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About The Columbia register. (Houlton, Columbia County, Or.) 1904-1906 | View Entire Issue (May 13, 1904)
HOULTON, COLUMULl COUNTT, OHEGON, FRIDAY, MAY 13, 1004.
EVENTS OF THE DAY
GATHERED FROM ALL PARTS OP THE
etompreheoahr RerWw of the Import,
at Happenings ef the Put Week,
PrM8t4 la Condensed Form, Moat
Uboty to Prore lataraatlag to Our
Russia It rapidly evacuating Mia
Ykeroy Alexleff hat transferred hla
headquarters to Harbin.
Turkey la negotiating with Chilo
for tha purchase of two cruisers.
Braait and Pern will settle their
troubles without resorting to arms.
Another 100,000 men are on the way
to Manchuria to reinforce General
Tha aecretary of the interior has set
aide f 2,000,000 tor tha Malheur, Ore
ion, Irrigation project.
Russian authorities deny that there
la an unusual amount of lckneas
among tha troopi in Manchnira. .
Twenty thousand Japanese i6ldlera
-volunteered to man the flreehlps that
blockaded the Port Arthur entrance.
Information ii given by a merchant
-who left Port Arthur recently that the
warships there have only enough coal
lor six weeks. -
Japanese commanders declare that
Instead of 32,000 men at Port Arthur
theie are only 8,000, and instead of be
ing provisioned for a year the fortress
contains supplies for but a three
Present indications point to a long
war between Russia and Japan.
Russia will have a large exhibit at
the St. Louis fair in a short time.
The latest Japanese victory gives her
control of much valuable territory.
There will be small crops of apricota
and prunea in California this year.
France believes that the supreme
struggle wfll come soon at Mukden.
It is reported that Viceroy Alexleff
la to be succeeded by Grand Duke
John Mitchell , advocates a trade
agreement aa tha Solution of the strike
problems. ; '
Admiral Tncn renorta that his cas
ualties attending the bottling up of
Port Arthur were large.
Russia relies on wireless telegraphy
and carrier pigeons to' maintain com
munication with Port Arthur.
A noted Chinese revolutionists ' is
supposed to be In San Francisco to in
ite the natives there to revolt.
The St. Louis fair remains closed on
. Sundays except to those who bold
passes and these are not allowed in any
of the buildings.
'- Brazil and Peru are again in dispute
At least 20 people were killed in the
yclone which swept over Nprthwest
Russians say the Japanese can not
. . . . a . a
t.w Pnrt Arthur and that me ioif nas
provisions enough for a year.
Ti national 1005 fair board will
meet at once to decide on buildings, so
. . . ii
the architect can begin to prepare oe
Th JnanAM fired on the train tak
W Vicrov Alexieff and staff from Port
Arthru, but the distance was too great
to be effective.
A Japanese dispatch says they have
captured Teng Wang "Uneng aiier nerce
flight nor and that the losses on ooiu
r - o -
sides were heavy.
During the retreat on the Yalu a
body of Russians mistook a small force
fth sir own men for the enemy and
180 were killed or wounded before the
error was discovered.
Whole sections of the government
tnrA exhibit at St. Louis have been
atnlan. Hnnerintendent Bruner has
issued a warning that the food should
.nun as a maioritv of the
avavrv v vwvwmi - 0 m
things have been poisoned for preserva
tion. At the Chinese Duiicung ivory
inlaid n a wall was removed and the
depression filled with plaster of paris.
Sam Parks, the noted walking dele
gate is dead.
The complete isoation of Port Arthur
seems now highly probaDie.
Viceroy Alexieff has left Port Arthur
. to confer with General Kouropatmn.
Thn Jananpsfl forced the fighting on
the Yalu in the hope that Russia would
rush troops to that district.
Postmaatef General Payne has or
dered an investigation of the official
conduct of Postmaster Bancroft, of Port
Mnnv Tuwtnln were hilled and much
property and live stock destroyed, by
a tornado which swept over a large
area 18 miles north of Fort Worth,
TO STUDY ALASKA COAL.
Qeologlcal Survey to Search for New Do-
poatU la Far North.
Washington, May 11. Tha first field
party of the United States geological
survey to leave Washington this year
is, aa usual, the Alaskan contingent.
