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About The daily morning Astorian. (Astoria, Or.) 1883-1899 | View Entire Issue (June 21, 1896)
In it NwuNpiipor no k"Iu
kuvIiik Unit. Aatniiu Iium
oilier piipui'M, hut tlicy
Are Mot Newspapers
Put an ad. in the Asto
rlan' Want Column, anJ
You'll Get It I
EXCLUSIVE TELEGRAPHIC PRESS REPORT.
Of the Fine Lines of Men's and Boy's Cloth
Ins:, Furnishing: Goods, Hats, Caps, Boots and
Shoes, Trunks, Valises, Umbrellas, Blankets,
Quilts, etc., at factory prices for cash, at
one price to all alike.
COMMERCIAL ST.. ASTORIA. OR.
Our Handy Wagon...
Combine, oil III. future of III child
plain mm ami a vrlociprde, Atil, all
thins cotuildored, coal a th cott.unior Ir.e
than lthor. Ho doimWe, convenient and
aatlafacory tiaa It proven, that, aa a
ready "seller." II haa no equal. Wo taka
epeclal pride, tno, In delivering lha
earn promptly and In faulllvaa roudl
lion to lha trail.
. PattiKMAN, lata t Fraaaaaa Holaaae.
COLUHBIA IRON WORKS
Foundrymen, Blacksmiths, Machinists and Boiler Makers
Manufacturing and Repairing of all Kind
Iron and Brass Castings. General Blacksmith Work
SPECIALTIES-W.lch Pat.nl Whe.1. Ship
Ssillhlnj ana Staamroal WurW, Canntry ana
Mill Machln.ry. Mails an 4 Stationary Boll
era Built to OtJ.f.
IsTSprilaily cqulpreJ (or Logcers' Work. Located on 1 8th and Franklin (Scow
Bay FounJry). Phone 78. Correspondence solicited.
ASTORIA IKON WOHK8
Coacoaly St.. fool of Jackeo. Aatorla.
General Machinists and Boiler Makesr
Laa4 and Marloa Eofln.t. Dollar work, Slaaa
boat ana Cannery Work a Specialty.
Caadaft ef All Deeolptlnee Mas ta Order o
John Foi....Pralttnt and Superintendent
A. L. Fox Via President
O. B. Praol Secretary
First Nallonal Bank ..Treasurer
.SNAP A KODAK.
at any man coming out ot
our ator and you'll get a
portrait ot a man brimming
over with pleasaul thotighta.
Huota quality In tha llqunra
lileaae any man.
COMB AND THY THKM
HUGHES & CO.
Telephone & Bailey Gatzert.
"Talephon" lcava Aatorla at 7 p. m.
dally (except Bunday).
Leave Portland at 7 a. m. dally., ex
"Bailey Oatiart" leave Aatorla Tu
day, Wednsaday, Thuraday, Friday and
Saturday morning at l:it a. m.; Bunday
evening at 7 p. m.
Leave Portland dally at I p. m., s
opt Bunday. On aaturday at 11 p. m.
WALLACE MAUZERY, Agent
Notice I hereby given that lh under
signed hav tiled their final aooounta In
th eatat of L. Wllaon. dsoeaaed, and
the eatat of Wllaon A Flahar, and that
th county court of Clataop county haa
at Monda. , th 12d day of Junee, 1880,
at tha hour of 10 o'clock, for th hearing
of objection, If any thure b. to th al
lowance of aald account.
J. Q A. BOWLBY,
WILEY B. ALLEN,
May II, 18M.
For the One-Price
Clothiers. Hatters and Furnisher
Sets. Garden Tools
GRIFFIN & REED
CITY BOOK STORE
It. T. tAHl.tJ, lata at suction. al
Th Hop Lee nothing Factory and
marts hant tailor, at 4S Bond street
make underclothing to order. Sulta
and trouaer mad to fit perfectly.
Erary order punctually on Urn and
aatUfaottoa guaranteed, Oood goods
old cheap. Call and bo oonrlnotd.
I thar a nan with heart o eold.
That from hla family would withhold
Th comfort which thty all oould find
In artlole ot FURNITURE ot th right
And we would suggest at thla season a
nlc Sideboard. Extension Tab!, or aat
of Dining Chair. W hav tha largtat
and finest lln ever shown In th city
and at price) that cannot fall to plea
in oloeeat tmytr.
