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About Bohemia nugget. (Cottage Grove, Or.) 1899-1907 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 7, 1904)
METHOD BY WHICH JAPS REACHED WALLS OF PORT ARTHUR FORTS.
SYSTEM OF PARALLEL TRENCHES ON WHICH JAM WORKED FOR MONTHS.
ino picture shows a method of attacking a fort If high angle fir falls to reduce It The Irregular trenches
lending to the parallels are dug so that they cannot be swept by the enemy's Are. The men dig the trenches uudcr
the protection of their own artillery. The parallels are for the protection of the storming parties as they approach
nearer and nearer the walls. A "parallel" Is a trench, often many miles long, which fronts the fortress. Suppos
ing the army Is 4 000 yards from the fortress. During the commencing bombardment this Is called the first
nrtlllery position.' They want to move nearer and so they construct the "first parallel." perhaps at a distance of
8.000 yards from the fortress. But, In order that men aud guns may move safely Into this "parallel. approaches
have to be cut that Is. a number of trenches leading from the first artillery position into the "parallel. These
approaches run In zigzags, as. If they were straight, they would be open to the enemy's Are.
The way In which the "parallel" Is opened Is Interesting. So soon as it grows dink a number of officers,
accompanied by sappers, more forward. Here they trace the lines which the parallel will follow. Each sapper has
Bucket and a measuring tape. The officer stations the first sapper at the end of the trench line, takes the end of his
tape and walks along until the tape Is drawn out At this point he places a second sapper, takes his tape, and walks
to the end of It. and so on. The sappers drive the pickets Into the ground, fasten the tapes to them, and He down
to await the working party. Later on the working party, with picks and shovels, arrives and sets to work with Ml
Its might By break of day each man must have dug a trench 5 feet long. 0 feet wide, and 4 feet deep, except the
front eighteen Inches, which Is only one and one-half feet deep. The earth he piles In front to form a parapet. At
day" gbt this trench will be occupied by a strong force, called the "guard of the trenches" But the work Is no yet
finished for the following two nights are also devoted to digging, and when finished the trench Is 10 feet wide at the
bottom or more, much wider on top. 4 feet deep, having steps In front, and protected by a parapet of earth In front,
which Is nbout 4 feet high. Behind this "parallel" protected places are formed for the artillery, another big job.
seeing that thirty feet of earth, and probably more. Is required to Insure the safety of the guns. Finally, the last
pnralTel Is made, and the rnsh of Infantry Into the fort takes place.
When the wayside tangles Has
1 1) the low September sun.
When the flowers of summer dsys
Droop and wither one by one,
Reschlng np through bush snd brier.
Sumptuous brow and heart of fire,
Flaunting high its wind-rocked plume.
Brave with wealth of native bloom
In the pasture's rude embrace.
All o'errun with tangled vines.
Where the thistle claims Its place.
And the straggling hedge confines.
Bearing still the sweet Impress
Of unfettered loveliness.
In tlit: field and by the wall.
Blinding, clasping, crowning all
Natnre lies disheveled, pale.
With her feverish Hps apart
Day by day the pulses fall.
Nearer to her bounding heart:
Tet that slackened grasp doth hold
Store of pure snd genuine gold;
Qnlck thou comes t, strong and free.
Type of all the wealth to be
Kansas City Journal.
- ROUBLE began for Amaranth
Brooke when she decided to buy
back the ramshackle old family
homestead with the few hundred dol
lars that hnd been left to her by a
distant relative. But there were her
brother's wife and children to provide
n home for, and when Amaranth made
up her mind she cared very little
whether people approved of her plans
or not- t ..
She did care, however, what Sylves
ter Smalley would think of the matter,
for since she was engaged to him It
would be only right to tell him what
she meant to do.
AmarauUi had been looking over her
prospective purchase and was on her
way home, when he overtook her and
at once broached the subject
"No use to throw your money away
on that old rubblsbly place," he told
her. "You can't raise a crop there, on'
I wouldn't take It as a gift An' your
money, with what I've got, would
build up a nice, snug house on that
forty acres father gave roe, an' help
to slock the farm beside. Then we
could bo married and go right to house
keeping. Will you. Amaranth?"
They were loitering slowly home
ward and had paused at the old stile,
where a scarlet-towered trumpet-vine
showered Us gorgeous trophies at their
"Say yesl" urged Sylvester.
Amaranth felt her determination
"But but there's brother Reuben's
wife and the children!" she faltered.
"They are quite destitute, and bare no
one to look to but me."