During the past winter congress in
creased its appropriation for Alaskan
work from 00,000 to $80,000. which Is
about 1 per cent of the annual output
of that territory, Nine parties will be
engaged there during the coming season
in topographic and geologic work. Be
sldea these, three sobpartiee, which
may be counted as onsboota of tbe larg
er ones, will take op special work, so
that the number of survey investiga
tions on foot in Alaska during the sum
mer will be 12, aa against 7 of last
The geologic work of the last season
In Southeastern Alaska will be contin
ued by Messrs. C. W. and F. W.
Wright. As this is the only note
worthy lode mining district of Alaska,
and as Its rich deposits of gold, silver
and copper are only partiatlly devel
oped, a study of its resources is likely
to be of vital interest to the prospector
and investor. The work will begin
with a reconnaissance across the islands
flora Taku Inlet to Sitka. An exami
nation of the mining district about Sit
ka will follow, together with a study
of the coal deposits of Admiralty
Island, with Wrangoll aa a base. F.
W. Wilght will then study the local,
geology and mineral. deposits, while O.
w. Wright connects the geology of the
Juneau district, the work of Dr. A. C.
Spencer in 1903, with that of the
Ketchikan district, the work of Altrod
II. Brooks In 1901. If the time per
mits, some of the copper and gold
mines of Prince of Wales Island will be
BRAZIL IS HOSTILE.
Peruvian Legation Complains of Attitude
of Mer Neighbor.
Washington, May 11. In view of the
statement made by the Braiiiian lega
tion defining Brazil', position in the
boundary dispute with Peru, the Peru
vian legation today made a counter
statement to tne following effect:
"Peru has never admitted in Brazil
any right whatsoever to the territory
actually In dispute. The treaty of 1851
contains no recognition in Brazil rights
as alleged by the Brazilian legation.
The treaty is one of amity and com"
merce and made no reference as .to the
territory now in dispute. - " '
"According to late reports it would
seem that the government of Brazil, in
stead of framing its policy in accord
ance with the provisions of its consti
tution. which provides tor the settle
ment of international disputes by arbi
tration, assumed a hostile attitude and
has taken steps by no means conductive
to the peace solution it has pledged it
self to seek.
"The Brazilian legation's statement
that Peru took advatage of Brazil
trouble with Bolivia to send military
forces to the headwaters of the rivers
Yuroa and Peru is unwarranted, and as
a Peruvian population always has ex
isted there as well as small garrisons to
preserve order. Peru today is desirous
of resorting to arbitration, without de
manding previous conditions, unneces
sary to governments really wishing to
reach a prompt, just and pacific settle
ment of their differences. This she can
offer as the best proof of her good faith
and fraternal sentiments towards her
RUSSIAN LOSS IS VERY HEAVY.
Monday's Fight at Feng Wang Cheng
Resulted la 3,000 Casualties.
Tokio, May 11. Last Friday, after
sharp cavalry skirmishes at Erhtaiteu,
Santaisu and other places, a detachment
of infantry belonging to General Kuro-
ki's army took Feng Wang Cheng.
The Russians, belore retiring, ex
ploded the' magazine, but left large
quantities of hospital stores, which are
being used by the Japanese hospitals,
Refugees from the woods and small
villages are surrendering.
The Russians buried many of their
Natives in the vicinity of Feng Wang
Cheng say that last Monday the Rus
sians carried about 800 wounded
through that place and that their casu
alties probably were above 3,000.
AI-KI Ashore In Alaska. .
Port Townsend, Wash., May 11.
Steamer Cottage City, arriving today
from Alaska, reports speaking the
steamer Al-Ki ashore in Menzif's bay,
where she grounded while northbound,
heavily laden with freight. The Cot
tage City could render no assistance to
the stranded vessel, and it, is the opin
ion ol Captain Wallace that her cargo
will have to be lightered before the ves
sel can be flrated. The Al-Ki lies in i
protected position, and is in no danger
unless an unusual storm should
' -Murdered by Mexican Bandits.
Oaxaca, Mexico, . May 11. Othon
Quinjano, the paymaster of the Nation
al railroad of Tehauntepec, was assault
ed by five bandits between Palo Mares
and Paso de Bnques. One bullet went
through bis body and his head was cut
almost in two with a machette. He
died of his wounds. .The bandits got
away with between $2,000 and $3,000.