HEILBORN & SON
ROSS HIGGINS k CO
Grocers, : and : Butchers
Aatorla and Upper Aatorla
Fin Taaa and Coffm, Table Dellcaciaa, Doaiaatlt
ana Tropical Frulta, V..tabbt, Sugar
Cured Hana, Bacon, Etc,
Choice Fresh and Salt Meats.
THE flSTOHlfl SAVINGS BflflK
Acta a ust for oornoratlona and In.
Tranaaot . general banking builne.
Intereit paW on tlm depoalta
O. H. PAOB Prealdent
BEN J. YOUNf Vlo-Preldnt
FRANK FATTVN Caahler
J. 4. A. Bowlb. a H. Fag. Ben).
Young, A. S. Reed. T). P. Thompon, W.
E Dement, D. K. Warren.
ASTORIA, OKEfiOX, HUN DAY MOUXIXO,
(Jcntrnl I'ldlni) of Kclltf Throughout
the City When the News
sound jt i(;.Mi:.r .'Kivailld
ColKl Sanncra .Much llcaicd Thai
1'racctnl Solatloa Via Reached
A laturtviate (It
cirrcncc. Tliftr waa a grncral r.-.-llri of re
ll'f tlimuiiliout the city lant nliflit
whrn th nrwa waa ilrruhitid that tin
iti.-ut ntrlko nf tha Culuinhltt river nh
rrimti, w tilth wn ItiaUKuratcd aomr
ton Ktikk ao, shortly aftor lht aut
i .nf ul furiniitldii by Mr. Norrla, r-'
reaoiitliiK 1 lie A. Ilix lh I'at klng Co., of
ChliajC". ( I ho Cnliiiiil.la Itlvcr l'tt k
we' AaaiK-lutlcm. The luln- of the
nilr (.trtminlty. haa for thru wrek
u'ii alnnwi at a atantlatlll. The uauul
large amount of moiiry In circulation
at thla , n of the year haa liern
lacking. The merchant, tw clerk, the
lawyer, the dtH-tor, and the flahermen.
have all alike eulTorod fndn the con
a ''.ilnn of bualnt-a. Now, alt haa been
At t o'clock luat evenliiif a maaa
mooting of the momben of the Flaher
inon' fnion v.a calloil at Flaht-r'
Hull. The mooting waa a long and
earnoat one. and the aubjret under con
!!. ration wua th adjuatmcnt of Uie
pr.iMrnt dlfflcultlca. Many argumenta
wore iiroarntcil pro and con, and final
ly the ballot waa tukrn upon the quea-
tlon of the orci ptaiice of the comjron
l offor of the ranncrymon, and the
calling of the attllto off. Four hundred
and thirty vot. were caul, and by a
majority of fUty-aeven It waa deckled
to aiiv.t four and one-half cent tier
nund for aalitioti atralKht, fur the ha I
amice of the e.-uaon. anil the atrlke
a attfclarrd olf. It wiia reiKirted that
a atrotig effort waa made by the five
cent men to mulntuln the orlplnul hmI
lion of the union, but the bet
ter Judgment of the majority prevailed,
ami the cvmpromlao wua elTit'ted. A
feeling of relief paaaed through the
latae aanombly hall, even among those
who had been advocating moat etrontr-
ly fr the maintenance of the ponltlon
originally naaumed by the organisation.
The concenaua of opinion on the atreet
waa one moat complimentary to the
good Judgment of the I'nlon. The men
are certainly to be congratulated upon
the good aenae which prevailed over
raalier cuunael and led them to accept
the four and one-half cent compromise
offered aome day ao.
At 12 o'clock tonight there will be
complete resumption of the great aalin
on packing Induatry of the Columbia
river. The preaent atrlke haa been the
longest one ever known In the history
of the business on thla river. The re
suits have been more or less disastrous
to the cummunlty at large, but a vic
tory for common sense and law and
order has been won.