"Tt Iteub's wife look out for her-
olf." he returned gruffly. "I dare say
hr(a nmhan asvlums In the city
where the young uns would bo took
Amaranth's eyes flashed scornfully
at him as she drew herself up with
"Brother Reuben's children shall
never go to the asylum while I live
he declared Indignantly,
After few moro words their troth
was broken. Sylvester stalked moodily
til. r. while Amaranth, with a
mang of sow disappointment at her
heart turned-toward the gray stone
wimhnnm. where she earned a small
Istlpend over her board by doing the
(housework ror a larauy oi six,
Tha broken engagement offered
Ifresb. food for gossip among the
llirooke and Stubblefleld kith and kin,
tlinf Ama ninth was not to be turned
I liffll'S IfSIl.
Ifrom her course by tbelr outspokon
(csnsures and criticisms.
Too old homestead was bought and
paid for. To be sure the soli was
rocky and sterile, and the dwelling in
need of repairs.
The orchard trees what were left
of them were gnarled and bent and
the fences and outbuildings in a sau
state of dilapidation.
It was really scarcely worth tho
small sum asked for it but Amaranth
had determined to buy it and buy It
An ancient cow and a half-decrcpit
pony were Included In the sale.
And after the house had been treat
ed to a few repairs and a thorough
cleaning, brother Reuben's fnmily
were released from their uncongenial
quarters In the city and comfortably
Mrs. Reuben a meek little woman,
with no more ideas of supporting her
self than a canary bird might have
urna Tet ii rood housekeeper, and
willingly undertook the management
of domestic affairs, while Amaranth
gave her attention to the raising of
poultry and garden vegetables. And
lie children crew as round as butter-
balls, romping under the gnarly old
apple trees or piaymg niue-anu,-seeK
among the tall sunflowers and holly
hocks that nodded in me uooryaru.
Later on. Amaranth earned a few
dollars each week by the sale of her
tirrwlnr-o nt the little village of Plner-
vllle Center, which was scarcely a
stones throw rroni uer dock pasture
bars. But with all her industry anil
economy she found It a hard matter
to provide for herself and tho help
less ones depending on her, and there
times when she reallv feared
the wolf was already at her door.
Sylvester Smedley took particular
pleasure In driving past the house,
with Nancy Maria Stubblefleld. to
whom he hod transferred nis auen
tlons, seated beside him in his spring
tint nn nnn offered a helDlnc hand.
and Amaranth was beginning to feel
n tromnr nt ilpanalr when something
happened which no one certainly not
Amaranth had ever arearaea wouiu
com to pass.
It was nothing more nor less than
the building of a branch railway from
the "Ozark lead and zinc" mines to a
nntnt nn the Mlsslsilnnl River some
twelve miles beyond Plneyvlile Centre.
The nearest route, accoruing to sur-
lnv riirertiv across one suie oi
Amaranth's estate, and she readily ac-
... . ,nnn ' 1 . . .1
ccptt'U me oner oi itviu ww min
ing company for this small portion of
her "worn-out" farm land.
But the tide of prosperity old not
Roger Allen, tne young surveyor,
who bad laid out the new railroad,
suggested I'lneyvllle Centre as tn
most convenient point for the smelting
works to be erected by the mining
And so the sleepy little village
vnlml nn one fine morning to find It
self in the midst of a most unexpected
nth. Ihouch offered a high
nriro. refused to part with her prop
nrtv on anv terms. By the advice of
the young surveyor, however, sne was
iniinrori in lav out a portion of her
farm, fronting tho railroad, in town
lots, which were eagerly purchased
at a satisfactory valuation, and tho
"Brooke addition" soon ranked as the
mint desirable resldcure portion of
Anil Amnrnnth found herself, if not
wealthy, at least comfortably Bltuated.
a stout hired rami nana attenuea to
ihn farm work now. The worn-out
mnnitnwa and cornfields were redeem
ed from tbelr Impoverished condition.
The antlauated cow was supplanted
liv a amall herd of Jerseys. The de
crepit horse was "pensioned on" on
the fattest of pastures, while a span
nt "matched bavs" drew the new car
ryall when Amaranth or Mrs. Reuben
and her children took an airing.
The discomfited' relatives, who bad
all but boycotted Amaranth in the
dark days, now discovered that "blood
was thicker than water" and hastened
to make friendly overtures.
