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About Corvallis gazette. (Corvallis, Benton County, Or.) 1900-1909 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 6, 1901)
VKIOlf Bstab. July, 1M7.
eiZBTTB Efetab. DM., 1M.
! Consolidated Feb. 1899.
COBVAIilJB, BEHTON COUNTY, OBBGKNj .FEIDAT, DECEMBER 6, laoi.
VOL. XXX VIII. NO. 50.
TO THE NATION
Roosevelt's First Message For
- Congressional Attention
Publicity Is Best Remedy For Unsafe Com
binesExclude Chinese and Guard All
Immigration Develop Our Islands and Let
Cuba Come to Stand Alone Increase the
Navy, Improve the Army and Remain the
World's Leading Nation
WASHINGTON. Dec. 3. President
Roosevelt's message to Congress follows:
To the Senate and House of Representa
tives: . .
The Congress assembles this year under
the shadow of a great calamity. On the
om ui cepuemutr rrciuKiii
hot by an anarchls:, while attending tne
4; i !.-., ., nff.ir, r,,i
Pan-American Exposition, at Buffalo, and
died in that city on the 14th of that month.
Grief of the People. '
The shock, the grief of the country are
bitter in the minds of all who saw the
dark days while the President yet hov
ered between ile and death
When we turn from the man to the Na
tion, .the harm done i3 so great as to ex
cite our gravest ar-prehensions end to de
mand our wisest and most resolute action.
This criminal was a professed anarchist,
inflamed by the teachings of professed
anarchists, and probably also by the reck
less utterance-s of those who, on the slump
and in the public press, appeal to the
dark and evil spirits of malice and greed,
envy and sullen hatred
The Anarchist Is a Malefactor.
The Federal Courts should . be given
Jurisdiction over any man who kills or at
tempts to kill the President or any man
. who, by the Constitution or by law, is in
line of succession for the Presidency,
while the punishment for an unsuccessful
attempt should be proportioned to the
enormity o" the offense against our insti
tutions. Anarchy Is a crime against the
whole human race; and all mankinl
should band against the anarchist.
His crime should be made an offense
against the law of nations, like piracy and
that form' of man-stealing known as the
slave trad-2; for it is of far blacker infamy
than either. It should be so declared by
treaties among all civilized powers. Such
treaties would give to the Federal Gov
ernment the power of dealing with the
Restoration of - Confidence and Re
turn of Prosperity.
During the last five years business con
fidence has been restored, ana tne na
tion is to be congratulated because of its
present abounding prosperity. Such pros
perity can never be created by law alone,
although it is, easy enough to destroy it
by mischievous laws. Fundamentally, the
welfare of each citizen, and. therefore.
the welfare of the aggregate of citizens
which makes the Nation, must rest upon
individual thrift and energy, resolution
and intelligence. Nothing can take the
place of this Individual capacity;but wise
legislation and honest ana intelligent aa
ministration can give it the fullest scope,
the largest opportunity to work to good
Caution in Dealing With Trust
An additional reason for caution in
dealing with corporations is to be found
in the International commercial conditions
of today. The same business conditions
which have produced the great aggrega
tlons of corporate and individual wealth
have made them very potent factors In
International commercial competition.
Business concerns which have the largest
means at their disposal and are managed
by the .ablest men are naturally those
which take the lead in the strife for
commercial supremacy among the na
tions of the world. America has only
just begun to assume that commanding
position In the international business
world which we believe will more and
more be hers. It Is of the utmost impor
. tance that ' this position be not jeopar
dized especially at a time when the over
flowing abundance of our own natural re
sources and the skill, business energy and
- mechanical aptitude of our people matee
foreign markets essential. Under 6uch
conditions it would be most unwise to
cramp or to fetter the youthful strength
of our nation.
In dealing with business interests
for the Government to undertake, by
crude and Ul-consMered legislation, to do
what may turn out to be bad, would br
to Incur the risk of such far-reaching
national disaster that it would be pref
erable to undertake nothing at all. The
men who demand the impossible or the
undesirable serve as the al.ies of th'
forces with which they are nominally a
war, for they . hamper those who would
endeavor to find- out in rational fashior
what the wrongs really are and to what
extent and in what manner it Is practi
cable to supply remedies.