When seen last evening by an Asto
rlan representative, Colonel Summers,
In command of the First Regiment,
stated that while he had not yet re
ceived ofllcil Intelligence of the ter
mination of the strike, yet he was
greatly pleased that satlsfacto; and
peaceful adjustment of the ditTlcultlea
had been made. "I am very kIhiI to
note that the militiamen and fishermen
have been on the best of terms, and
that no feeling ot animosity haa ex
isted between them. I feel that the
men of my command are to be comtrat
ulated upon their soldierly deportment
while In camp, and that they can
now return quietly to the arts of peace
having nobly responded to the call of
duty. They demonstrated that the
state of Oregon hns men of whom It
may be Justly proud, and who can be
relied upon durlns tha most trying
General Beebe Is expected this morn
ing from rortlund. and It Is probable
that a portion of the troops at least
will return tonight or tomorrow. Suf
Pclent numbera will be left, however,
to guard against any possible difficul
ties which may be experienced by men
outside snld to be opposed to the set
tlement of matters.
Very large quantities of fish were
yesterday turned In to the various can
neries. The Scandinavian Packing
Company was In the leod, and It was
reported had recenved shortly after
noon alxty-flve tons of salmon, and
that enough more was on the way to
have mnde ninety tons before night.
The cannery was blocked, however,
and was compelled to post a notice
that it would receive no more fish until
further advices. The men of all the
Uppertown canneries, or at least a
number of them, were tanning their
nets and preparing to flsh yesterday
aftornoon. Mr. Megler received word
that his men at the Brookfleld cannery
would probably fish on Monday. A
large number of boat were fishing on
the lower river, and the canneries up
river were consequently enabled to
take care of all the fish they received.
The action taken last night by the
Union was not unlooked for by those
who were In touch wlt'n the aUuatlon.
Hlierlff Jlaie served fiotlct tliul the
close law for Hiiniluy inuat Im observed,
and It was understood last night Unit
member of the. union tliemm-lv.-s
would patrol thn river last night and
ii HHt all Infraction of the law.
A moat unfortunate occurrence last
night, shortly after the announcement
of the result of the mas meeting, ere'
ated no little comment when, the clr
rumstances became known on the
street. V. I. Oundersrm, a non-union
nsheiman, prepared hla boat last night
to go out fishing tonight, by laying In
his net, rubber boots, and other sup
plies, part of which he had to go Into
debt In order to get, and after ar
ranging to step in ma boat, he was
culled away temporarily. On hi re
turn to the slip where his boat was tied
he found the boat turned bottom up,
and everything he hail left either car
rled away or dumped In the river. This
Is a Seclva of outrage that Is likely to
be common In Astoria from this time
on unless some steps ar taken by the
authorities to furnish protection to all
A HE1NOU8 OFFENSE.
Private Will Miller, of Co. I, Convicted
Laat night there waa an unusual
spectacle at Camp Lord. Private W.
Mllier, of Co. I, First Regiment O. N.
Q., In defiance of the atatute law of
that company. Indulged In a shave
for thn sole purpose of rendering hi
beauty more apparent and thereby
captivate the hearts of Astoria' young
ladles. The prisoner a as tried by
regularly appointed civil court wherein
Dr. (. F. McKay actede as Judge and
MaJ. II. E. Mitchell aa prosecuting at'
torney. The prisoner Kaa represented
by Private A. D. Miller and Corporal
Meussdorffer, both young attorney of
recognised ability. After the Jury waa
examined and sworn, the prosecuting
attorney read the Indictment against
the prisoner. The state's case lasted
about two hours, and was replete with
contradictory testimony. Attorney
Meussdorffer, of the defense, becoming
so forcible and eloquent In his objec-
tlot.a to the state's evifience. the court
In order to maintain the dignity and
partiality he was sworn to, ordered
ball and chain to be put on said at
torney's foot to keep hla mouth shut.
Nevertheless, In spite of the punish
ment, the irrepressible young attorney
could be heard, during the remainder
of the trial, entering hla objections to
the evidence. After the state had rest
ed, Attorlney Miller arose to enter the
defense of the prisoner, but the court,
fearing thnt It might possibly be suc
cessful, ordered the case given to the
Jury and overruled all objections there
to. The Jury returned a verdict of
guilty without leaving their seats. The
judgment of the court was "that the
prisoner be marched through camp and
his crime advertised. Accordingly he
was loaded down with chains, placed In
a strait-Jacket and with a fantastic hel
met, a present to MaJ. Mitchell adorn
ing his head, marched through camp to
the aound of martial music.
Plenty of exercise was given the
militiamen yesterday by the officers.