And Sylvester Smalley. who had not
vt aiircmlrd in bulldlnc on the pater
nal forty acres, abruptly ceased his at
tentions to Nancy Maria, ana cast
longing eyes toward the thrifty corn
fields and well filled barns of the old
T yinf- alnr had he renented of his
short-slghtedne8, and after some skill
ful maneuvering he one day succeeded
In meeting Amaranth face to face at
Lilt- uin duic i
She'd a rose in her bonnet, and oh! she
I 1 1 I
the old utile
Ait the little nlnk Sower tnat grows In
, -th,e "f"; ,u m., -.in never had experienced It Then I re
And Sylvester felt that he must win th' .nd k, ,
hop at all tinTJtril.
Ile advanced smiling and with oat
"Did vou reallv think I meant td
give you up, Amaranth?" he asked, ro-
But she drew coldly back.
"Give me up? Certainly! You gave
me up long ago," she returned.
But I didn't mean It! I I own I
was a fool. Amaranth." he stammered.
desperately, "but I alius Intended to
come back an' marry you. An' 'taln't
too late yet Only name the day, na
But Amaranth smiled as sne
glanced beyond him to a tall figure
which was rapidly approaching them.
Very much obliged. I'm sure, su-J
rniiui. iipmnrelv. "hut I have prom
ised to be Roger Alden'a wife, and tho
day Is already named. Here comes
Roger now. Will you stay and be in
tied need 5"
lint with n fllannnolnted scowl. Syl
vester slunk nway. Chicago Journal.
WORKMAN WHO CHEATS.
Dribble He Represent la a Iluslneaa la
Worse Than a wide kem.
An omnlnvpr of thousands of men
was asked what thing In all his large
operations gave hlra the most concern.
The man who does a little less tnan
Is expected of blm," was the reply.
He is the dangerous factor In an. dusi-
ness. The absolute failure we readi
ly discover and discharge, but the
'tilmnata' pamno detection for months
nnd often for vears. and they make
our losses as well as our fears," and
with a very serious smile he added:
The drip in business is worse than
It Is a condition that Is ns old as
human experience. Eighteen and a
half centuries ago- Seneca put it In
these words: "Some portion of our
time Is taken from us by force; an
other portion Is stolen from us; and
another slips away. But tho most dis
graceful loss Is that which arises from
our own negligence; and It thou wilt
seriously observe, thou sbalt perceive
that a great part of life flits from
those who do evil, a greater rrom
those who do nothing, and tho whole
tim,i who do not nccomDllsh the
business which they think they are do
Thousands of men fancy they are
fulfilling their duty to their employ
ers and to their tasks by kteplng hours
and performing Just enough to noiu on
m timir nnattlnns. Tliev have an Idea
that to do more would bo to give larger
Bcrvlco than their compensation r-,iii-i
Thpv obiect to what they be
lieve would bo extra values. "The old
inun slm'n't get more than ho Is paying
for," Is tho vernacular,
nn.aiiiiv it nnver strikes these trim
ti.nt in plipntlniT their work they
are doing double damage; they are In
ijn. thoii- omnlovers much, but they
ju,,Ub) . r -
are robbing themselves more; tbey are
in fact losing everything in lire mat
-tt. wild Tliev fare worse than
la At jt in .
If they did nothing at all, for time
with all Its precious values sups en
tlrely from them and leaves no sub
lan-n nr satisfaction.
Half doing soon brings undoing. It
f. i. - Mina4Antha Hnlntr nr thn nlnptv.
in UJU miit i"-"- r
in nn.hiindredths doing that bleeds
bsulness and saps character. Satur
day Evening Post
HUNTINQ THE KANGAROO.
DtfllcnU to Blioot on Arconnt of IIU
Hpctd Across tne rinlua,
Ttror aklna. ntniihnnt I nulla, antlers
unit a tlnann nthnp tnnihlps dpi-oratod
the smoking-room ut tho huntsman. T
.... . .. .... . . . . i-i, I.- i r
lou can t guess wnat 1111s is, ui t
nil ami ha ttmlr itmvli fmm Ihn W
a piece of curiously woven matting.
It was a limit lira feel smiare. cretin
In color and five inches thick.
"This," he explained, "la tho breast
plate that Is worn In knugaroo limit
ing. Without It tho kangaroo, with n
torelec blow stralcht from the shoul
der, could smash In your chest ns
thmic-h It irii n tinatphiiartl tin. This
breastplato Is a souvenir of an excit
ing kangaroo hunt In Australia.
