere
conviction that combination and concen
tration should be, not prohibited, but su
pervised, and, within reasonable limits
controlled; and In my judgment this con
vlctloa Is right. - '
Great corporations exist only be
cause they are created and safeguarded
by our Institutions, and It Is, therefore
our right and our duty to see that the
work in harmony with these Institutions,
necessity sf Pnbllelty.
The first easential In determining how tc
deal with the great Industrial combina
tions la knowledge of facta publicity.
Artificial bodies, sucn as corporation.'
and Joint stock or other associations, de
pending upon any statutory law for their
existence or privileges, should be subjec:
to proper governmental supervision, ant
full and accurate information aa to theli
operations should be made public regular
ly at reasonable Intervals.
The large corporations, commonly called
trusts, though organised In one state, al
ways do buolness In many statea. oftrr
doing very little business in the Stan
where they are Incorporated, There If
utter lark of uniformity in the atate laws
about them; and aa no state baa any ex
clusive Interest In or power over their
acts. It has In practice proved Impossible
to get adequate regulation through state
action. Therefore, in the interest of the
whole people, the Nation should, without
interfering with the power of the states
In the matter itseif. also assume power of
supervision and regulation over al corpo
rations doing an Interstate business.
Department nf Casaaaeree- anal Indus
tries. There should be created a Cabinet of
ficer, to be known as Secretary of Com
merce and Industries, aa provided In the
bill Introduced at tbe last session of the
Congress. It should be .his province to
dSal with commerce In its broadest sense
Including among many other things what
ever concerns labor and all matters affect
lng the great business corporations and
our merchant marine.
With the sole exception of the farming
Interest no one matter is of such vital
moment to our whole people as the wei
fare of the wage-worker. If the farmer
and the wage-worker are well off, it is
absolutely certain that all others will be
well off too. It is. therefore, a matter
for hearty congratulation that on the
whole, wages are higher today in the
United States than ever before In our
history and far higher than in any other
country. The standard of living Is also
higher than ever before. Every effort of
legislator and administrator should be
ben' to secure the permanency of this
condition of things and its improvement
Not only must our labor be protected
by the tariff, but It should also be pro.
tected, so far as it Is possible, from the
presence In this country of any laborers
brought over by contract, or of those who.
coming freely, yet represent a standard
of living so depressed that they can un.
dersell our men in the labor market and
drag thin to a lower level. I regard It as
necessary, with this end In view, to re-
enact Immediately the law excluding Chi
nese laborers, and to strengthen It wher
ever necessary in order to make its en
forcement entirely effective.
The most vital problem with which this
country, and for that matter the whole
civilized world, has to deal. Is the prob
lem which has for one aide the better
ment of social conditions, moral and phy
sical, in large cities, and for another side
the effort to deal with that tangle of far
reaching question which we group togeth
er when we speak of "labor." The chief
factor in the success of each man wage
worker, farmer and capitalist alike must
ever be the sum total of h!a own In
dividual qualities and abilities. Second
oniy to this comis the power of act
ing in combination or association with
others. Very great good has been and
will be accomplished by associations or
unions of wage-workers, when managed
with forethought and, when they com
bine Insistence upon their own rights with
law-abiding respect for the rights of oth
Better Immiarratlon Laws Needed,
Our present Immigration laws are un
satisfactory. We need every honest ana
ellicient Immigrant titled to become an
American citizen, every Immigrant who
cornea here to stay, who brings here a
strong body, a stout heart, a goqd head,
and a resolute purpose to do bis duty well
In every way, and to bring up his chil
dren as law-abiding and God-fear.ng
nivinbeis of the community. But there
should be a comprehensive law enacted
with the object of working a three-told
improvements over our present system.