All -this is true;, and yet ft is also triK
that there are real and grave evils, om
of the chief being over-capitalization be
cause of Its many baleful consequences
and a resolute and practical effort mu
be made to correct these evils.
Reg-ulatlon .of Corporation. -
There Is a widespread conviction In the
minds of the American people that tht
great corporations, known as trusts an
in certain of their features arid tendon
cies hurtful-to the general welfare.' Th!.1
springs from no spirit of envy or un
charitableness, nor lack' of pride in tht
great industrial achievements that . have
placed this country at the head of the
nations struggling ror commercial su
premacy. ' It Is based upon sincere
conviction that combination and concen
tration should be, not prohibited, but su
pervised, and, within, reasonable limits,
controlled; and in my judgment this con
vlctlon Is right.
Great corporations exist only be
cause -they are created and safeguarded
by our Institutions, and it Is, therefore
our right and our duty to see that they
work in harmony with these institutions.
'necessity of Publicity.
The first essential in determining how to
deal with the great industrial combina
tions is knowledge of facts publicity.
Artificial bodies, such as corporation:
and joint stock or other associations, de
pending upon any statutory law for their
existence or privileges, should be subject
to proper governmental supervision, and
full and accurate Information as to their
operations should be made public regular
ly at reasonaoie intervals.
The large corporations, commonly called
trusts, though organized In one state, al
ways do business in many states, often
doing very little business in the state
where . they are incorporated. There is
litter lack of uniformity in the state law:
about them; and as no state has any ex
clusive interest in. or power -over their
acts, it has in practice proved impossible
to get adequate regulation through state
action.; Therefore, in the' interest of the
whole people, the Nation should, without
interfering with the power of the states
In the matter Itself, also assume power of
supervision and regulation over alt corpo
rations doing an interstate business.
Department of Commerce and Indus,
There should be created a Cabinet of
fleer, to be known as Secretary of Com
merce and Industries, as provided in the
pill introduced at the last session Of the
Congress. It should be him province to
deal with commerce in its broadest sense;
including among many other things what!
ever concerns labor and all matters affect
ing the great business corporations ana
our merchant marine.
With the sole exception of the farming
interest ho one matter is of such vital
moment to our whole people as the wel
fare of the wage-worker. If the farmer
and the wage-worker are well off, it is
absolutely certain that all others will be
well off too. It is. therefore, a matter
-for hearty congratulation that, on the
whole, wages are higher today In the
TTI,A4 Ql.tu Uafnra In Mir
.(-unlet. .aico Lilian . . ...
nlstory and far higher than in any other
country. The standard of living is also
higher than ever before. Every effort of
legislator and administrator should be
bent to secure the permanency of this
condition of things and Its improvement
Not only must our labor be protected
by the tariff, but it should alao be pro
tected, so far as it is possible, from the
presence In this country of any laborers
brought over by contract, 'or of those who.
coming freely, yet represent a standard
living so depressed that they can un
"--;,,,, , tha iah- morUo- nrt
""""' , ", V
drag them to a lower level. I regard It as
necessary with this end In view, to re.
enact immediately the law excluding Chi
nese laborers, and to strengthen it wher
ever necessary In order to make its en
forcement entirely effective.
The most vital problem with which this
country, and for that matter the whole
civilized world, has to deal, is the prob
lem which has for one side the better
ment of social conditions, moral and phy
sical, in large cities, and for another side
the effort to deal with that tangle of far
rfcaciung Question winch we group togetn
er when we sneak of "labor." The chief
factor in the success of each man-wage-
oiiier, farmer and capitalist alike must
ver be the sum total of his own in
dividual dualities and abilities. Second
only to this comes the power of act
ual tn combination or association witn
others. Very great good has been and
'ill be accomplished by associations or
nlons of wage-workers, when managed
with forethought and when they corn-
Ins insistence upon their own rights with
law-abiding respect for the rights of oth
ers. , . . ' V -
Better Immigration Laws Needed.
