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About Beaverton times. (Beaverton, Or.) 191?-19?? | View This Issue
TURN SURPLUS COCKERELS INTO CAPONS
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Many farmers and poultry fanciers
Have found it profitable to turn all
their surplus cockerels Into capons by
altering or castrating them; others
think they can-do better by selling
the cockerels as broilers as long as
prices hold up and caponize only later-
The capon or castrated rooster bears
the same relation to a cockerel that a
steer does to a bull, a barrow to a
boar, or a wether to a ram. As with
other male animals so altered, the dis
position of the capon differs materially
from that of the cockerel. As a result
of the more peaceful disposition of the
capon he continues to grow and bis
body develops more uniformly and to a
somewhat greater size than is the case
with a cockerel of the same age.
Time to Caponize.
In so far as the effects of the opera
tion and the rapidity and ease of heal
ing are concerned, the time of year
when the operation is performed is of
little importance. The age and size of
the cockerel, however, are very impor
tant.. As soon as the cockerels weigh
two to three pounds, or when two to
four months bid, they should be opera
ted upon. ..
, Operation of Caponlzlng.
Before beginning the operation two
conditions are absolutely essential. If
these are not favorable, do not at
tempt to operate. The first of theBe is
that the intestines of the fowl should
be completely empty, so that they will
fall away and expose the testicle to
view. This can be accomplished by
shutting up the fowls and withholding
all food and water for twenty-four to
thirty-six hours before the operation.
Thirty-six hours -is better than twenty
four, especially for a beginner. The
second condition Is a good, strong
light, so that the organs of the fowl
may be clearly and easily distin
guished. Direct sunlight is best for
this, and in consequence it is well to
operate out of doors on a bright day.
Methods of Holding the Fowl.
When ready to operate, catch the
bird and pass a noose of strong string
about the legs. Do the same with both
wings close to the shoulder Joints. To
the other end of the strings are at
tached weights of sufficient size to
hold down and stretch out the bird
when placed upon the head of a bar
rel or box of convenient height, which
is to serve as operating table. -
Having fastened the fowl, be sure
that all the instruments are at band.
It is also well, though not necessary,
to have ready some absorbent cotton
nd a dish of water to which has been
added a few drops of carbolic add
Having once started, carry the opera
tion through as quickly as possible.
Moisten and remove the feathers from
.a small area over the last two ribs
Just In front of the thigh. With the
left hand slide the skin and flesh down
toward the thigh. Holding It thus,
make the incision between the last
two ribs, holding the edge of the knife
away from you as you stand back of
the fowl. Lengthen the inolslon in
each direction until it is one to one
and a half Inches long. Now Insert
the spreader into the inclBlon, thus
springing the ribs apart. The intes-IC
tine, win now h .i.im. .
tines will now be visible, covered by a
thin membrane called the omentum.
Tear apart this membrane with the
hbok, and the upper testicle, yellow or
sometimes rather dark colored and
about the size and Bhape of an ordi
nary bean, should be visible close up
against the backbone. By pushing aside
the intestines this can easily be seen,
and the lower one also, in a similar
position on the other side of the back
bone. Expert operators usually re
move testicles through one incision.
Inexperienced operators will usually
find It well to attempt the removal of
the upper or nearer testicle only and
to make a second Incision on the op
posite side of the body for the removal
of the other testicle.
If both testicles are to be removed
through the same incision, remove the
lower first, as the bleeding from the
upper might be sufficient to obscure
the lower. Each testicle Is enveloped
In a thin membrane. This may be and
probably is best removed with the
testicle, though some operators tear
It open and remove the testicle only.
The delicate part of the operation is
at hand, due to the close proximity of
the spermatic artery, which runs back
of the testiole and to which the testi
cle Is in part attached. If this is rup
tured the fowl will bleed to death. The
cannula, threaded with a coarse horse
hair or fine wire. Allow the hair or wire
protruding from the end to form a
small loop just large enough to slip
over the testicle. Work this over the
testicle, being careful to inclose the
entire organ. . Now tighten up on the
free ends of the hair or wire, being
careful not to touch any part of the
artery. If the spermatic cord does not
separate, saw lightly with the hair or
wire. When the testicle is free, re
move it from the body. If only the up
per testicle has been removed, turn
the bird over and proceed in exactly
the same manner upon the other side.
After removing the testicle, if the
bleeding is at all profuse it is well to
remove a portion of the blood by in
troducing small pieces of absorbent
cotton into the body by means of tha
hook or nippers, allowing them to bo
come saturated and then removing
them. ' Be sure to remove all blood
clots, feathers -or other foreign matter.
After the testicles and all foreign mat
ter are removed, take out the spread
ers, thus allowing the skin to slip back
over the incision.
SONG SPARROW AN OPTIMIST
Cheery Bird, Permanent " Resident)
Asks Little for 8ervlces, Which
, Are Valuable.
The song sparrow, cheery-voiced
forerunner of spring, is the subject of
an article by Miss Harriet E. Bancroft,
which appears in the Ohio Arbor and
Bird Day Manual, Issued by the state
department of public instruction for
use in the schools. In telling about
the song Bparrow.Mlss Bancroft says:
"There are so many different klr.is
of small, sober-hued birds, which look
alike, and yet are not alike, that you
wonder how you are to distinguish this
one from the others. Each bird bas
his recognition mark and song spar
row's is the spot in the middle of bis
speckled breast; and while in color
he Is of the earth, earthy, and bears
upon his breast a spot, you must not
think that these are the outward signs
of an inward blemish, because be
"There 1b great variation in the hab
its of different sparrows with respect
to migration. The tree sparrow Is
with us only In winter, the field spar
row - Is a summer bird, the white
crowned migrant; that 1b, he pays us
a short visit in the spring and again in
the fall, while on his way to more re
mote regions; but song sparrow is a
permanent resident in nearly all partB
of the state. He shares with us the
storms as well as the sunshine of the
"His cone-shaped bill tells you that
be Is a seed-eating bird and the weeds
yield him a plentiful supply of them.