In the afternoon an exhibition of the
riot drill waa given, along the public
streets, the companies being arranged
In the most advantageous positions,
and going through the marches and
Held movements most effective In such
Several telated comrades, members
of different companies, came down on
the afternoon boat and were warmly
welcomed by the boys In camp. Their
persona grata, they were told, depend
ed upon a strict observance of the
Church service will be held In camp
this afternoon at 2 o'clock by the Rev.
Dr. Cue, bishop of the M. E. Church.
The Iris has been patrolling the river
during the day time, while the Dwyer
is put on the night run.
Col. Jackson, V. 8. A., Inspector of
militia of Oregon, yesterday Inspected
Colonel Summers says that the camp
patrol Is very strict, no one of the
men being allowed to pass In or out
of the camp without a pass. It is the
colonel's endeavor, however, to make
matters as agreeable for the boys as
It was stated on good authority last
evening that In view of the near de
parture of the troops, a dance had
been arranged for Monday night at
which the girls and the boys In blue
111 have a royal good time.
Corporal Henneman, of Battery A,
has a grievance against the city ot As
toria. During the riot drill yesterday
his heavy weight went through the
street In front of the First National
Bank, and but for the heroic efforts of
Corporal Morrison, would have plunged
Into oblivion among the festive fishes.
He says he didn't mind going through
the three Inch plank, as In Portland
they do not allow him to go where a
railroad locomotive cannot safely pass.
But he thought It very rude for the
boys who followed to make him their
favorite stamping ground.
Meany Is the leading tailor, and pays
th highest cash prlc for fur skins.
JUNE 21, 18!).
The Latest Action of the Controlling
Spirits of the reoplt's
THEY WILL NOMINATE TELLER
The Silver Scaator Would Not Say to a
Reporter Lketker tie Woald or
Would Not Accept the
Special to the Astorlan.
St. Louts, June 20. The controlling
spirits of the people's party have pre
pared an address to their followers
throughout the country, advising them
to make Henry M. Teller their nation
al standard bearer.
Teller will not say he will not accept
either the Democratic or Populist nom
ination for president. A reporter to
day put the question to him direct:
"Would you accept the Democratic
nomination for president?"
"I cannot say I would not under
some conditions. I do not want to talk
about It" he answered.
"Well, senator, the Populists have is
sued an address recommending your
"I know nothing about that"
"Would you accept the Populist nom
ination?" "I don't want to be Interviewed." he
"I know, but would you take the
"I cannot say I would not I do not
know, what they intend doing nor
what they have done. I do not want
to be questioned."
A POPULIST ADDRESS ISSUED.
Teller's Support Advised by the Na
St Louis. June 20. As a result of
the series ot conferences between thj
committees appointed by the acceding
silver men of the national convention
and a committee composed of proml
nent Populists, an address waa Issued
tonight from the headquatters ot the
people's party national committee In
this city advisihg Populists through
out the country to make Henry M.
Teller, of Colorado, their national
standard bearer. Immediately after
the silver men walked out of the con
vention they appointed a committee of
which Charles Hartman, of Montana
Senator Pettlgrew, of South Dakota,
Senator Cannon, of Utah, and Senator
Dubois, of Idaho, were members.
to confer with a committee of the
Populists. That evening at the Plant
er's Hotel they met H. F. Taubeneck,
of Illinois, Howard S. Taylor, of Chtca-
co, and T. M. Patterson, of Denver,
ot the national Populist committee, and
a result of that and subsequent con
ference, the address was issued.
Seattle, June 20. The schooner Stel
la Erland arrived here from Cook's In
let this morning. The news brought
down is not encouraging. There are
2,000 or more miners scattered about
the inlet who are simply awaiting the
opening of the season which will not
come until July 1st at the earliest All
vessels for the Inlet have been re
ported except the steamer Royal and
the schooner Lincoln. It Is now con
ceded that the schooner Lincoln has
been lost with twenty-five souls
THE STRIKE STILL ON.
Leadvllle, June 20. The strike situa
tion has undergone several Important
changes. In the first place the Ibex
Mining Company's property on Breech
Hill has shut down and 350 men are out
at that point. The number of men
who are now out Is about 1200.
There were great crowds on the
streets all day eagerly discussing the
situation, but the men all appeared
to be perfectly orderly and welt be
haved. THE MARKETS.