Our present immigration laws -are un
satisfactory. We need every honest and.
fhcient immigrant- fitted to become an
American citizen, every Immigrant who
comes here to stay, who brings here a
strong body, a stout heaTt. a good head,
and a resolute purpose to do his duty well
n every way. ard tb brine ut his chil
dren as law-abiding and God-fearing
.lumbers of the community, Hut there
3hould be a comprehensive law enacted
with the object of working a three-fold
mprovement over our present system.
trst. we should aim to exclude absolute-
r not only all persons who are known to
be believers In anarchistic principles or
members Of anarchistic societies, but also
all persons who are of a low moral ten
dency or of unsavory reputation. This
means that we should require a more thor
ough system of inspection abroad and
more rigid system of examination at .our
immigration ports, the former being es
The second object of a proper immlgra
tion law ought to be to secure, by a care-
ul and not merely perfunctory educa
tional test, some intelligent capacity to
ppreciate American lnsu tlllions ana act
sanely as American citizens. This would
not keep out all anarchists, for many oi
them belong to the intelligent crimlna
Hut it would do what ,1s also in
point, that is, lend to decrease the sum
of ignorance, so potent in producing the
envy, suspicion, malignant passion ana
atred of order, out of which anarchistic
sentiment Inevitably springs. Finally, all
persons should be excluded who are below
x certain standard of economic fitness to
nter our ' industrial field as competitor
"th American labor
Both the educational and economic tests
m a wise immigration law should be de
signed to protect and elevate the general
body, polilic and social. A very close su
pervision should be exercised over the
steamship coi' panies, which mainly bring
over the immigrants, and they should be
ne.a to a strict accountability for any
infraction of the law."
Tariff Revision Hurtfnl.
There is general acquiescence in our
present tariff system as a National oollev.
The first requisite to our prosperity is the
continuity and stability of this economic
poucy.- XNOtmng couia De more unwise
than to disturb the' business Interests of
the country by any general tariff change
at this time
Reciprocity must be treated as the hand
maiden of protection. Our first duty is
to see that the protection granted by the
tariff In every case where it is needed is
maintained, and that reciprocity be sought
for so far as it can safely be done with
out injury to our home industries.
i asK tne attention oi tne senate to
the reciprocity treaties laid before it by
condition of the Merchant Marine.
The condition of- the American mer
hant marine 13 such as to call for lmme-
iiate remedial action by the Congress. It
is discreditable to us as a Nation that
,iur merchant marine should be utterly
nsienlncant In comparison to that of
other nations which we overtop in other
forms of business. We should not longer
submit to conditions under which only a
mnjne- iwruon oi our great commerce is
?arried In our own ships.
The .act of March 14, 1900, intended un
equivocally, to establish gold as the stand
ird money and to maintain at a parity
therewith all form ot the money ..medium
n use with us, has been shown to be
imely and judicious. The price of our
Government bonds In the world's mar
ket, when compared with the price of
nmuar oDiigatlors issued by other na-
ions, is a flattering tribute to- our public
credit: This- condition it is evidently de
sirable to maintain.
In many respects the National banking
law furnishes sufficient liberty fop the
iroper exercise of the banking function;
but there seems to be need of better
safeguards against the deranging influence
if commercial crises and financial panics.
Moreover, the currency of the country
should be made responsive to "the de
mands of our domestic trade and com
Surplus in the Treasury.
The collections from duties on imports
ind internal taxes continue to exceed the
3rdinary expenditures of the Government,
thanks mainly to the reduced Army ex
penditures. The utmost care should be
taken not to reduce the revenues: so that
there will be any possibility of a deficit;
but, after providing against any such con.
tingency, means should be adopted which
will bring the revenues more nearly with
in the limit of our actual needs. In his
report to the Congress the Secretary of the
Treasury considers all tnese questions at
length, and I ask your attention to the
report and recommendations.
