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FOREST GROVE PRESS
THURSDAY NOVEMBER 13, 1913
^ s= Steam Laundry
Story of the Panam a Canal From Start to Finish
MERTZ & LATTA
Cor. 5th Ave.
and 2nd St.,
F orest G ro v e,
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PAN AM A
(Continued from last week)
Quality and Service
City and Commer
cial Trade Solicited
| ELITE |
i s fiifijiifissaistfsi
^ Li.tier’s Pharmacy jjj
Special attention given
to crippled feet.
C H A P T E R VI.
T h « Geography of P » n » m » .
N area the republic o f Panama Is
about 32.000 square m ile«, «lig h t
ly sm aller than the state o f In
diana. Un th e A tlantic-aide it is
President Roosevelt now had the au
thority he desired for going ahead with
the project. Secretary o f State John
H ay and the m inister from Colombia,
.lose V. Concha. Im m ediately began
corresponding over the gran ting o f a
strip o f territory in Panama fo r the
prosecution o f the enterprise.
M inister Concha d rew np a treaty,
which was presented as a memoran
dum to Secretary H ay on A p ril 18.
¡902. T his treaty, as well as the H e r
ían treaty that succeeded it. had a
number o f im possible provisions, v ie w
ed In the light o f our canal experience.
It authorized the French company to
?■ ell Its property to the United States
and authorized the United States to
build, operate and protect the canal,
the concession to run fo r too years and
be renewable at the discretion o f the
United States. T h e canal was to be
finished fourteen ie a rs a fte r the adop
(ion o f the treaty, with a possible ex
tension o f tw e lv e years, everyth in g to
revert to Colom bia i f the canal was not
begun within five years and completed
R. D U N C A N
within tw en ty-live years.
,vas to receive $7,000,000 in cash.
Colombia sent a new minister. Th om
as Herran. in 1908. who negotiated a
treaty nloug the same lines, except
rhat Colombia was to receive $10.000.-
>00 instead o f $7.000.000 fo r the canai
one. Had the treaty been adopted it
s a safe conclusion to d ra w that in
terminable and exasperating friction
would have developed between the tw o
ountries. Only an extended visit to
the Isthmus can g iv e an adequate Idea
o f how essential It has been to the
United States to have absolutely a free
hand in the canal zone.
President Jose M. M arm quin o f Co
lombia in this year. 1902. asked the
'U h e K in d the ¿XCost
United States to maintain uninterrupt
ed passage o v e r the Panama railroad
(luring a serious revolution in the prov
Sfi A good purchase on our part H: ince and promised In return to g ive
! f i enables us to show as desirable I f -, the United States a treaty fo r a canal
zone. As a result o f Am erican Inter
¡ f i a line of box papers as you t f i vention and good offices peace was
t f i could possibly find anywhere. J f; patched up between the Insurgents
and Colombia on Nov. 21. 1902. W e
Be sure to buy your station-
had perform ed our part o f the agree
ment and now looked to Colombia to
ery here— w e have it in
perform her part.
bulk, in boxes, with envel-
President M arroquin was in good
faith, but factional fighting In the con
opes to match.
gress o f Colombia, with Ills enemies In
if* the ascendancy, sh >wed the chances o f
O n account of moving into
h •i treaty to lie dubious.
our new quar ts w e are
Oil Aug. 12. 19(18 the senate o f Co
üh lombia kilb-d the tre-'tv a fte r the h u b e
giving special prices.