STANLEY IS DEAD
NOTED EXPLORER PASSES AWAY
SUDDENLY OP PLEURISY.
Was Welsh Boy Who Rose Frees Poor
Fans to Palace-Woa Fasae la WUds
of Africa Rsscutd Dr. Livingston
and Relieved Emla Pasha Whsa Me
Was Pinned In hy Hostile Natives.
London, May 11. Bit Henry M.
Stanley, the famous African explorer,
died at o'clock this morning from an
attack of pleurisy, which developed
about two weeks ago. Sine Sunday
he has been in a semi-conscious condi
tion, and while the doctors had no hope
of his recovery, they did not expect the
end to come so soon. Heart trouole
complicated the case, however, and
their famous patient dropped off almost
belore they knew It.
Probably no man In recent years has
been more worthy ol the title "sell
made man" than Stanley, who rose
from poorhouse to palace entirely
through his strength of character and
determination to be a man of mark.
lie was born at Denbigh, Wales. He
was placed In a poorhouse at the age of
3, and remained there 10 years, until
he had acquired an education, lie
sailed as cabin boy on a ship to New
Orleans when 15, and was adopted by a
merchant there whose family name of
Stanley he assumed instead of his own
of John Rowlands. He enlisted in the
Confederate army as a youth, was capt'
tured and enlisted In the Federal army.
lie went to Turkey at the close of the
war as a newspaper correspondent, and
later accompanied the British army
through the Abyssinian war as the cor
respondent of the New York Herald.
He was sent by that paper to Africa to
find Dr. Livingstone, who bad been lost
In the Congo region for two years. He
accomplished the task and was-honored
by England and the Royal Geographical
society for his clever work.
He went back a second time, and se
cured information about Central Africa
which was badly needed by charto-
graphers. Coming back to civilization
he was decorated by numerous French
and British science societies. He went
back a third time and established trad
ing stations along the Congo from its
mouth to Stanley Pool. He led the ex
pedition which relieved Emin Pasha,
governor of Equatorial Africa, who was
penned in by hostiles.
Mr. Stanley married Mies Dorothy
Tennant on July 12, 1890, in West
minster Abtey. He was elected to
parliament from the Lambeth district.
and until taken with his last illness
had been active in the English political
TO AVOID BATTLE.
Kouropatkin WIU Retire to Mukden or
Evea to Harbin.
Paris, May 11. The correspondent
at St. Petersburg, of the. Echo d Paris,
General Kouropatkin has ordered a
general retreat, and no doubt intends
to avoid a battle until he has sufficient
forces. He actually baa at his disposal
not more than 150.000 men, exclusive
of the garrison at Port Arthur, which
consists of 30,000, and the gariison at
Ma Chwang of 10,000.
A general, who knows the secret of
the mobilization, tells me that the last
1,000 men making the required 600,
000 men will leave Kaaan, July 21,
"We will be very sick if the railroad
is not working well.
KUROKI flAY BLOCK PLAN.
Believes He Will Overtake the
Iondon, May 11. In the absence of
further stirring news from the seat of
war, the London newspapers are dis
cussing the probable course of events.
The balance of opinion inclines to the
belief that General Kuroki will succeed
in overtaking the Russians between
Feng.Wang Cheng and Liao Yang, and
will comple him to fight at a disad
It is argued that it will be impossi
ble for General Kouropatkin, depend
ing upon a slender line of railway and
with bis army encumbered with bag'
gage, to make his retirement speedy
enough to enable him to choose his
American Shlpa Oo.
Washington, May, 11. Orders were
cabled today to Rear Admiral Cooper,
commanding the Asiatic fleet, to send
tw.o warships to Chefoo, where they
will be held in readiness to proceed to
Niu Chwang, a day's sail. ' This is in
view of the possibility that Chinese
bandits will attempt to pillage Niu
Chwang in the interval between the
Russians' expected evacuation of the
city, and the Japanese occupation of
it. The warships will not be sent to
Niu Chwang unless United States Con
sul Miller asks for them.
Russia Placse Order for Rifles.
Paris, May 11. It is learned that
the Russian government has placed an
order for 200,000 Lebel rifles, the same
to be delivered in St. Petersburg at the
rate of 50,000 a week.
CITY WILL FALL.
RuMtaa Troops Leavlag Niu Chwang
One Seat te LUo Yaag.