"All big game enthusiasts are fa
miliar with tiger shooting, elephant
shooting, the chaso of tho grizzly, of
the boar and of tho hippo, but I know
few men who havo ever hunted kan
garoos. Yet this Is an exciting and danger
ous sport Tho kangaroo, when ho 1
brought to bay, will fight. Ho Jumps
straight nt you, like a great cat, nnd
with his forelegs he alms at your
chest two tremendous blowe first the
right and then tho left and thuso
blows, delivered with a speed and ac-
pilrni-r thnt nn lirltn fit-liter tHHIld
equal, would kill you If they landed
oti an unprotected surrnce. to you
wear, for a protection, this thick g wit
guard, woven of uatlvo grasses by na
"You hunt the kangaroo In 'sots.'
l.-tpht hnntampn pnmiliian n act and
each set employs half a dozen native
runners to stalk tho kangaroo.
"The kangaroo, on being stalked,
comes tearing over the plain straight
at you. He travels with the speed of
an express train, and ho makes great
imnnri'lnr- Ipnna OnA IlllnlltA ho is
crouching on tho grass, tho next he '.
ten feet up In tho air, and an jno
while, remember, he Is going forty
miles nn hour.
"Hence he Is a mighty difficult ob
ject to shoot If you fall to shoot him,
nnd ir there Is Ho tree nanny, then y u
must put your trust In your matting
breastplate. This breastplate of mine,
you notnre. has a dent In It." Seattle
I HI I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 III UH Ml
THE GOOD OLD NOISE.
ItH It'M1' I I I 1 1 H I rH-KM-lr
The ear becomes so accustomed to
the din of the city streets thnt It misses
It In the hush of the country. A New
York hnatnpaa man has had an ex
perlence of the quietude of rural life.
For two long weeks he rougnt ror sleep
In a remote corner of Maine, where,
tired out he had fled for much-needed
rest What he did then he tells In
the New York Sun. His experience Is
that nt mnnr men. with whom living
In the city has become first a habit.
then a disease.
Alio tjutcmcoa, WJC wu, o,,a..c w-
the night actually kept me awake un-
I . ,n .nl.tM f i n l!
ft.- .I-.... .W . .HllnAaa nt
til I had to resort to opiates, i unu
.,,. . thin? before, but I
tnrnpd to the city, and was like
hor comlnc home.
Th first day I was at my desk I
ahnrri na mv window. The old fa
miliar cry of "Hey-up!" from the
teamsters sounded comforting. Then
th elanir of the trolley cars broke In
unon me. and I felt good. I heard
the battle of the teamsters Just below,
that old fight for space and place that
goes on the year round In the city.
I looked out toward the crush at thn
rmmlnr. I saw the push-cart man
fighting to hold his own. He looked so
natural! At the opposite corner I saw
a peddler who has been there for
years. I have bought shoo laces from
hlra for so long that I should feci lono
It If h were. In CO.
When I started for home that first
mv rptlim tllP Rlttlie olll tMlllCO-
man helped mo across, Just as he hnd
done these many years. 1 tiianKed
him more sincerely than I ever had be
fore. Ho dldn t know 1 had been
away; he hadn't missed me, but 1 had
itMipn I went to bed that night 1
threw open my window and fell nsleep
to the noise nnd rattle or tne cievniou
trains. I had returned to ray own
LIVING IN SO-t HOUSES
Thti Were the Cheopeat Permanent
uhmUm fnr .'Innaera un tne t'rairiea.
Allzhtlns from the slow-moving
prairie-schooner the canvas-hooded
ship of the' plains the settler found
himaplf far from bouse-bulldlng mate
rial. Trees there were none for miles;
tnn- ni farther awav. and as for
lumber, It was almost unknown, or
could be obtained only uy long, areory
drives with small loads across tho
niini iimv ahnuld he shelter his
.im.iiii. - - - .
family from tho blizzards or winter
and the "hot winds" of summer days7
In answer to his demand came tho nod
Th tnnirh sod of the prairie Is well
ntt,t tnr the construction of walls. It
may be cut into squares capable of
handling, and which are laid line
bricks, a compact and substantial
m.u Mnnv are the tvnes of arclll
tecture, for there are fashions in Sod-
House Land as well as on tho avenue
. a i A . I - tnl ,1.1,.
out As Its name Implies, It Is partly
.. . ..I
underground. It is tno easiest to
build, as well as the cheapest, of all
nWm,n,ni hnmpa nf tho West Tho
nnnr 1 nt nni-th. and the walla for a
few feet from the bottom aro of tho
sa'me virgin material, they being jin
same virH wwunn iw I'v,. p.