He also eats slugs and worms and.
". Z I J , Z 7 . . .
Tre be "ad, and his choice of diet
ground-inhabiting Insects when they
makes him a valuable assistant to the
farmer. He helps him In bis warfare
on troublesome weeds and harmful In
"It is not too much to say that who
ever or whatever helps the farmer to
grow better crops, helps the whole
world along; but song sparrow's serv
ices do not stop here; his finest is that
which he renders to our weary spirits
when he cheers them with his song.
For all the help he gives he asks
nothing In return but the privilege of
living out his little life unmolested.
"It Is said that be and his mate will
raise three and even four broods In a
season, If the weasels, the red squir
rels, the cats, the crows, the hawks,
the blacksnakes and other Ill-disposed
creatures do not harry their lowly
nest, which distressing occurrence is
all too frequent."
Water for an Army.
One of the numberless" tasks of the
general staff of a great army is to pro
vide water for the soldiers and the
horses. The Scientific American de
scribes some of tbe methods em
ployed. Only running water Is used.
In the German army the upstream
water Is used for drinking, and" the
downstream water for watering the
horses and for bathing. Suitable
signs notify the men which water tbey
may safely drink and which they may
use only for bathing. In shallow or
narrow streams basins are dug or
small dams built, in order to form
reservoirs of sufficient size. Stepping
stones are put down so that no one
need walk through the water, and the
banks are shored up with boards to
keep them from crumbling into tbe
water. Basins 'are dug at which to
water the horses; when troughs have
to bo used, they are supported on
posts and filled by meanB of pumps.
If water lies at a reasonable deptb
from the surface that is, not more
than twenty feet pipes are driven
that, according to their size, deliver
from four to twenty-five gallons of
water a minute. If the water lies very
near the surface, .a hole Is dug, and
a cask, the bottom of which bas been
knocked out, Is put Into the hole to
hold the sides In place and to pro
tect the water from dirt. If the wa
ter lies at a greater depth, box sec
tlons are driven in, one on top-of an
other, to tha required depth.
CLING TO BLEAK LAND
NATIVES OF SHETLAND ISLAND
LOVE THEIR HOME,
Have Hard Work to Coax a Living
From Almost Barren Rock, But
Leave It Unwillingly Spot
- Hat Figured In History.
Fair Island, 25 milts south of all
the other Shetlands, has bad a
strange enough pageantry , passing
over its rocky surface. For not only
was It the home of the Plots, and then
of the Norse; and for the Norse, the
signal beacon to give warning of the
coming of the hostile sail; besides
that, It Bnpplled a chapter in the ro
mance of the Spanish Armada, - .
For here was wrecked the ship of
Don Gomez de Medina, and that nobla
and his men were for a time most
generously entertained by thelsland- -era,
writes Maude Radford Warren in
Harper's Magazine. But time passed, .
the Spaniards stayed, the meal and the
mutton diminished. Then the Island
ers, wrapped In by tbe wild storms,
unable to get to any jrther Island,
fearful of famine; Md their food. Tha
forced guests grew weak, many died
of starvation, anil seme, It is said,'
were pushed over tbe tall cliffs Into
the sea. : '
At last one Andrew TJmphrey took
the Spaniards away In a ship, and
since that day the name of Umphrey
bas been powerful in the Shetlands. ..
The Fair Island people show plain
traces of Spanish blood, but they re
sent the suspicion of It, saying that
the Spaniards were Isolated wben on
It is hard to conceive how isolation
could well be possible on an island
two miles square besides, the Fair
island people do not deny that the
strange patterns and the lichen dye
ing of the stockings and caps and
shawls their Women knit were taught
them by the Spaniards, and indeed the
same sort of handicraft is found to this
day in country places of Spain.
The Fair islanders were great
smugglers In the old days, and they
are still good bargainers. They are
very intelligent, seeming to know In
stinctively how to read; and not so -very
long ago they would follow the
mail steamers In their light canoe-'
shaped boats, which none but them- .
selves can manage,, begging for news- ,
papers and boekfc:.
une or tnem terrors is or Infec
tious disease; Shbther is of the dog
tax man, against whose coming they
are said to hang and drown their
dogs; another Is of emigration, for
they love Fair isle. Yet emigrate they
must; about forty-five years ago a
hundred of them went, unable longer
to coax a living from their bare rock.
Their greatest joy Is the occasional
visits of the minister, more frequent
ly now than Jn the old days, when
he arrived but once in about two years
to marry and christen. He preaches
every day of his stay, and tbey pro
long his visit on every possible pre
text, using, when all else falls, the
solemn prophecy of .a storm.
Bad Points In All of Us. -
Better for you to nreaent
the good points and features of h.
one under discussion If you do not
want mm to snow up some of your
bad points some day. You have them.
Everybody has them. Wa urn nil h.
man and the perfect man does not
Fan It Run by Alcohol.
A fan has been nerfected that n,a
with alcohol. A little lamp operates
It by heating air In a cvlindor Tha
expansion and contraction of the air
is ingeniously utilized to provide tha
motive power for the fan. Rami.M.
results have been obtained according
w um company manufacturing It