I call especial attention to the need of
strict economy In expenditures. The fact
that our National needs forbid us to be
niggardly in providing whatever is actual
ly necessary to our well-being should
mak'j us doubly careful to husband our
National resources as each of us husbands
his private resources, by scrupulous avoid
ance of anything like 'wasteful or reck
less expenditure. ,
Interstate Commerce Law,
In 1887 a measure was enacted for the
regulation of interstate railways, com
monly known as the interstate commerce
act. The cardinal provisions of that act
were that railway rates should be just and
reasonable, - and that all shippers, local
ities and commodities should be accorded
equal treatment. A commission was cre
ated and endowed with what were sup
posed to be the necessary powers to exe
cute the provisions of this act.
The act should be amended. The rail
way la a public servant. Its rates should
X REVIEW OF PRESIDENTS MESSAGE. I
' Increase the navy.
Exclude the Chinese.
Enforce eight hour laws. .
Build Pacific cable at once.
Build the Nicaragua canal.
Extend and foster reciprocity.
Eulogy of President McKinley.
Keep out uneducated foreigners.
Advises no change in tariff laws.
Government irrigation of arid lands.
Sweeping condemnation of anarchy.
Labor unions are wise and neces-
Remember the nation's soldiers in
J all wars. J
Insist upon merit system in civil
Improve, but not greatly enlarge, 2
ruoiicity in dealing wan combines
J of every form.
Develop new islands on traditional
Abandon treating Indians as tribes.
$ and deal with them as individuals. J
Develop merchant marine and carry
American goods in American vessels.
be just to and open to all shippers al e.
The Government should see to It . that
within its jurisdiction - this is so, and
should provide a speedy, inexpensive and
effective remedy to that end.
Department of Ag-riculture.
The Department of Agriculture, during
the past IS years, has steadily broadened
its work on economic lines, and has ac
complished results of real value In up
building domestic and foreign trade, it
has gone into new fields until it is now in
touch with all sections of our country and
with two of the island groups that have
lately come under our jurisdiction, whose
people must look to agriculture as a live
lihood. It is searching the world for
grains, grasses, fruits and vegetables spe
cially fitted for introduction Into localities
of the several states and territories where
they may add materially to our resources.
Value of the Forests.
Public ODinion throughout the United
States has moved steadily toward a just
appreciation of the value of forests,
whether planted or of natural growth.
The great part played by them in the
creation ana maintenance or tne national
wealth is now mora luuy realized than
The nractlcal usefulness of the National
forest reserves to the mining, grazing, ir
rigation and other Interests of the regions
in wmcn tne reserves lie nas tea to a wide
spread demand by the people of the West
for tneir protection ana extension. ine
forest reserves will inevitably be of still
ereater use In the future than in tne oast.
Additions should be made to them when
ever practicable, and their usefulness
should be increased by a thoroughly bust
Protection of Reserves. -
At present the protection of the forest
reserves rests with the General Land Of
fice, the mapping and description of their
timber with the United States Geological
Survey, and the preparation of plans for
their conservative use with the Bureau
of Forestry, which is also charged with
the general advancement of practical for
estry in the United States. These vari
ous functions should be united in the Bu
reau of Forestry, to which they properly
The wise administration of the forest
reserves will be not less helpful to the
interests which depend on water than to
those which ilenend on wood and grass.
The water supply Itself depends upon the
forest. In the arid region it is water, not
land, which measures production. The
western half of the United States would
sustain a population greater than that
of our whole country today if the waters
that now run to waste were savea ana
used for irrigation. The forest and water
problems are perhaps the most vital inter
nal o.uestlons or trie united states.
certain of tne forest reserves snouia aiso
be made preserves for the wild forest
creatures. All of the reserves should Oe
better protected from fires.
Forests Are Reservoirs..
The forests are natural reservoirs. By
restraining the streams in flood and re-
pienisnmg mem in arougnt tney m&K
possible the use of waters otherwise wast
ed. They prevent the soil from washing.
and so protect the storage reservoirs from
hiung up witn slit. f orest conservation
is,, therefore, an essential condition of
The forests alone cannot, however, fully
regulate and conserve the waters of the
arid region. Great storage works are
necessary to equalize the flow of streams
and to 'save the flood waters. Their con
struction has been conclusively shown to
be an undertaking too vast for private
effort. Nor can it be best accomplished
by the maiviauai states acting alone, if ar
reaching interstate problems are involved
and the resources of single states would
often be Inadequate. It is orooerly a Na
tional function, at least in some of its
The Government should construct and
maintain these reservoirs as It does other
public works. Where their purpose is to
regulate the flow of streams, the water
should be turned freely into the channels
in the dry season, to take the same course
under tne same laws as the natural now.