excavaUon In a hillside. Above coitio
tho sod walls, and the roof Is a slant
intr cnvprlnt? nf noles. crass and earih
A wandering horso may walk from the
upper hlllsldo upon the roof, nnd cooio
crashing through to disturb the dwell
ers ueiow, ur n ucm mm muj miiauiwero uumvu avuii minn.mi
sudden flood, but beyond these contln- strange to say tho police always caught
l il. I ... n .... It nr.,1 1111..1 I . . I 1 ... A !.....!.! rpl.t.TV if fni-.
rnncles there Is warmth and comfort
If not style. Hundreds of families
tin .... iivml In riiiofiouta. and were hat
py. The experience Is, however, not
one to be envico. woman's uome
"He remarked that you are a very
That's ono thing I
If a man cots rattled there must be
a screw loose somewhero.
ii Short Qtorles
.Tnalah rittliipr nf lliiatnn. tells
how ho was onco Identified by a labor
er who was enlightening a menu.
That Is Joslnh Qulncy," said tho tlrst
laborer. "An1 who Is Joslah Qulncy?"
iletuniuleil tlio other, "Don't y know
who Joslah Qulncy Is?" demanded mo
first man; "I nlver saw .cn ignor
ance. Why. he's tho grandnou or mo
statito out there In the yard.
Oporr-n Zimmerman, tho publisher,
recently made a trip through Kansas
and Oklahoma, a region that no nan
not visited for more than thirty years.
"1 suppose that you noticed many
changes out there." remarked a friend,
"Yes, Indeed," replied Mr. Zimmer
man: "wiu-n i tint visited that coun
try there wcro many red men there
without a white. On my receiu irip i
saw many white men without a red."
in tlm ercat llnatou Public Llbmry
than ataiula nn n llPtlpatal in n COflier
of Bates Hall, the main reading-room,
n bust In very dark bronie or unver
Wendell Holmes, tho patron saint of
Boston. The other day. two old ladles
u-iirn wamlerhiir a limit the bllllltlllg.
Both the dnuies critically examined tho
likeness. "Why, I never knew, re
marked ono to the other, drawing back
a little, "that ur. iioimcs was a ne
A Tiondon ladr who tried to climb
over a stile the tlrst day of her country
vacation, certainly thought she had left
Iinmlnn a counlo of hundred miles
nwnr- hut ihn rattier wished, all the
same, that tho country was not so
densely populated, and she turned an
appealing look upon mo rustic gaiier
who Insisted on watching her climb.
A broad cr n snread over ins Connie-
nance as he caught her meaning, "Ior,
bless ye, mum, don't be shy before
me!" he adjured her: "I was a bus con
ductor for fifteen years!"
Tim hmiso in Portland. Me., where
Longfellow was born, Is now a tene
ment In tho poorer part of tno city,
mostly Inhabited by Irish. A few
years ago a teacher In Portland was
giving a lesson on tha lire or me poot.
At the end of the hour, she began to
question her clsss. "Where was Long
fellow born?" she asked. A small boy
waved bis band vigorously. When
tha tpaphor railed on htm. his answer
did not seem to astonish the rest of
the class, but It was a cold shock to
her. "In Patsy Msgee's bedroom," he
nnmnr Raeheldcr. of New Hamp
shire, dislikes tramps, though at times
hn will tin ml a nuarter to ono of the
traveling fraternity. Not long ago he
found a husky young hobo lying under
a tree at a lonely place in the country.
The Governor listened to the old hard-
luck story, and gave tho tramp somo
small change. Then be said, encour-
airtnvtr- "I)on thpTO On tile left U1V
friend, there Is a farmer who wants
men to help him thresh wheat"
'Thankpe.itr." said the tramp, turning
to the right: "thankee, I might have
gone down that way accidental line.
it la an 1,1 that when President Polk
vlattpil Ronton he was Impressively re
ceived at Fancull Hall Market Bec-
Mi,t-f lttin.lAa walked In front of him
down the length of the market an-nmuir-tnr-
in loud tones: "Make way.
gentlemen, for the President of the
United States! The President of the
United States! Fellow-citizens, make
rnnm !" The chief executive had step
tuvl Into mm nf the stills to look at
some game, when Mr. Rhodes, the sec
retary, turned around suddenly, and
finding lilmself alone. promptly
changed his tone, nnd exclaimed: "My
gracious, where has that dnmed Idiot
THE "BLACK HAND" MYTH.