First, we should aim to exclude absnlute
y not only all persons who are known to
be believers In anarchistic principles or
members of anarchistic societies, but also
all persons who are of a low moral ten
dency or of unsavory reputation.. '..This
means that we should require a more thor
ough system of inspection abroad and a
more rigid system of examination at our
Immigration ports, the former being es
The second object of a proper Immigra
tion law ought to be to secure, by a care
ful and not merely perfunctory educa
tlonal test, some intelligent capacity to
appreciate American Institutions aud act
sanely as American citizens. This would
not keep out all anarchists, for many ni
them belong to the intelligent criminal
class, tlut It would do what Is also in
point, that Is, tend to decrease the sum
of Ignorance, so potent In producing the
envy, suspicion, malignant passion anu
hatred of order, out of which anarchistic
sentiment Inevitably springs. Finally, all
persons should be excluded who are below
i certain standard of economic fitness to
enter our industrial field as competitors
with American labor
Both the educational and economic tests
In a wise Immigration law should be de
signed to protect and elevate the general
body, polltlo and social. A very close su
pervision should be exercised over the
steamanip companies, wnicn malnlx bring
over the Immigrants, and they should be
held to a strict accountability for any
Infraction of the law.
Tariff Revision Hnrtful.
There Is general acquiescence In our
presnt tann system as a national policy.
The first requisite to our prosperity Is the
continuity and stability of this economic
policy. Nothing could be more unwise
than td disturb the business Interests of
the country by any general tariff change
at this time
Reciprocity must be treated as the hand
maiden of protection. Our first duty Is
to see that the protection granted by the
tariff In every case where It Is needed is
maintained, and that reciprocity be sought
for so far as It can safely be done with
out Injury -to our home Industries.
I ask the attention of the Senate to
the reciprocity treatlca laid before It by
Condition of the Merchant Marin.
The condition of the American mer
chant marine is such as to call for Imme
diate remedial action by the Congress. It
Is discreditable to us as a Nation that
iur "merchant marine should be utterly
nslgniflcant In comparison to that of
other nations which we overtop in other
forms of business. We should not longer
iuhmlt to conditions under which only s
trlflinsr portion of our areat commerce Is
carried In our own ships. '
Financial Matter. .
' Th act of March 14, 1900,' Intended un
equivocally to establish gold as the stand
ird money and to maintain at a parity
therewith all form of the money medium
in use with us, has been shown to be
.Imely and Judicious. The price of our
Sovernment bonds in the world's msr-
tet, when compared wl:h the rjrlce of
ilmllar obligations -Issued by other na
tions, la a flattering tribute to our public
credit. This condition it la evidently de-
iirable to maintain.
In many respects tha National banking
law furnishes sufficient liberty for the
iroper exercise of the banking function;
but there seems to be need of- better
safeguards against the deranging Influence
it iX.iinurclRl crises and financial panics.
Moreover, the currency of the country
thould be made responsive to the de
nands of our domestic trade and com
merce. , ,
Surplus la th Treasury.
Tha collections from duties on Imports
md Internal taxes continue to exceed the
irdlnary expenditures of the Government,
;hanks mainly to the reduced Army ex
wndttures. Th utmost cars should be
.aken not to reduce the revenues so that
there will be any poasfttllty of a deficit;
but. after providing against any such con-
.Ingency, means should be adopted which
will bring the revenues more nearly with
in the limit of our actual needs. In his
.Tport to the Congress the Secretary of the
treasury considers all theae questions at
length, and I ask your attention to the
report and recommendations.
I call especial attention to the need of
strict economy in expenditures. The fact
that our National needs forbid us to be
niggardly In providing whatever la actuat-
y necessary to our well-being should
make us doubly careful to bus band our
National resources as each of ua husbands
Ms private resources, by scrupulous avoid
ance of anything Hke wasteful or reck-
Interstate Com ere Law.
In 187 a -measure waa enacted for th
regulation of Interstate railways, com
monly known as tbe Interstate commerce
act. The cardinal provisions of that act
were that railway rates should be just and
reasonable, and that all ahlppers, local-
lues and commodities should be accorded
equal treatment. A commission waa cre
ated and endowed with what wer sup
posed to be tbe necessary pewers to exe
cute th provision of this act.
Th act ahould be amended. To rail
way is public servant. Ita rate should
REVIEW OF PSESiCEMT'S KESSASE.
Increase the mvy.
Exclude the Chinese
Enforce eight hour laws.
Build Pacific cable at onccv
a cuua tne Nicaragua canal,
j Extend and foster reciprocity.
fculogy of President McKinley.