President M arroquie
bfi had pa sped it
had exerted him self to the utmost 1'
save the treaty, doubtless sensing th
jtiallty o f the man In fho W h it" Hulls
out to no avail, ami another way on
fo r the canal project was already till'
¡ f l PRESCRIPTIO N SP E C IA L IST
In the summer o f 1908 some tendin'
Panama citizens conceived the Idea o
a- revolution front Colombia and th.
form ing o f an independent repuhll
The revolution was st rt d on Nov. 8
In the t-lf' o f Panama, and tr-sips «¡ent
by Colombia to i’ ll! down the reltelllo’
were not allowed to - to s » the Isthmus
H. LID YARD
S. A. WALKER
by Unltod States marines
On Nov. d President Roosevelt recog
nixed the independence o f Panama,
and on Nov. 18 the new republic con
cluded a treaty w ith otir governm ent
granting us a strip o f territory ten
m ile« w id e across the isthmus as a eti
nal «one. T h e United States paid Pan
1st Ave. N., near Main St.
ama I1U.PUU.000 in cash and. beginning
in 1913. an annual rental o f $250.000
W e are prepared to do
fo r this territory,
it was not until
the very best o f all
May 4. 1(HV4. that the Am erican flug
was raised over the canal zone.
kind o f shoe work.
r.J g Ç ,
By V ’ m. R. Scott
V IE W
379 miles long and on the Pacific side
674 miles by the coast line. T h e popu
lation, n ative and foreign, is 400.000.
Our treaty with the republic o f Pan
ama ceded us a strip o f territory ten
miles wide from deep w ater In the A t
lantic to deep w ater in the Pacific. T h e
area o f the cunal zone is 448 square
miles. W h ile within the lim its o f the
canal zone, the cities o f Pannma and
Colon, a t the terminals, remain under
the sovereignty o f the republic o f P an
Some confusion is caused by the fact
that the isthmus o f Panama runs near
ly east and west Instead o f north and
south, as m ight be imagined, at the
point where the canal traverses It.
Panama city is almost due south o f
Buffalo and is southeast o f Colon, the
A tlantic terminal.
T h e canal route,
therefore, runs in a southeastern d irec
tion from the A tla n tic to the Pacific,
and. to the astonishment o f the tour
ist. the sun rises in the Pacific and sets
in the Atlantic.
W e are not buikilng our canal at the
narrowest point on the Isthmus. This
point 1« found at the g u lf o f San Bias,
sixty miles east o f Colon, where the
Isthmus is only thirty miles wide,
whereas at Panama it Is forty-seven
T h e Chagres river (pronounced Shag-
gressi originates In the San Bias moun
tains and drains a basin o f 1,320
A fte r runuing parallel
with the coast line nearly m idway be
tween the oceans It turns sharply at
right angles and empties into the C ar
ibbean sea a fe w miles west o f C o
T h e point where the Chagres
makes this turn is within the canal
zone and ubout thirty miles from the
Caribbean, running through the canal
zone for that distance. From the Car
ibbpan sen to Bohlo, about seventeen
miles, the bed o f the riv e r is only
slightly above sen level, and from Bo-
b.io to about the entrance o f the Cule-
nra out it rises to forty-eight feet
ihove sea level.
Engineers w ere divided on the utility
•f this natural geographical situation.
Chose who favored the lock type canal
telleve'd that the Chagres river could
te dammed up so as to form the longest
art o f the canal and thus save a vast
■ mount o f excavation that would be
equired in a sea level type.
• ot denying the saving In excavation
in a lock type, the engineers who fa
vored a sea level canal believed that
the fixed lim itations o f tilt* l<s'k type
made it Inadvisable when the expan
sion In the size o f ships was consid
At (tiitun the natural form ation of
he mountains perm itted the Chagres
iver to escape Into the Caribbean w - h
through a gap less than tw o miles
T h e lock type advis ates said
his gap could tie filled In and so ere
ate a basin to be filled by the stagnat
i-d water o f the Chagres river. The
idea was to build a dam high enough
to back the accumulated river water
toward the Pacific for a distance of
th irty-tw o miles and at an average
depth in the canal ehannel o f forty
five feet throughout
would prevent the lake so formed from
spilling down the Pacific slope. Thus
all but about fifteen miles o f the canal
would be made by an inland, artificial
'nke. 164 square miles In extent.