Chef oo, May 10. Paaaengers arriv
ing here on the steamer Petrarch from
Niu Chwang say that when they left
Ma Chwang the Russians had com
menced to evacuate. Some guns had
been taken from the forts and many
troops had already gone. In other re
specU, Niu Chwang was quiet.
The passengers understood before
their departure that the Japanese had
cut the railway, but tbey learned no
London, May 10. The Morning
Poet's Shanghai correspondent reports
that Dalny was captured Friday, while
the Toklo correspondent of the Daily
Telegraph, cabling under date of Sun
"Dalny was invested yesterday."
The Dally Mall's correspondent at
Niu Chwang, in a dispatch dated May
"Yesterday most of the Russian
troops retired to Tashlhlchao, and dur
ing the night most of the guns were re
moved from the fort and sent to Liao
Yang, where all the Ruesiaa forces are
concentrating. A conference of the
civil and military authorities was held
this afternoon and It was decided to
prepare to leave at a moment's notice."
ORB AT OLOOM IN RUSSIA.
Movement ef the
Source of Anxiety,
St. Petersburg, May 10. Two offic
ial dispatches, calculated to increase
the depression existing among all cir
cles in Russia were given out last night.
rrom me point or view ol the progress
of the campaign, the most important is
that regarding the capture by the Jap
anese without opposition of Feng Wang
Cheng, on May 6. The second gives
details concerning the kilted, wdunded
and missing among the troops under
the command ol Lieutenant General
Zafcealltch, as the result of the fighting
on the Yalu. the number of which
totals 2,397 officers and men. ,
Now that General Kurokl is estab
lished at Feng Wang Cheng, the Rue
sians are puzzled as to what move he
will make next. The fact that he sent
two companies to Dallandiapu Tso, ten
miles northeast of Feng Wang -Cheng,
migbt Indicate his purpose to proceed
along tLU road to Ting Chang Gien, 90
miles north from where he. would
mjveh due west to LUo Yang. -This
would pormit an effective flanking
movement, but it is not considered
probable, the likelihood being that he
will move along the road by which the
Russians retreated toward Liao Yang.
TO PICK 0S SITB.
Board Will Send One ef Its
' Members to Portland.
World's Fair Grounds, 8t. Louis,
May 10. The members of the govern
ment board of the Lewis and Clark ex
position left for Washington today to
report upon the site offered for the gov
ernment buildings by Henry E. Dosch,
commissioner general of the Lewis and
Clark centennial to the Louisiana
Purchase exposition. All but two
members of the government board were
present, and organized their board with
Theodoie A. Bingham, assistant secre
tary of agriculture, aa chairman, and
Major William C. Fox, of the bureau
of American republics, as secretary.
Mr. Dosch offered the government
either the peninsula in Guild's lake or
a site on the higher ground overlook'
ing the lake with the rest of the ouild
Ings. The members of the board are
in favor of the peninsula site, and will
detail one of the members as a repre
sentative to visit Portland and report
on both sites. The government build
ing, Alaskan building, Philippine
building, Hawaiian building, forestry
building and other insular buildings
will be located at the same time. Mr.
Dosch, who served as commissioner
general for Oregon at the Chicago, Oma
ha, Buffalo, Charleston, and Osaka,
Japan,' expositions, is director of ex
hibits for the Lewis and Clark expo
sition, is assured that about two-thirds
of the exhibits in the government build
ing here will be taken to Portland and
Mr. Dosch will be requested by the
board to select what exhibits he would
prefer. The Portland building, Mr.
Dosch says, will be ready November 1,
and exhibits from St. Louis removed
direct. . .
Shaw Draws Canal Warrant.
Washington, May 10. Secretary
Shaw this afternoon signed a treasury
warrant for $40,000,000, which will be
turned over to J. P. Morgan & Co., of
New York, as disbursing agents of this
government, on account of the Panama
canal purchase. This warrant is many
times larger than any warrant ever be
fore issued by this government. The
largest sum previously covered by a sin
gle government warrant was for $7,
200,000, paid to Russia in 1868 on ac
count of the purchase of the AlaBkan
Severe Snowstorm In Colorado.
Leadville, Colo., May ' 10. Severe
snow storms have prevailed in this vi
cinity for several days. There is about
three feet of enow in the hills but - no
damage has resulted from the storm.