Keep out uneducated foreigners,
Adv see no change in tariff laws.
Government irrigation of arid lands.
Sweeping condemnation of anarchy.
Labor unions are wise and neces-
Kemembtr tbe aation s soldiers in
all wars. " ', , , J
Insist upon merit svstemin civil
J Improve, but not greatly enlarge, J
J the army. .
, Publicity In Sealing with combines
X of every form.
Develop new islands on traditional
Abandon treating Indians as tribes, X
X and deal with them as individuals.
Develop merchant marine and carry
American goods in American vessels. X
be just to and open to all shippers al-.-e.
The Government should see to it that
within Its jurisdiction this Is so, and
should provide a speedy. Inexpensive and
effective remedy to that end.
Department, of Agrrlcaltar.
Th Department ot Agriculture, during
the past IS years, has steadily broadened
Its work on economlo lines, and has ac
complished results of real value In up
building domestic aad foreign trade. ( It
has gone into new fields until it is now in
touch with all sections of our country and
with two of the Island groupa that have
lately come under our Jurisdiction, whose
people must look to agriculture as a live
lihood. It is searching the world for
grains, grasses, fruits and vegetables spe
cially fitted for Introduction into localities
of the several states and territories where
they may add materially to our resources.
Vain of the Forests.
Public opinion throughout the United
States baa moved steadily toward a just
appreciation of the value of forests,
whether planted or of natural growth.
The great part played by them In the
creation and maintenance of the National
wealth la now more fully realised than
The practical usefulness of the National
forest reserves to the mining, grazing, ir
rigation and other Interests of the regions
In which the reserves lie has led to a wide
spread demand by the people of the West
for their protection and extension. The
forest reserves will Inevitably be of still
greater use In the future thSn in the past.
Additions should be made to them when
ever practicable, and their usefulness
should be Increased by a thoroughly business-like
management. - ,
Protection of Reserves.
At present the protection of the forest
reserves rests with the General Land Of
fice, the mapping and description of their
timber with the United Siates Geological
Survey, and the preparation of plans for
their conservative use with the Bureau
of Forestry, which is also charged with
the general advancement of practical for
estry In the United Statea. These vari
ous functions should be united in the Bu
reau of Forestry, to which they itropeny
The wise administration of the forest
reserves will be not less helpful to the
Interests which depend on water than to
those which depend on wood and grass.
The water supply itself depends upon the
forest. In the arid region It la w&ter, not
land, which measures production. The
western half of the United States would
sustain a population greater than that
of our whole country today If the waters
that now run to waste were saved and
used for irrigation. The forest and water
problems are perhaps the most vital, Inter
nal questions of the United States.
Certain of the forest reserves should also
lie mad preserves for the wild forest
creatures. All of the reserves ahould be
better protected from fires. ,
Forests Ar Reservoirs.
The forests are natural reservoirs. By
restraining tha streams In flood and re
plenishing them In drought they make
possible the use of waters otherwise wast
ed. Tiiey prevent the soil from washing,
and so protect the storage reservoirs from
niung up witn silt, sorest conservation
is, therefore, an essential condition of
The forests alone cannot, however, fully
regulate and conserve the waters- of the
arid region. Ureat storage works are
necessary to equalize the flow of streams
and to save the flood waters. Their con-
struction has bees .conclusively hown to
be an undertaking too vast for private
frort. Nor can U be best aeoompusnea
by the individual states acting alone. Far
reaching Interstate probl.ms are involved;
and the resources of single statea would
often be inadequate It is properly a Na
tional function, at least in some or, us
The Oovernment should construct and
maintain these reservoirs as it does other
public works. Where their purpose Is to
regulnte the flow of streams, the water
should be turned freely into the channels
in the dry season, to take the same course
under tee same lews it th natural now.
Reclaiming Arid Land.
The reclamation of the unsettled srld
public lands presents a different problem.