: Reclaiming Arid Lands.
The reclamation of the unsettled arid
public lands presents a different problem.
Here it is not enough to regulate the flow
of streams. The object of the Government
is to dispose of the land to settlers who
will build homes upon it. To accomplish
.this object water must be brought within
The reclamation and settlement of the
arid lands will enrich every portion of our
country, Just as the settlement of the Onio
and Mississippi Valleys brought prosperity
to the Atlantic States. The Increased de
mand for manufactured articles will stim
ulate industrial production, while wider
home markets and the trade of Asia will
consume the larger food supplies and ef
fectually prevent Western competition
with Eastern agriculture. Indeed, the
products of irrigation will be consumed
chiefly in upbuilding local centers of min
ing and other industries, which would
otherwise not come into existence at all.
Our people as a whole will profit, for suc
cessful home-making is but another name
for the upbuilding of the Nation.
The necessary foundation has already
been laid, for the' inauguration of the pol
icy just described. It would be unwise to
begin by doing too much, for a great
deal will doubtless be learned, both as to
what can and what cannot be safely at
tempted, by the early efforts, which must
of necessity be partly experimental in
character. At the very beginning the Gov
ernment should make clear, beyond shad
ow of doubt, its intention to pursue this
policy on lines of the broadest public in
terest. No reservoir or canal should ever
be built to satisfy selfish personal or lo
cal interests, but only in accordance with
the advice of trained, experts, after long
investigation has shown the locality where
all the conditions combine to make the
work most needed and fraught with the
greatest usefulness to the community as
a whole. There should be no extrava
gance, and the believers In the need of
Irrigation will most benefit their cause by
seeing to it that it is free from the least
taint of excessive or reckless expenditure
of the public moneys.
Kxtenslon of Irrlsjatlon.
Whatever the Nation does for the ex
tension of irrigation should harmonize
with, and tend to improve, the condition
of those now living on Irrigated land. We
are not art the starting point of this devel
opment,Over $200,000,000 of private cap
ital has already been expended in the con-
structlon of irrigation works, and many
million acres of arid land reclaimed. A
high degree of enterprise and ability bas
been shown in the work Itself: but as
much cannot be said in reference to the
laws relating thereto. The security and
vafcie of the homes created depend large
ly on the stability of titles to water: -but
the majority of these rest on the uncer
tain foundation of court decisions ren
dered in ordinary suits at law. With a
few creditable exceptions, the arid states
have failed to provide for the certain and
just division of streams In times of scarc
ity. Lax and uncertain laws have made
It possible to establish rights to water in
excess of actual uses or necessities, and
many streams have already passed into
private ownership, or a control equivalent
Nation's Aid Justified. :
The benefits which have followed the
unaided development of the past Justify
tne Nation s aid and co-operation In the
more difficult and Important work yet to
Be Done to Develop
In Hawaii our aim must . be to develop
the territory on the traditional Ameri
can lines. We do not wish a regioa of
large estates tilled by cheap labor: we
wish a healthy American community of
men who themselves till the farms they
own. All our legislation for the islands
should be shaped with this end In view:
the well-being of the average home-mak
er must afford the true test of the healthy
development of the islands. The land
policy should as nearly as possible be
modeled on our homestead system.
Porto Rico. J
It is a pleasure to say that it is hardly
more necessary to report as to fono
Rico than as to any state or territory
within our continental limits. The: isl
and is thriving as never before, and it is
being administered efficiently and honest
ly. Its people are now enjoying liberty
and order under the protection of the
United States, and upon this fact we con
gratulate them and ourselves.