It is still snowing tonight.
HAVE CUT THE LINE OP COMMUNI
CATION WITH PORT ARTHUR.
Fort Has 15,000 Me hut Russians Con-
fldeut Tbey Can Hold Off Army of
100,000 Japanese Force Numbers
30,000-Vlctroy AkzUrr and Staff
Had Narrow Escape from Capture.
St. Petersburg, May 9. It was offle-
ially announced tonight that the Jap
anese have succeeded in gaining a foot
hold on the Liao Tung peninsula, land
ing forces at Pitsewo and at Cape Ter
minal, 15 miles distant, and have cut
the line of communication with Port
Arthur. Not only that but Viceroy
Alexieff, Grand Duke Boris and many
of the higher Russian officers In Man
churia narrowly escaped capture, or at
least being penned up In the beleagu
The news that the Japanese had ar
rived near Pitsewo was transmitted to
Port Arthur by a Russian signal corps
officer, who sighted the Japanese trans
port fleet early on Thursday. He Im
mediately notified the viceroy, and
preparations were at once mad for the
quitting of Port Arthur by Admiral
Alexieff, Grand Duke Boris and the
viceroy's staff, and in a baggage car
were placed all important documents
of the Manchnrlan administration,
which had been stored at army bead-
quarters In Port Arthur.
The last word received from Port
Arthur came from the Commandant.
Lieutenant General Stossel, who stated
there was great ' confidence among his
men, and he did not believe the Japan
ese could capture the fortress, even
though tbey landed an army of 100,
000. The garrison is equipped with a
sufficient supply of arms and ammu
nition and enough canned provisions to
last them for 18 months.
The Japanese army which has under
taken the investment of Port Arthur
numbers fully 30,000 men. General
Stossel has 10.000 to 15,000 men,
among them being some of the best
fighters In the Russian army.
It la admitted it will be necessary to
call out the entire Russian army re
serve, but this does. not mean that they
are destined for Manchnrian service.
They will be mobilised so that such
troops as are reeded by General Kouro
patkin can be sent to hini, and the re
mainder will be held for service for
which they may be needed. The work
of rushing all of the men to the front
will be much easier from now on, as
the ferry service across Lake Baikal
has been resumed,
STILL FEARS CHINA.
Russia Realizes Danger of Uprising Since
the Yalu Defeat.
St Petersburg, May 9. The effect of
the disaster to Russian arms on the
Yaln upon the Chinese is .being
watched with keen interest and consid
erable apprehension. The Rusisan gov
ernment appears to be satisfied with
the situation for the moment, and Paul
Lessar, the Russian' minister at Pekin,
is making daily reports to the foreign
office. The report received from the
minister today contained nothing. dis
quieting. The Pekin government, according to
Rusisan reports, seems to be acting in
perfect good faith, and insists it is in
tent upon preserving neutrality. It is
turning a deaf ear to the appeals of
anti-Rusisan leaders, who want China
to throw in her lot with Japan, and is
doing all possible to suppress anti-foreign
agitation among the people.
Nevertheless, the Russian authorities
regard China aa a powder magazine.
They realize the danget and necessity
for constant pressure. The danger of
an anti-foreign movement throughout
the Chinese empire exiBta, not only
for Russia, but for. all the powers, and
Russia has at least three times since
the outbreak of the war addressed the
powers on the subject, the last time be
ing less than ten days ago. The
answers received uniformly show a full
appreciation of the need of exercising
a restraining influence on Pekin, and
all the powers are co-operating to this
Liberty Bell Will Be Sent.
Philadelphia, May 9. The Liberty
Bell will be taken to St. Louis. Both
branches of the city council today
passed a resolution appointing a special
joint committee of 24 to escort the rev
olutionary relic, and appropriating
$15,000 to delray the expenses. The
start will be made early in June, but
before the old bell is placed in the
Pennsylvania building it is proposed to
pass through the principal cities in the
states and territories comprising the
Louisiana purchase. At the fair Phil
adelphia police will guard it. -
Crop Are Destroyed.
Wichita, Kan., May 9. A telephone
message to the Eagle from Camden,
Okla., states that a tornado started at
Helena and passed through Timber
lake,' extending to Alva. It cut i
swath six miles long and one and a half
miles wide, destroying crops and some
building at Timberlake. Damaging
bail fell in that section, bat no lives
were lost. -
TOOO IS OFF PORT ARTHUR.