Here It la not enough to regulate the flow
of streams. The object of the Oovernment
Is to riis-pose of the land to settlers who
will build homes upon tt. To accomplish
this abject water must b brought within
The reclamation and settlement of the
arid land will enrich every portion of our
country, Juat as the.'settlement of the Onlo
and Mississippi Valleys brought prosperity
to the Atlantic States. The Increased de
mand for manufactured articles will stim
ulate Industrial production, while wider
home markets and the trade of Asia will
consume the larger food supplies and ef
fectually prevent Western competition
with Eaatern agriculture. Indeed, the
products of irrigation will be consumed
chiefly in upbuilding local centers of min
ing and other Inuustries, which would
otherwise not come into existence at all.
i , n. - - - m-hAl. will n-nA. .
efui home-making is but another name
for the upbuilding of the Nation.
The necessary foundation ha already
been laid for the inauguration of the pol
icy Just described. . It would be unwise to
begin by doing too much, for a great
deal will doubtless be lesrned, both as to
what can and what cannot be safely at
tempted, by the early efforts, which must
of necessity be partly experimental in
character. At the very beginning tha Gov
ernment ahould make dear, beyond shad
ow of doubt, iu Intention to pursue this
policy on lines of the broadest public In
terest. No reservoir or canal should ever
he built to satisfy selfish personal or lo
cal Interests, but only in accordance wl'b
the advice of trained experts, after long
Investigation ha shown the locality where
alt th conditions combine to rnak the
work most needed and fraught with the
greatest usefulness to the community as
a whole. There should be no extrava
gance, and th believers In th need of
Irrigation will most benefit their cause by
seeing to It that It Is free from the least
taint of excessive or reckless expenditure
of the public moneys.
Extension mt Irrigation.
Whatever the Nstton does for th ex
tension of Irrigation should harmonise
with, and tend to Improve, th condition
of those now living on Irrigated land. W
ar not at th starting point t thi devel
opment. Over &).). MS of private cap
ital his already been expended la tha eoa-
' structlon of Irrigation works, and many
million acres of arid land reclaimed. A
high degree of enterprise and ability has
been shown in the work lt.-elf ; but as
much cannot be said In reference to the
laws relating thereto. The secuilty and
value of the homes created depend large
ly on the stability of titles to water: but
the majority ot these rest on the uncer
4 I tain foundation of court decisions ren-
I dered In ordinary suits at law. With a
i few creditable exceptions, the arid Ftatcs
have failed 0 provide for the certain and
Jurt division of streams In times of scarc
ity. Lax and uncertain laws have mude
It possible to establish rights to water In
excess of actual uses or necessities, and
many streams have alpeady passed Into
private ownership, or a control equivalent
Nation's Aid Justlflrd.
The benefits which have followed the
unaided development of the pant Justify
the Nation's aid and co-operation In the
more difficult and Important work yet to
What Must Be Don to Develop
In Hawaii our aim must be to develop
the territory on the traditional Ameri
can lines. We do not. wish a region of
large estates -tilled by cheap labor: we
wish a healthy American community of
men who themselves till the farms tiny
own. All our legislation for the islands
should be shaped with this end In view
the well-being of the average home-mak
cr must afford the true test of the healthy
development of the islands. The land
policy should as nearly as possible ue
modeicd on our homestead system.
It Is a pleasure to say that It Is hsrdly
more necessary to report as to Porto
Rico than aa to any state or territory
within our continental limits. The 1st
and Is thriving as never before, and It Is
being administered efficiently and honest
ly. Its people are now enjoying liberty
and order under the protection of the
United States, find upon this fact we con
gratulate them and ourselves.
In Cuba such progress has been made
toward putting the Independent govern
ment of the island upon a firm footing
inai Derore tne present session or tne con
gress closes this will be an accomplished
fact. Cuba will then start as her own
mistress; and to the beautiful Queen of
the Antilles, aa she unfolds this new pnge
of her destiny, we extend our heartiest
greetings and good wishes. Elsewhere I
have discussed the question of reciprocity.