No Ruch Oritnlllzatlnu liver I.xlated
Anions Italian Crlmlnola.
nurint, tlm rppotit nuthrenk of Ital
ian blackmailing In Now York a great
deal has been written nuoui tno -niacK
Tiniui " Thla Is aunnosed to be a nil's
tic order of Italian criminals, banded
together to do violence, says me wow
York Sun. As a matter of fact a
Black Hand" organization never ex
Isted anywhere. There was a fiction
that such an order onco did business
In Roaln. but never In Italy,
The h story of tue alleged "lliacK
Hand" Roclotv In Spain bns to do with
the Spanish police nnd their peculiar
system of graft. All tho facts about It
came, out something iiko n year ago,
when certain friends of Justice In Paris
and London, notably nociaust mem,
harm in thn French Chamber of Denu
tics, tried to secure the rcleaso of three
ur.oni.ti Ufa term nrlsoners.
t iqtj tliprn was crcat social and
nniitirnl unrest In Spain. Alfonso XII
i,,i tnat made his coup d'etat and
squashed the republic. His repressive
maaaiirea were very severe anu njyo
riallv was Andalusia hit bard. Tho
i.hnrinir class became troublesome,
though there Is no proof tnat moy am
anything worse tnan protest in puunc
meetings. Still, tho now powers wcro
afraid, and Don Tomas Icrcz Mon
. i i. nt thn nrrivlnpn m
forte, the governor of tho province, re
ceived orders to squelch tne aiscon
According to a sworn statement
made by one Alvarez, a laborer, ho
was called before tho governor and In
vlted to stir up tho labor leaders to
hum a xprintn vlnevard. Alvarez wns
to notify the police so mat me leauera
could be caught In the act. For this,
h. naa tn im well nnld. Alvarez re
fused. Nevertheless, several vlnoyards
tno cuiprna icit wtwvui , j
ty of them were sent to prison ror long
terms, and the governor made a great
Now on ono of their expeditions tho
nnUnn fniind An the Wall of B vine-
yard, which tholr confederates wero
7 "" ,
about to have burned,- the mark of a
htrtid left by a careless painter, Mon
nn aanma to havo conceived a brll
Uant idea., These crimes were being
committed by a secret society of which
hl hand was tho symool. So tho
imiarv II ii nil" anranc Into existence,
To bolster up the notion, Monforte d-
dared that ho had found tho oath and
constitution of tho society. Tho oath
was terrible, and tho constitution
bound lis members to commit awful
crimes. Mouforto novcr showed this
constitution, Hut the "lllack Hand"
llctluii lived after him and was found
cry convenient by tho police. When
ever they round a very mysterious
crlmo they attributed It to tho "Black
In 1882 one man killed another In a
quarrel nnd as the men were Republi
cans and trades unionists the police, nt
onco attributed thn crlmo to tlm "lllack
Hand." They arrested 100 men, Bar
reled seven and Imprisoned six. It
was In tho endeavor to secure ths ro
leaso of three of tho latter thnt tho
story of tha "Black Hand" wns ro-
In tho recent extortion cases lu New
York tho iiatno "lllack Hand" win
signed to the letters demanding
money. Tho Italian criminals lu doing
this merely look advantoga nt the fear
Inspired by tho publication lu various
papers of the fiction about thn "Black
Hand," So whenever two or three
Italian blackmailers pick an easy mark
nnd sit down to wrllo their threaten
ing letter, they sign It "lllack Hand."
riit-ro Is no more organization among
these people titan among thn American
Yegg men," They know others oi
their kind, and they combine on a Job
when It seems profitable to do so. That
In these days of gas, electricity,
cheap matches and kerosene, ono can
hardly realize tlm trouble and illmcui
ties lu the way of procuring nnd main
tabling artificial light a hundred yean
ago. Until well Into the fourth decadt
of the nineteenth century, says Mlsi
Jekyll In "Old Surrey." many famlllei
could afford nothing better than tha
ruihltghU that they mado nt homo.
In tho summer, when tho common
rushes of marshy ground wero at thru
full growth, they wero collected by
women and children. Tho rush Is ol
very slmplo structure, white pith In
Ido and a tough green skin on mo out
side. Tho rushes were peeled, nil bul
narrow strln. which wss left to
strengthen ths pith, and wcro hung
up In bunches to dry.