But even in a lock type there would
have to he an Im pressive amount o f
Not only would the sea
level channels approaching this lake
on either side o f the Isthmus have to
he dredged, hilt the mountain harrier,
running lengthw ise with tile Isthmus,
would h a re to be pierced with a chan
nel so as to [termlt the waters o f the
(iafu n lake to m v l the |sdnt on the
Pacific side where the locks would
afford the descent to the ocean.
T h e area to be excavated I d this lake
channel, thirty tw o m ile« long, was
from Hat tin to Obispo, follo w in g the
“ T. r :r.
nr-fr.! nr." reqnlrlt.g
nnlv nb'uit 12.99(>.boo cubic yards to be
removed >n twenty-three miles. Then
• he mountain* began, forty five feet
Istve sea level, and reached tbelr
'‘ chest point, in the 'e n te r line o f the
canal, at (¡o ld hill. 312 feet above ana
level, thence sloping toward the P a
cific to the proposed lock site at Pedro
Miguel, a distance o f nine miles. Th e
average depth o f the cut would be 12U
feet throughout the nine miles, and the
deepest point o f excavation at Hold hill
would require going down 272 feet.
T h e Culebra cut. as this channel
through the mountains wus called, was
to be 200 feet wide.
In t880 the
French had begun work there, and
they removed 18.646.000 cubic yards
that w ere useful to the Americans.
T heir machinery w as used the first
year o f our occupation.
A t Hatun. on the A tlan tic side o f the
proposed lake, there would be locks to
lift ships to the lake, and at Pedro
M.'guel and I,a Boca, on the Pacific
side, the locks would low er the ships
to sea level again.
The Am ericans cam e to the canal
zone in 1004 with the question o f the
kind o f canal to lie built unsettled
T h ey w ere to be there more than tw o
years Itefore the violently discussed Is
sue was to be settled.
however. It was recognized that there
was a vast amount o f pioneer and
preparatory work to lie accomplished
that would absorb the activities o f the
organization pending the solution o f
What kind o f country as to tem
perature. rainfall, vegetable and ani-
| mal life and bealthfuluess had w e se
cured? As to the first characteristic.
Pahama is only nine degrees from the
equator. But It is fa r from being as
hot as that proxim ity might suggest
Throughout the year the tem perature
averages about 85 degrees. Th e high
est recorded temperature in the eanul
j zone Is only 97 degrees. At nlglit the
atmosphere falls sharply until, usual
ly. light covering 1» required on beds,
and the hot. sw elterin g nights o f A m e r
ican cities in the summer are unknowu.
T h e northern mind, ton, considerably
has overestim ated the effects o f the
rainy season at Panama.
| January. February. March and April
! there is practically no rainfall.
j the 1st o f May light showers occur
j daily or every fe w days and through
with an occasional gusher
P A C IF IC G A R A G E
Washington County Agency, Overland Cars
H ASK ELL & SON
e l s o n
P A C IF IC A V E .
The Approach of Spring
is the signal for greater effort
in all lines o f endeavor. Warm
er and dryer weather means
greater activity in b u i l d i n g
Is the Time to Start
work on your new residence,
store building, barn or other
structure. When you are ready
That N ew House,
get our estimates on all the ma
terial you will require.
Willis-Place Lumber Co.,
So. A St., forest Grove.
Be Sure You Get
What You Pay For’
There’s more fraud in »hoes than in almost any
other article you wear.
Nearly 90% of all shoes retailed for less than $4.00
h ave paper, composition, o r other substitutes for leath
er in the heels, soles, and counters.
SOLE LEATHER :
These substitutes are hidden w here you can’t see
them. You can’t detect the adulteration until you w ear
the shoes and find them unsatisfactory.
You may have an old pair of thoea with run-down
heels, counter! broken down, or the outer sole ripped off.
Cut them up and you will probably find them “ adulter
The only reason why any manufacturer use! lubeti-
tutes for leather is that they are cheaper than leather.