In the case of Cuba, however, there are
weighty reasons of morality and of Na
tional interest why the policy should be
held to have a peculiar application, and 1
most earnestly ask your attention to the
wisdom. Indeed to the vital need, of pro
viding for a substantial reduction In the
tariff dutlea on Cuban Imports into the
United States. -
In the Philippines our problem Is larg
er. They are very rich tropical Islands,
Inhabited by many varying tribes, repre
senting widely different stages of pro
gress toward civilization. Our earnest
effort la to help these people upward
along the stony and difficult path that
leads to self-government. We hope to
make our administration of the islands
honorable to our Nation by making It of
the highest benefit to the Filipinos them
selves: and as an earnest of what we In
tend to do. we point, to what we have
done.- Already a greater measure of ma
terial prosperity and of governmental
honesty and efficiency has been attained
in the Philippines than ever before In
Trouble Still Ahead.
There are still troubles ahead in the
Islands. Tha Insurrection has become an
affair of local banditti and marauders,
who deserve no higher regard than the
brigands of portions of the Old World.
Encouragement, direct or indirect, to
these insurrectos stands on thi
same footing as encouragement to
hostile Indians m the days when
we . still had Indian wars. Ex
actly as nur aim Is to give to the Indian
who remains peaceful tKe fullest and
amplest consideration, but to have it un
derstood that we show no weakness If be
goes on the warpath, so we must make
it evident, unless we are false to our own
traditions snd to the demands of clvlUsa.
tion and humanity, that while we will do
everything in our power for the Filipino
who is peaceful, we will take the sternest
measure wtttt the Filipino who follows
the path of the Insurrecto and the ladrone.
Additional Legislation Needed.
The time has come when there should
bo additional legislation for the Philip
pines. Nothing better can bs done for the
Islands than to introduce Industrial enter
prises. Nothing would benefit them so
much as throwing them open to Industrial
develooment. The connection betweer
Idleness and mischief Is proverbial, and
the opportunity to do remunerative work
is one of the surest preventives of war.
ft,, eount no Du9ne man wm g0 Into
ths Philippines unless It Is to his Interest
to do so; and It la Immensely ta the In
terest of the Islands that he ahould go In.
It is, therefore, necessary that the Con
gress should pass laws by which the re
sources of the Islands can be developed;
so that franchises (for limited terms of
years) can be granted to companies doing
business In them, and every encourage
ment be given to tha Incoming of business
men of every kind.
I call your attention most earnestly to
the crying need of a cable to Hawaii and
the Philippines, to be continued from the
Philippines to points In Asia. We should
not defer a day longer than necessary the
construction of such a cable. It Is de.
manded not merely for commercial, but
for political and military considerations.
Either the Congress should Immediately
provide for the censtructlon of a Govern
ment cable, or else an arrangement should
be made by which like advantages to
those accruing from a Government cable
may , be secured to the Government by
contract with a private cable company.
Work of th Greatest Importance to
th American People.
No single grest material work wbicti
remains to be undertaken on this conti
nent la of auch consequence to the Amer
ican peopl aa the building of a canal
across the Isthmus connecting North and
South America, Its Importance to tbe
Nation Is by no means limited merely to
its material effects upon our business
prosperity; and vyet with view to these
effect alone it would be to th last de
gree Important for us Immediately to be
t am glad to be- able to announce t
you that our negotiations on this subject
with Great Britain, conducted on both
sides In a spirit of friendliness and mu
tual good will and respect, have resulted
In my being able to lay before the Senate
a treaty which If ratified will enable us
to begin preparations for an Isthmian can
al at any time, and which guarantees
to this Nstlon every right that It has
ever asked In connection with the rsnal.
The Monro Doctrine should be the car
dinal feature of the foreign policy ol
all the nations of the two Americas. a.
tt la of tbe United States. Just 7s years
have passed since President Monro In
his annual message announced that tn'
American continents are henceforth not
to b considered as subjects for futurv
colonisation by any Eu.upean power." In
other worda, the Monroe Doctrine Is s
declaration that there must be no terri.
tortal aggrandisement by any non-American
power at the expense ot aay A men
eaa power on A ertcaa soil. It is In n
wise intended as hostile to any nation In
the Old World. Stlil lens Is it Intended
to give cover to any aggression
by one New World power st tne ex
pense of any other. It is eimply a step,
tnd a long step, toward assuring the uni
versal peace of the world by securing
ths possibility of permanent peace on thH
Work of Upbuilding It Mnst Be
The work of upbuilding the Navy must
be s'.eadily continued. No one point of our
po'icy, foreign or domestic. Is more Im
portant than this to the honor and ma
titlul welfare, and above all to the peace,
of our Nation in the future. Whether
we diriire it or not, we must hencefortn
recognise that we have international du
ties no less than international rights.