Fat of any kind was collected,
though fat from salted meat was
avoided, If possible. It was melted
In boat-shaped grcass pans that stood
on tbelr three short legs In tho hot
ashes In front of ths fire. They were
of cast Iron, made on purpose. Tho
bunches, each of about a dozen peeled
rushes, wero drawn through the greaai
and then put aside to dry.
An old cottago friend told me all
about It. and though winter wns only
Just over, and tho rushes barely grown,
nnd she was ninety years or age. yci
when next I went to seo her alio had
gono out nnd found some rushos to
show mo how It was done.
"You peels away tho rind from tha
pcth. leaving only a little strip of rind.
And when the rushes is dry you uips
em through tho grease, keeping 'em
woll uudcr. And my mother she al
ways laid hers to dry In a bit of hob
low bark. Mutton fat's tho best; II
A rushlight fifteen Inches long would
burn about half an hour. The fro
quent shifting was tho work of a child.
It was a greasy Job, not suited to tin
fingers of tho mother at her needle
work. "Mend tho light." or "Mend tin
rush." was the signal for tho child to
put up a new length.
AN EVERY-DAY PROBLEM.
Hlioilld hlowPtijflim Patrons or Illenp
litilntlnir Ilreaaiuiikrrs tUund Lnaa'r
Mrs. Blxliy's side of the case Is sdt
forth by that lady somewhat as fol
lows, nlthougli sho linen more worus,
For her Iiushnmra Dimness wrunrn
and her own social advancement It
wns necessnry thnt sho should make
a good appearance at -the llrst recep
tion given by tlm (Jrns. who uru rich
nuweomers to the place. Mr. Illxliv
stralnod a point to provide fifty dol
lars for a now gown.
Tho order was given In amplo sea-
Bon to tho dressmaker, who promised
that tho gown should bo rt-ndy for the
reception. It did not come, and Mrs.
Blxby. having "nothing fit to wear,"
wns denied her expected triumph and
compelled to send her regrets. Tho
drosimnker sent homo the gown thn
morning nfter tho reception, but Mrs
Blxby declined to receive It or pay
Tho dressmaker says sho wns nub
cd with work for thnt reception, nnd
attended to her ensh customers first
Mrs. Blxby does not pny her bllli
promptly, and slnco thero nro many of
that kind, so many thnt tho dress
mnker was "behind" with her silk
merchant there was delay In obtnln,
Ing tho material for tho Blxby gown.
It was finally procured, however, tho
dress was cut out, and It would havo
been ready at tho time appointed but
for two mischances tho forewoman
fell downstairs and broke her nrm, ami
the dressmaker herself was taken 111.
Mrs. Blxby declares sbo Is Justified
in refusing payment Tho dressmaker
insists that tho material nt least
should be paid for, nnd points out that
If Mrs. Blxby had given her somolhliig
on nccount wnen ino gown wns or-, dividing up his snlnry among tho mem
dercd, the first delay In obtaining; thn l)er. of n, 0wn fnmily nnd driving
silk would linvo been avoided, and that 0thcr men out of employment,
would have left a liberal margin of ij,no results of widespread chniiges of
tlmo, with tho chances fnvorlng tho i this sort look, nppnrently, to nn entire
completion of tho order. revolutionizing of society. But peoplo
"Tho lady or tho dressmaker," ns , are not stopping to study tho toxt-
tho circumstances aro set forth nuovo,
is nn nctunl riroblcm now rngnglng tho
attention of social circles lu Knglmid.
In vital Interest It surpasses Mr.
Stockton's "lady or tho tiger" prob
lem; for controversies, essontlnlly sim
ilar, botweon peoplo who sell nnd peo
ple who buy aro taking place contin
ually. Our cousins across tho water, who
aro furiously arguing the enso in thn
nawsnaDers. havo not requested an
American opinion. Ilut It will strike
tho unprejudiced observer at a dls
tanco that Uio aggrieved lady might
havo been savpd a deal of unpleasant
ness If sho had established a reputa
tion for paying her bills. Youtli's
Pallhlts Nelly Oray,
Hen Battle wss a soldier bold
And lined to war s a arms.
But a cannon ball took off his legs.
Ho lis In lil down his arms.
Now, as they bore him off the field
Haiti list "Let others hoot.
For litre I leave my second leg
Aud ths Forty-second root.
Ths army surgeons mails Mm limbs.
Said lie I "They're only pegs,
But there's as wooden members quits
As rtpraieut my legs."
Now, Ben ha loved a pretty insld,
Her nania wss Nellr (Irsy.
Bo lie went to pay her Ills devoirs
When ha iletuurs.1 uls pay.