In Cuba such progress has been made
toward putting the independent govern
ment ot the island upon a firm footing
that before the present session of the Con
gress closes this will be an accomplished
fact. Cuba will then start as her own
mistress: and to the beautiful Queen of
the Antilles, as she unfolds this new page
of her destiny, we extend our heartiest
greetings and good wishes. Elsewhere I
have discussed the question of reciprocity.
In the case of Cuba, however, there are
weighty reasons of morality and of Na
tional interest why . the ; policy should be
held to have a peculiar application, and I
most earnestly ask. your attention to the
wisdom. Indeed to the vital need, offero
vlding for a substantial reduction In the
tariff duties on Cuban imports into the
United States. -
In the Philippines our problem Is larg
er. They are very rich tropical islands.
Inhabited by many varying tribes, repre
senting widely different stages of pro
gress toward civilization. Our earnest
effort Is to help these people upward
along the stony and difficult path that
leads to self-government. We hope to
make our administration of the islands
honorable to our Nation by making it of
the highest beneflt.-to the Filipinos them
selves: and as an earnest of what we In
tend to 46, we point to "What we nave
done. Already a greater measure of ma
terial prosperity and of governmental
honesty and efficiency has been attained
in the Philippines than ever before in
Troubles Still Ahead.
There are stiil troubles ahead in the
islands. The Insurrection has become an
affair of local banditti and marauders,
who deserve no higher regard than the
brigands of portions of the Old world
Encouragement, direct or indirect, to
these insurrectos stands on tne
same footing as encouragement tc
"hostile Indians in. the days when
we still had Indian wars. Ex
actly as our aim Is to give to the Indian
who remains peaceful the fullest and
amplest consideration, but to have it un
derstood that we show no weakness if be
goes on the warpatb, so we must make
it evident, unless we are false to our own
traditions and to the demands or civinza
tlon and humanity, that while we will do
everything in our power for the Filipino
who Is peaceful, we will take the sternest
measures with the Filipino who follows
the path of the insurrecto and the ladrone.
Additional Len-lslatlon Needed.
The time has come when there should
bo additional legislation for the Philip
pines. Nothing better can be done for the
islands than to Introduce industrial enter.
prises. Nothing would benefit them so
much as throwing them open to industrial
dcvelooment. The connection between
Idleness and mischief Is proverbial, and
the opportunity to do remunerative work
is one of. the surest preventives or war.
Of course, no business man will go into
the Philippines unless it is to his interest
to do so; and it is Immensely to tne in
terest of the islands that he should go in
It Is. therefore, necessary that the Con
gress should pass laws by which the re
sources of the islands can be developed
so that franchises (for limited terms of
years) can be granted to companies doing
business in them, and every encourage
ment be given to the incoming of business
men of every kind.
I call your attention most earnestly to
the crying need of a cable to Hawaii and
the Philippines, to be continued from tne
Philippines to points in Asia, we snouia
not defer a day longer than necessary the
construction of such a cable. It is de-
manded'not merely fat commercial, but
for political and military considerations.
Either the Congress should immediately
provide for the construction of a Govern
ment cable, or else ..an arrangement should
be made by which like advantages
those accruing from-, a Government cable
may be secured to - the Government by
contract with a private cable company.
Work of the Greatest Importance to
the American People.
No single great material work which
remains to be undertaken von this conti
nent is of euch consequence to the Amer-
lean peot.le as the building of a canal
across the isthmus connecting North a:
South America. Its importance to
Nation is by no means -limited merely to
Its material effects upon our business
prosperity; and yet with view to these
effects alone it would be to tne last ae.
gree important for us immediately to be
l am glad te be able to announce tt
you that our negotiations on this subject
with Great Britain, conducted on both
sides in a spirit of friendliness and mu
tual good will and respect, have resulted
In my being able to lay before the Senate
a treaty which If ratified wll enable us
to begin preparations for an istnmian can
al at any time, and wblcb guarantees
to this Nation every right that it -has
ever asked in connection witn the canaii
The Monroe Doctrine should be the car-
dlnal feature of the" foreign policy oi
all the nations of the two Americas,
it Is of the United States. Just 78 years
have passed since President Monroe in
his 'annual message announced that "the
American continents are henceforth not
to be considered us subjects for future
colonization by any European power."
other words, the Monroe Doctrine is
declaration that there must be no terri
torial aggrandizement by any non-American
power at the expense of any Ameri
can power on American soil. . It 1( in no
wise intended as hostile to any nation in
the Old World. Still less Is it intendea
to give cover to any aggression
by one New World power at the ex-
vm.1 nM.. ftf th. nnrlH hu H"t n tr
the possibility of permanent peace on thw
' "IIt, .