They mean larger profit« for him because you pay leather
The “ Our Fam ily ” «hoe ii made of fine box calf and
gun metal leather!. Several styles, all sizes for every
member of the fam ily.
La«t year 645,448 people bought this famous «hoe.
The two «tyles here illustrated will show the honest
leather construction o f the “ Our Fam ily” and all other
“ Star Brand” shoes.
prices for the shoes.
Nothing can take the place of good lcath^rformaklngoom-
foi table »nd serviceable sh »» s. You want leather sUco«. lie
sure you get what you pay for.
W « b its one of these shoe* out up to prove its honest
oonsu uclion. Come aud see It,
The "Our Family " sells at prices ranging from It .IS for
the ohlldren up to f.l SO for men. It Is a good looking, medium
weight eboe—for every day or Sunday.
All the above are "Star Brand” shoes with the name on
the sole ai d the star on the heel. Every pair Is made of good
leather. No substitutes for leather are ever used.
During the last six months Pure Shoe Bills have been In
troduced into Congress nnd several stales, requiring that when
substitute« for leather aro used the fact must he stamped on
Many manufacturer« and a few merohams are bitterly
fghting these bills. From the sfart the “ Star Brand”
manufacturers have freely nnd openly endorsed these bills.
They believe in this legislation because it gives you a square
Their business has been bull tup on honest leather construc
tion. We believe that this is one reason why they have grown
•o rapidly. If substitutes for leather were better than leather
there would bo lots of other shoe makers larger than they are.
Every consumer should b. In favor of s Pure Shoe law.
Every “ Star Br.od " merchant believes In this great move
ment for pure leather shoe. Just as we do, because 1C Insures
that the wearer gels what he pays for.
Tbe Oldfield Pure Shoe Bill now r-en-llng In Congress
should be enacted Into a law. The victor" should be made
ocmplete. because It Is a good law. Write your Senator and
Congressman and urge them
to vote for It.
T o he on the safe §Me alwavg ask fo r and Insist upon
having "Star Brand” s.ioes with the name o.i the sole and
the »tar on the heel. Jt i* the largest selling brand of shoes
in the world—over «even million people wear them.
Roberts. Johnson & Rnnd, the manufacturers, have built
up this vast business—23 big f«otoncs employing lO.ouo people
— in o-.ly fifteen year«, simply by making * Star Brand”
shoes of good honest leather.
If "Star Brand” shoe* were not hotter than other shoes,
they could not have grown from a s nail start to a business of
over It6.noo.ou0 a year, outstripping all otner shoe makers
in this short time.
They make mors shoes than any other shoemaker. The
cost pe* pair is loss It costs less to sell them. They give
you more for your money than you oan get in any other shoe.
The “ Patriot", otir fine dress «hoe for men. ts made la
50 din trent styles at it .ft) to >’ no. A . good a »Hoe la other
brands would cost you 41.00 more.
The "Society". our beautiful d—s* **>oe for women, le
made in many styles and so.d at I t o *4.u0. It U Better
than many other snoes sold at |o.u0.
The "Stronger Than The Eew", our heavy work iboe. Is
the strongest and longest "earing ah >e made Its value baa
never been equalled. Made tor men. women and children.
The " Soft and (J«od ", a line welt work «hoe for men—
soft as s glove. A long wearing, me . um weight aboe at 13-50
to M OO. This shoe h«» no competitors.
"Teae and Ted " school shoes are made In many styles for
girls and boys. They cannot be duplicated for good looks aud
Bear in mind that there are several different forms
o f stars nsed in
trade-marks. Tbe genuine “ Star
Brand “ shoe hes the i.amc on the sole and the star
on the heel.
Very soon yon w ill buy yonrFaltand Winter shoe«.
Be sure yon get the genuine “ Star Brand” shoca.
Ih e u yon w ill know why
“ Star Brand Shoes A re Better’
K I N G
SOU UATV tlHltQI