Liverpool, June 20. Wheat, spot, firm
demand poor; No. 2 red winter, Es 2d;
No. 1 hard Manitoba, 6s; No. 1 Cali
fornia 6s 2d.
Portland, June 20. Wheat Valley, 63
54; Walla Walla, 61.
New York, Jpne 20. Hops, steady;
1S95 crop. SfiS; Pacific coast, 1S94 crop,
2Vj4; 1895 crop, 2 8.
Boston, June 20. Boston, 12; Wash
Brooklyn, June 20. Brooklyn 3; New
Pittsburg, June 20. Pittsburg 7; St.
Cleveland, June 20. Cleveland 12;
THE DERBY RECORD BROKEN.
St. Louis, June 20. The national der
by of '96, at one mile and a half, worth
$20,000 to the winner, will ever be re
membered as one of the greatest events
ever seen, and ITInce Lief, the winner,
aa one of the grandest i-year-old of
th season. Ben Brush was second and
Ben Ed'-r third. The time, 2:24, lowers
the track record one second and was a
record for the national derby which
will stand for many a day.
THE BOY MURDERER.
A New Educational Journal Started at
Eugene, June 20. At the educational
convention today arrangements were
completed for the publication of an
Oregon school journal. Geo. W. Jones,
of Salem, was chosen as business man
ager. The sheriff of Douglass county arriv
ed here this morning with James Dixon
the boy who killed Charles Rice. The
sheriff said he had reason to fear that
the jail would be attacked by a mob
and the prisoner lynched, although
Dixon Is charged with murder he says
he virtually enjoyed hi liberty about
Roseburg until the sheriff beard ru
mors of the lynching.
PAY YOUR BILLS OR NO DOCTOR.
French Physicians Decline to Attend Pa
tients Who Do Not Pay Their Bills.
N. Y. Herald.
Medical men everywhere will b inter
ested In a remarkable document which
has just been Issued by tha County Medi
cal Society of Herault In France. Mont
pelller, be It aald in passing, la tha capi
tal of Herault and Is th headquarters
of several well known physicians and
This document bears th signature of
Dr. Dlffr. secretary of th society, and
announces that a Black Book Is being
prepared, copies of which will be sent to
the various medical practitioners In th
department of Herault In this Black
Book will be published the names of all
those persons who owe money to medical
men tor services rendered, and who, for
some reason or other, decline to pay th
The document says further: "Every
member of the medical society will be re
quired to pledge hi honor that be will
consult this book, and that he will re
fuse to attend any person whose Dam la
Inscribed therein. In order that char
itable soetetle may nnt become, the ref
uge of persons whose names appear In
the Black Book, th presidents of the
societies will be notified that they will be
expected either to refuse admission to
such debtor or they must Inform them
that medical service cannot be rendered
In thetr case until after they have paid
the amount which they owe."
In plain English, patients who owe
money and do not pay It are to be ex
communicated by these physicians. They
may be suddenly stricken with disease,
but unless they have paid what they
owe, the doctors will not be allowed to
There haa been a good deal of talk In
Parts about this strange act of the He
rault physicians, and jom very emi
nent physicians have not hesitated to
peak openly on the aubject Among
thesa is Dr. Cornll. professor of the fac
ulty of medicine and honorary president
ot all the medical societies In France.
Being asked for his views on the matter
From a moral point of view there can
be only one answer. While the phy
sician is bound to live by his profession
he Is equally bound not to use his pro
fession for the sole purpose of acquiring
money. While it is perfectly right that
he should make money, it Is Imperative
that he should succor those who suffer.
In my time the medical students at
Montpelller were taught to obey the
command of Hippocrates. "The first
duty of a physician," said Hippocrates,
is to attend the poor gratuitously and
to give all possible succor to the sick,
even though they be his enemies.' They
were also taught that a physician has no
right to keep secret any remedy which
he may discover, and that he should. It
learned enough, be willing to teach with
out any hope ot reward. Now, I admit
that doctors are often under heavy ex
penses, and that they often have great
difficulty In collecting the fees which are
due to them. Still they should not for
these reasons ever forget thetr profes
sional duties. It I were a Judge I would
certainly condemn any doctor who would
refuse to attend a sick person unless he
knew his place could be filled by some
other physician. Monstrous, indeed,
would be the guilt of that physician who
would wantonly let a fellow creature die
when prompt assistance might have saved
The action of the Herault physicians
has given rise to this curious question:
If doctors have a right to defend them
selves against patients, have not pa
tients an equal right to defend them
selves against physicians?