He Will Rem aia There Tin Troops
t Another Pwlat
St. Petersburg May 7. With Vic
Admiral Togo hovering n the Immedi
ate vicinity of Port Arthur and trans
ports loaded with troops lying at Pitse
wo, northeast of that stronghold, Rus
sia .has braced herself for Impending
conflict with the foe in which she will
again play a defensive role, thi time,
it is hoped, with better success, and
therefore with less sacrifice of life, than
in the engagement on the Yalu.
The war commission sat until t
o'clock this morning, and at the close
of the session it waa announced there
waa nothing to communicate to the
public. It is known, however, that
the emperor has been informed of the .
presence of the Japanese fleet off the
Lalo Yang Shan promontory, and the
appearance of transport at Pitaewo.
The fact that the two event occurred
simultaneously may have significance.
If a landing should take place at Pitse
wo it is anticipated that Admira Togo'
batteship squadron will bombard Port
Arthur in order to prevent the garrison
from sending reinforcements by rail-
toad to the troops opposing the Japan
Neither the admiralty nor the war
office believes that a disembarkation of
the Japanese can be prevented, as the
guns of the Japanese cruisers could
command the point of landing, but
after the Japanese are ashore, the Rus
sians will strike and officers say, will
strike hard. What force they will be
able to bring up to resist the invaders
cannot be stated definitely, the
strength of the army on the peninsula
of Liao Tung having been kept a strict
It is expected the railroad will play
an important part in the effort of the
Russians to push the Japanese into the '
sea, aa it will permit the rapid transit
Hitchcock Renders Decision la Favor ef
the State ef Oregon..
Washington, May 7. The trouble
which the state of Oregon ' has been
having with its selection of indemnity
lands in lieu of school lands embraced
within the dsiputed portion of Klamath
Indian reservation ha been satisfactor
ily., adjusted fr all tine .by tha
Mitchell amendment to the Indian ap
rropriation bill; which specifically
gives the state the right to make in
demnity selections on such school lands
as base. Following his action of yes
terday, Secretary Hitchcock today re
turned to the general land office four
Oregon school indemnity lists' which
had heretofore been disapproved be
cause the state was unable to establish
it right to use the school lands in
Klamath reservation as base. These
lists were before the secretary on ap
peal. Today he directed Commissioner
Richards to reconsider the esses in the
light of the Mitchell amendment,
hich is equivalent to ordering an ap
proval of the lists. These lists are
No. 104, in Burns district, involving
279 acres; Nob. 167 and 181, in Lake
view district, involving 8,495 acres,
and 400 acres respectively, and No.
261, in The Dalles district, involving
6,617 acres. Other lists of a similar
character that are pending, or may
hereafter be appealed, will be similarly
HAY LOSB ALL THEIR STORES.
Russian Find the Road on the Yaht
.- Against Them.
Berlin, May 7. The Russian mili
tary authorities are in a state of ex
treme anxiety regarding the chance ot .
saving the baggage of the Yalu army.
The roads are bo bad that wheeled
transport is only able to more five miles
a day and it is feared that the Japanese
will capture all the stores accumulated
at Feng Wang Chen. Dispatches re
ceived yesterday afternoon and from
Niu Chwang Wednesday, report no
change in the situation and so far no
confirmation has reached London of
the Japanese . preparations for landing
on the coasts of the Liao Tung penin
Great Strike Imminent. ..
Chicago,' May - 7. Fifty thousand
workmen employed in the' building
trades in this city will be thrown out
of employment within 48 hours, ac-,
cording to the etatenent of the Associ
ation of Manufacturers and Builders,
unless a speedy settlement is reached
between the stone, . lime and cement
workers and their employers. Nearly
1,000 tearoBters hauling building and
street work material were locked out ,
today because the union had called a
strike in two cases, and work on a num
ber of buildings has been Btopped.
. Nonunion Men Installed.
Topeka, Kan., May 6. Santa Fe
officials am .ounce this morning a re
sumption of shop work al along the
line from Topeka to the Pacific coast.
They state that in most cases the shops .
are running with a full complement of
men. In many places union machin
ists have gone out, but their positions.;
will all be filled by the close of the
week, say the officials. j