Work of Upbuilding; It Must
Steadily Continued. -
The work of upbuilding he Navy must
be steadily continued. No one point of our
DOiicy, foreign or domestic, is more im
portant than this to the honor and ma-
rial welfare, and above all to the peace.
of our Nation in the future. Whether
we desire it or not, we must hencefortn
recognize that, we have International du
ties no less than international right.
Kven if our flag were hauled down in the
Philippines and Porto Rico, even if we
decided not to build the Isthmian canal.
we a.iuu.u neeu a uiuioua.i.y tiauicu ..Navy
of adequate size, or else be prepared defin
itely ana for all time to abandon the
idea ' that our Nation is among those
hose sons go down to the sea in ships.
nlefs our commerce is always to be
carried In foreign bottoms, we must have
war craft to protect it.
Should Be No Cessation.
There should bo no cessation in the
work of completing our Nav-v. So far
ingenuity has been wholly unable to de-
v.bb .. suuetitute tor tne great war
crart wnoae hammering guns beat out
tne mastery of the high seas, it is unsafe
and unwise not to provide this year for
several additional battle-ships and heavy
armored cruisers, with auxiliary and
I.ghter craft in proportion; for the exact
numbers and character I refer you to
the report of the Secretary of the Navy.
cut tnere is something we need even more
than additional ships, and this is addi
tional officers and men. To nrovide bat
tle-ships and cruisers and then lay them
up, witn tne expectation of leaving them
unmanned until tney are needed In actual
war, wbuld be worse than folly; it would
oe a crime against the Nauon,
The Naval Militia.
The naval militia forces are ntnte mvan.
lzations. and are trained for cnasl servine
and, in event of war, they will constitute
tne inner une oi aeiense. They should re
ceive hearty encouragement from the
But in addition we should at once pro
vide for a National naval reserve nre-an-
ized and trained under the direction of
the Navy Department, and subject to the
call of the Chief Executive whenever war
becomes imminent. It should be a real
auxiliary to tne naval seagoing peace es-
luuiiauiueiii, sriiu oner material to be
drawn on at once for manning our ships
in time of war. It should be composed
of graduates of the Naval Academy, grad
uates of the naval militia, officers nnrf
crews of coast-line steamers, longshore
schooners, fishing vessels and steam
yacnts, togetner witn tne coast population
about such centers as life-saving stations
Army Is Large Enongrh at' the Pres
It is not necessary to increase nm Armv
beyond its present size at this time. But
It is necessary to keep it at the highest
point of efficiency. The individual units
who as officers and enlisted men compose
this Army, are, we have good reason to
believe, at least as efficient as those of
any other army in the entire world. It
is our duty to see that their training is
of a kind to insure the highest possible
expression ot power to inese units when
acting in combination.
'ine conditions of modern war are mich
as to make an infinitely heavier demand
than ever before upon the individual char
acter and capacity of the officer and the
enlisted man, and to make it far more
difficult for men to act together with ef-
tecL. ai 'preacui tne ngnting must De OOne
in extended order, which means that each
men must act for himself and at the same
time act in combination with others with
wnom ne-is no longer in tne oia-fashionerl
elbow-to-elbow touch. Under such con
ditions a few men of the highest excel
lence are worth more than many men
witiioui tne special saui wnicn is only
.uu.iu -3 icoun ui aimNti ironing ap
plied to men of exceDtional nhvsi
morale. But nowadays the most valuable
fighting man and the most difficult to per
fect Is the rifleman who is also a skillful
and daring rider.
The proportion of our cavalry regiments
has wisely been increased.