The case Is cited of a young surgeon In
Paris who, solely to show his skill, per
formed three entirely useless operations
on a young woman who, unfortunately,
was under his care. He wanted to per
form a fourth, the most dangerous ot
all, but luckily for the young woman,
two eminent surgeons, Rlchelot and Pean,
were called in consultation, and they
peremptorily put a stop to the young
lancet wlelder and so saved the woman.
Again, Inquisitive persons are asking
this ugly question: When famous phy
sicians of Paris and other cities are sum
moned to a consultation, do they not
as a rule, divide their fees with the
local physicians who have summoned
them? If so, Is there not more fraud In
the medical profession than any on has
Highest of all in Leavening Power. Latest U.S. Govt Report
TI1E M YORK
Th Effect of Two Lanje Pinandal
Operations Shown by the
DECREASE IN' RESERVE LIGHT
Demand lor Bouejf Moderately rirmcr
Loass aid Deposits Iscreased Over
Last Tear Cold Exports
New York, June 20. The Financier
says this week: The statement of the
associated banks ot New York City for
the week ending June 20 shows the
effect of two financial operations, one
the repayment earlier In the week of
about $4,560,000 government money by
the depository banks on their final
bond account and the other the $2,000,
000 or exports one week ago which waa
not Included In the previous statement
Therefore the banks have lost directly
something like $8,500,000 within seven
days and against this the Interior
movement was the only counteracting
force. The decrease In cash reported
for the past week Is an indication of
the extent of the present interior move
ment the flow into the banks having
made up a large portion ot the outgo.
The decrease in the idle reserve la
the vaults is moderate In view of the
heavy change of the past week. The
expansion ot loans during the week waa
slight but the demand for money, la
view of the larger stock exchange
transactions, has been moderately firm
er and rates have responded by a
alight advance. During the twelve
weeks of 1895 beginning with April (th,
the loans from the New York banks
increased in round numbers thlrty-twe
and one-half millions. The increase
during the same period this year haa
been only nine millions, but while tha
deposits decreased In the same period
last year nearly seventy-four millions,
th Increase for the corresponding term
of 1S96 has been but twelve millions.
The greater part of the enormous vol
ume of money that flowed Into New
York last year at this time helped to
maintain the heavy excess reserve and
kept money rates at low ebb, despite
the fact of the increased loans it ex
ceeded all previous records. This year
the money flowing to meet these opera
tions is going into the treasury and as
gold exports are not artificially stopp
ed, a large part has been released for
NOT POPULAR IN LONDON. ,
London, June 20. The result ot the
Republican convention at St Louis was
generally expected here, consequently
the announcement of McKlnley's nom
ination was received with comparative
apathy. Financial circles do not re
gard the outlook so improved as to
Justify jubilation. The foreign rebv
tlons plank of the platform Is regarded
as of a highly militant character and
apparently It has made Investors here
THE DENVER RACES.
Denver. June 20. W. W. Hamilton
broke two world'a records today and
defeated O. B. Hackenberger in both
match races in which the two favorites
wer entered. The first of the contests
was one mile un paced, which Hamilton
made in 2:09-. It was a standing start
and the time beat the world's record.
Hamilton won the second event a
two miles' standing start paced by a
quad, in the remarkable time of 3:591k.
This also broke the world's record.
Lincoln, Neb., June 20. The only
notable event of the last day's racing
waa the exhibition of W. W. P., the
pacer, and Klamath, the trotter. The
track was heavy from last night's rain
and It was announced that no effort
would be made at record breaking, W. .
W. P. covering it in 1:024 and Kla
math in l:03li.
CALIFORNIA NOT FOR TELLER.
San Francisco, June 20. The Repub
licans ot California let loose a lot of
enthusiasm tonight and ratified the
nominations of McKlnley and Hobart
Meetings were held in every county In
the state. '
THE DUTCH GET HOLLAND.
Butte. Mont., June 20. The 'Demo
cratic state convention today adopted
a platform declaring for the free and
unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio
of 1 to 1.
W V Wi
t ! v
I r -