Ilut when lis called on Nelly Orsy
She maile hlin unite a scuff,
And when she saw lilt wooden legs
Regan to take tlitm off.
"Oh, Nelly Gray! Oh. Nelly Orayl
Is this your lure so warm?
The love that lotes a scarlet coat
Should lis more uniform,"
Hald shsi "I loved a soliller ones.
For lis was blithe ami brave.
But 1 will never have a man
With both legs In the grave.
"Before yon hail tlione timber toes
Your Iota I did allow,
But then, you know, you stand upon
Another footing nnw."
"Oh. Nelly Orayl Oh. Nelly Orayl
For all your Jeerln speeches,
At duty's call I left my !
In Bailajos' breaches,"
"Why, then," salt! she, "you'vs lost ths
Of leg In wsr's alarms,
And now you canimt wear your shoes
Upon your feats of ariiisl"
"Oh, falne and firklo Nelhiy Orayl
1 know why ymi rfue.
Though I've no feet mie other man
la atanillng In my shoes.
I wlh I ne'er had seen your fscsl
lint nnw a lunr farewell!
For yon will bs my death alas!
You will not us my ixeiu
Now, when he went from Nelly Oray
Ilia hssrt so heavy got
Anil life was such a burden grown
It mails him taks s knot
After yrsrs of llfs together,
After fair and stormy weather,
After travel In far lands.
After touch of wedded hands
Why thus Joined? Why ever met,
If they mut bs strangers yet'
After strlfs for common ends.
After title of "old friends."
After passions fierce and tender,
Aftsr cheerful lf-urreiulrr.
Hearts msy best snd eyes be met
And the souls be strangers yet
O, the bitter thought to scsn
All tho loneliness of man
Nsturs by magnetic laws
Circle unto circle draws.
But they only touch when met,
Never mlngl" strangers yet.
-Richard M. Mllnes.
WOMEN A8 WORKERS.
Bonis Figures thai, After All. Are Not
A statistician has gone to the trouble
to ascertain that r.5 per rent of nil ths
divorced women. .13 per cent nf Hit
widowed and .'II per cent of the slngU
women nro engaged In galnrul pur
suits. Only alxmt l! per cent f the
married women are almllarly situated.
While tho grout body of married wom
en nro nt homo attending to th" do
mestic duties which nro naturally sol
down for them, there Is smno nope
still that tho old order nf things Is not
going to bo completely overthrown.
Tho world will not bo without homes.
Tho figures Imllcato that 01 per tent
of tho mnrrii'd men nre sup;iortlng
their wives, though tho women are,
of course, doing their full shnre In
maintaining domestic establishments
which are bulwarks of morals and
good order nnd which keep the raca
from dying nut.
On surfaco nnalysls It limy seem
wonderful thnt 01 per cent of the lunr
ricd men find enough to do to support
families, when so many women nro In
men's occupations; but tlm nirth Is big,
nnd tho ordinary attempt nt compre
hending tho things to bo dono nnd the
number of people to do them Is puny
Indeed. In the long run there uppi-iira
to bo room for everybody the homo
woman, tho "now" woman, tho mini
nlsh woman, the bachelor woman, otc,
likewise for the womanish mini and
tho men who depend on tho labor nnd
shrewdness of tholr wives to keep
them going. Tho mixture of tho sexes
in the actlvo business nffnlrs of to-day
would have scared writers on political
economy twenty-five years ago. It
seems plain enough, for example, thnt
whon a man on a salary gets work for
his daughter lu tho same occupation at
pcrlinps smaller compensation Hum ha
rccelTcs, ho Is sapping tho fouiiilntlon
of nisown employment nnd prosperity;
mt) n tno onE runi , wm K, linply
books. They nro going niienii witn
the fashions of, tho time, lonvlng tho
pessimists and tuoso who have nothing
to do but study to rend up nn polltlcnl
ocouomy. A great mniry wlso books
havo been Impracticable In relation to
business affairs. If notiety Is going
wrong In putting tho gentlor snx In thn
lines of employment thnt wero former
ly exclusively for mon, tho mlstiiko
will manifest Itsolf soma-day In n seri
ous way. Money panics result rrom
. over-wrougl.t ambition to get rich
nnl,lr nnd then fnl iiwa thn tinvnll nt
quick, and then follows tho trnvnll of
liquidation. And so It la with nthnr
nffnlrs. Cincinnati Knqnlrrr.
A man enn't have a very big tlmo