Even if our flag were hauled down in the
Phlllpnlnen and. Porto Rico, even if we
decided not to build the Isthmian canal,
wo niuu.ii neeu a Liiu.Ougn.y iiauieU jvtvy
of adequate size, or else be prepared deltn
Itely and for all time to abandon the
idea that our Nation Is among theise
whose son go down to the sea In ships.
Unless our commerce is always to be
carried In foreign bottoms, we must have
war craft to protect it.
Should Be No Cessation.
There should bo no cessation In the
work of completing our Navy. So far
ingenuity has been wholly unuble to de
vise a substitute for the great war
craft whose hammering guns beat out
the mastery of the high seas, it is unsafe
and unwise not to provide this year for
several additional battle-ships and heavy
armored cruisers, with auxiliary and
I'ghter craft in proportion; for the exact
numbers and character I refer you to
the report of the Secretary of the Navy.
But there Is something we need even more
than additional ships, and this Is addi
tional officers and men. To provide battle-ships
and cruisers and then lay them
up, with the expectation of leaving them
unmanned until they are neede'd in actual
war, would be worse than folly; it would
be a crime against the Nation.
The Naval Mllltla.
The naval militia forces are state organ
izations, and are trained for coast service,
and, In event of war, they will constitute
the Inner line of defense. They should re
ceive hearty encouragement from the
But In addition we should at once pro
vide for a Notional naval reserve organ
ized and trained under the direction of
the Navy Department, and subject to the
call of the Chief Executive whenever war
becomes Imminent. It should be a real
auxiliary to the naval seagoing peace es
tablishment, and offer material to be
drawn on at once fpr manning our ships
in time of war. It should be composed
of graduates of the Naval Academy, grad
uates of the naval militia, officers and
crews of coast-llne steamers, longshore
schooners, fishing vessels and steam
yachts, together with the coast population
about such centers as life-saving stations
Army la Large Enough at the Pres.
It Is not necessary to increase nnr Armv
beyond its present size at this tlrfte. But
it is necessary to keep it at the highest
point of efllclency. The individual units
who as officers and enlisted men compose
this Army, are, we have good reason to
believe, at least aa efflclent as those of
any other army in the entire world. It
is our duty to see that their training I
of a kind to insure the highest possible
exiireiuiiun ui power 10 tnese units When
acting In combination.
The conditions of modern war are such
as to make an Infinitely heavier demand
than ever before upon the individual rhur.
acter and. capacity of the orrlcer-"and the
enlisted man, and to make It far more
difficult for men to act together with ef
fect. At present the fighting must be done
In extended order, which means that each
man must act for himself and at the same
time act in combination with others with
whom he is no longer-Jn the old-fashioned
elbow-to-elbow touch. Under such con
ditions a few men of the highest excel
lence are worth more than many men
without the special skill which is only
found as the result of special training ap
plied to men of exceptional physique and
morale. But nowadays the most valuable
fighting man and the most difficult to per-
iee-i u me riuem&n wno is also a skillful
and daring rider.
The proportion of our cavalry regiments
uus wiaeiy ueen increasea.
A general staff should be created. As
for tne Dresent staff and sunnlv ilpuri.
ments, they should be filled by details
trom tne line, tne men so detailed return
ing after a while to their line- duties. It
is very undesirable to have the senior
grades of the Army composed of men who
have come to fill the positions by the
mere raci oi seniority, a system should
be adooted by which there shall be an
elimination, grade by grade, of those who
Hem unut to renaer ine Dest service in
the next rrade. Justice to the veterans
of the Civil War who are still in the
Army would seem to require that In the
matter of retirements they be given by
law the same privileges accorded to their
comrades in the Navy.
Our Army is so small and so much scat
tered that It Is very difficult to give the
higher officers (as well as the lower officers
and the enlisted men) a chance to practice
maneuvers In mass' and on a compara
tively large scale. In time of need no
amount of Individual excellence would
avail against the paralysis which would
follow Inability to work as a coherent
whole, under skillful and daring leader
ship. The Congress should"provide means
whereby it will be possible to have Held
exercises by at least a division of regu
lars, and, if possible, also a division of
National Guardsmen once a year. These
exercises might take the form of fleid
maneuvers; or, If on the Gulf Coast or the
Pacific or Atlantic seaboard, or in the
region of the Great Lakes, the Army corps
when assembled should be marched from
some inland point to some point on the
water, there embarked, disembarked after
a couple of days' Journey at some other
point, and again marched Inland. Only
by actual handling and providing for men
In masses while they are marching, camp
ing, embarking and disembarking will It
be possible to train the higher officers to
perform their duties weil and smoothly.
Reorsranlslns; the Army.
Much good has already come from the
act reorganising the Army, passed early
In the present year. The three prime re
forms, all of them of literally inestimable
value, are. first, the substitution of four
year details from the line for permanent
appointments in the so-called staff divi
sions; second, th establishment of a
corps of artillery with a chief at the
head; third, tne establishment of a max
imum and minimum limit for the Army.
It woulu be difficult to overestimate the
Improvement in the efficiency of our Army
which these three reforms are making,
and hav in part already effected.
Action should be taken In reference to
the militia and to the raising of volunteer
forces. Our mllltla law is obsolete and
worthless. The organization and arma
ment of the National Guard of the several
staua. which ar treated as mllltla in the
appropriations by the Congress, should be
made Identical with thoee , provided for
tne regular fences. The obligations ana
duties of th guard In time of war should
he carefully defined, and a system estab
lished by law under which the method
of procedure of raising volunteer forces
nouid be prescribed In advance. It la ut
terly Impossible In the excitement and
nasie of Impending war to do this sat
'afactorlly it the arrangements have sot
Deen made long beforehand. Provision
should be made for utilising In th first
volunteer organisations called out tne
training of those citizen who hav al
ready had experience under arms, and
especially for th selection In advance of
the officers of any force which may be
raised for careful selection of the kind
.lrCFssary is unpossibM after th outbreak
of war. ,
Debt Doc to the Veterana Who Savd
No other citizens deserve so well ot
the Republic as the veterana, the sur
vivors of those who saved the Union. They
diu tne one deed which, if left undone,
would have meant that all else In our
history went for nothing. But for their
steadfast prowess In the greatest crisis ot
our history, all our annals would be mean
ingless, and our great experiment In pop
ular freedom and self-government a,
I recommend the passage of a law
which will extend the classified service
to the District of Columbia, or will at
least enable the President thus to extend
It. In my judgment all laws providing for
the temporary employment of clerks
should hereafter contain provision that
they be selected under the civil servlca
It Is Important to have this system
obtain at home, but it is even more im
portant to have It applied rigidly In our
Insular possessions. Not an office should
be filled in the Philippines or Porto Rico
with any regard to the man's partisan
affiliations or services, with any regard to
the political, social or personal Influence
which he may have at his command; In
short, heed should be paid to absolutely
nothing save the rnan's own character
and capacity and the needs of the serv
ice. The. merit system Is simply one method
of securing honest and efficient adminis
tration of the Government; and In th
long run the sole justification of any type
of government lies In Ita proving Itself
both honest and efficient.
The consular service Is now organized
under the provisions of a law passed In
18&6, which is entirely Inadequate to ex
isting conditions. The Interest shown by
so many commercial bodies throughout
the country in the reorganization of th
service is heartily commended to your at
tention. Several bills providing for a new
consulur service have In recent years
been submitted to Congress. They are
based upon the Just principle that ap
pointments to the service should be mad
only after a practical test of the appli
cant's fitness, that promotions should be
governed by trustworthvness, adaptabil
ity and seal In the performance of duty,
and that the tenure of office should be
unaffected by partisan considerations.
Treatment of Indiana.
In my Judgment the time has arrived
when we should definitely make up our
minds to recognize the Indian as an Indi
vidual and not as a member of a tribe.
The general allotment act is a mighty
pulverizing engine to break up the tribal
mass. It acts directly upon the family
and the Individual. Under its provisions
some 60,000 Indians have already become
citizens of the United States. We should
now break up tho tribal funds, doing for
them what allotment does for the tribal
lands that is, they should be divided Into
individual holdings. There will be a tran
sition period during which the funds will
in many cases have to be held In trust.
This Is the case, also, with the lands. A
stop should be put upon the Indiscrim
inate permission of Indians to lease their
allotments. The effort should be stead
ily to make the Indian work like any oth
er man on his own ground. The mar
riage laws of the Indians should be mad
the same as those of the whites.
St. Lonls Exposition,
T bespeak the most cordial sup
port from the Congress and tha
people for the St. Louis Exposi
tion to commemorate the 100th an
niversary of the Louisiana Purchase.
The people of Charleston, with great
energy and civic spirit, are carrying on
an exposition which will contlnu
throughout the most of the present ses
sion of Congress. I heartily commend
this exposition to the good-will of th
Library of Congress.
Perhaps the most characteristic educa
tional movement of the past 50 years la
that which has created the modern pub
lie library and developed it Into broad and
active service. There are now over 6000
public libraries In the United Statea, tha
product of this period. In addition to ac
cumulating material, they are also striv
ing by organization, by Improvement In
method, and by co-operation, to give
greater efficiency to the material they
hold, to make It more widely useful, and
by avoidance of unnecessary duplication
In process to reduce the cost of Its ad
ministration. In these efforts they naturally look for
assistance to the Federal library, which,
though still the Library of Congress, and
so entitled, is the one National library of
the United States.
Permanent Census Bureau.
For the sake of good administration,
sound economy and the advancement of
science, the Census Office, as now consti
tuted, should be made a permanent Gov
ernment bureau. This would lnsurs bet.
ter, cheaper and more satisfactory work.
In the Interest not only of our business,
but of statistic, economic and social sci
ence. The Postal Servlc.
Ths remarkable growth of tho postal
service Is shown In ths fact that Its reve
nues have doubled and Its expenditures
have nearly doubled within U years. Its
progressive development compels con.
stantly Increasing outlay, but in this pe
riod of business energy and prosperity Ita
receipts grow so much faster than Its ex
penses that the annual deficit has been
steadily reduced from lll.tll.779 in 1897 to
(3,923,727 In 1901. Among recent postal ad
vances the success of rural free delivery
wherever established has been so marked,
and actual experience has made Its bene
fits so plain, that the demand for Its ex
tension Is general and urgent.
It Is jUBt that the great agricultural
population should share In the Improve,
ment of the service. The number of rural
routes now In operation Is 60U9, practically
all established within three years, and
there are (000 ap. 'ications awaiting action.
It la expected that the number In opera
tion at the close of the current fiscal year
will reach 8tt)0. The mall will then be
dally carried to the door of 5,700,000 of our
people who have heretofore been depend
ent upon distant offices, and one-third of
all that portion of th country which Is
adapted to It will be covered by this kind
Owing to the rapid growth of our power
and our Interests on the Pacific, whatever
happens In China must be of the keenest
National concern to ua.
The general terms of the settlement of
the questions growing out of the anti
foreign uprisings In China of 1900, having
been formulated in a Joint note addressed
to China by the representatives of th
injured powers In December last, wer
promptly accepted by the Chinese Gov
ernment. After protracted 'conferences
the plenipotentiaries of the aeveral powers
were able to sign a final protocol with
the Chinese plenipotentiaries on tha Tth
of last September, setting forth the meas
ure taken by China In compliance with
the demands of the Joint note, and ex
pressing their satisfaction therewith. It
will be laid before th Congress, with a
report of the plenipotentiary on behalf of
the United States, Mr. William Woodvili
Rockhlll. to whom high praise to due for
the tact good judgment and energy he
has displayed In performing an exception
ally difficult and delicate task.
The agreement reached disposes In a
manner satisfactory to the powers of the
various grounds of complaint, and will
contribute materially to better future re
lations between China and the power.
Under the provisions of the Joint not
of December, 1900, China has agreed to
revise the trestle of commerce and navi
gation and to take such other steps for
the purpose of facilitating foreign trade
as th foreign power may decide to be
Whit HoaM. December L 1K&,