A general staff should be rrenferl. Ac
for the present staff and supply depart-
urciiia, tney ajiuuiu oe nuea Dy aetans
from the line, the men so detailed return
ing after a while to their line duties. It
is very undesirable to have the senior
grades of the Army composed of men who
have come to -fill the positions by the
mere fact of seniority. A system should
be adopted bv which there shall he an
elimination, grade by grade, of those who
seem unni to render tne Dest service in
the next grade. Justice to the veterans
of the Civil War who are still in the
Army would seem to reauire that in the
matter of retirements they be given by
law the same privileges accorded to their
comrades in the Navy.
Our Army is so small and so much scat
tered that It is very difficult to give the
higher officers (as well as the lower officers
and the enlisted men) a chance to practice
maneuvers In mass and on a compara
tively large scale. In time of need no
amount of individual excellence would
avail against the paralysis which would
iniiuw inaouity to worK as a conerent
whole, under skillful and daring leader
ship. The Congress should provide means
whereby It will be possible to have field
exercises by at least a division of regu
lars, ana, lr possible, also a division of
National Guardsmen once a year. These
exercises might take the form of field
maneuvers; or, if on the Gulf Coast or the
Pacific or Atlantic seaboard, or in the
region of the Great Lakes, the Army corps
wnen assemoiea snouia oe marcnea irom
some inland point to some point on the
water, there embarked, disembarked after
a couple of - days' journey at some other
point, ana again marcnea inland. Only
by actual handling and providing for men
in masses while they are marching, camp
ing, emouraing ana aisemoarKing, will it
be .possible to train the higher officers to
penorm tneir auties well ana smoothly.
Reorganising the Army.
Much good has already come from the
act reorganizing the Army, passed early
in the present year. The three prime re
forms, ail of tnem of literally inestimable
value, are, first, the substitution of four-
year details from the line for permanent
appointments in the so-called staff divi
sions; second, the establishment of i
corps or artillery with a chief at the
head; third, the establishment of a max
imum and minimum limit for the Army.
It woulu be difficult to overestimate the
improvement in tne cmciency of our Army
which these three reforms are making,
and have in part already effected. ,
- Tolnnteer Forces. .
Action should be taken In reference to
the militia and to' tbe raising of volunteer
forces. Our militia law la obsolete and
worthless. The organization and arma
ment of the National Guard of the several
states, which are treated as militia in tbe
appropriations by the Congress, should be
made identical with those provided for
tne regular forces. The obligations ana
duties of the guard In time of war should
be carefully denned, and a system estab
lished - by law under which the method
of procedure of raising volunteer forces
snouia oe prescrioca in advance, it is ut
terly impossible in the excitement and
Haste of impending war to do this sat
isfactorily if tbe arrangements have not
been made long beforehand. Provision
should be made for utilizing in the first
volunteer organizations called but the
training of thosa. citizens who have al
ready had experience- under arms, ana
especially for the selection in advance of
the officers of any force which may be
raised for careful selection of the kind
necessary Is impossible after the outbreak
Debt Due to the Veterans Who Savea
No other citizens deserve so well ot
the Republic as the veterans, the aur-
- ' . '
wouio. nave meant that all else in our
history went for nothing. But for their
steadfast prowess in the greatest crisis of
our history, all our annals would be mean
ingless, and our great experiment in pop
ular freedom and self-government a
I .recommend the passage of a law
which will extend the classified service
to the District of Columbia, or will at
least enable the President thus to extena
it. In my judgment all laws providing for
tne temporary employment of clerks
should hereafter contain provision that
they be selected under the civil service
It is important to have this system
obtain at home, but it is even more lm
portant to have it applied rigidly in our
Insular possessions. Not an office should
bo filled in the Philippines or Porto Rico
with any regard to tbe man's partisan
affiliations or services, with any regard to
the political, social or personal influence
which he may have at his command; in
short, heed should be paid to absolutely
nothing, save the man's own character
and capacity and the needs of the serv
ice. The merit system Is sln-mly one method
of securing honest and efficient adminis
tration of the Government; and in the
long run the sole Justification of anv tvne
of government lies in Its proving Itself
uoto nonest ana emcient
The consular service is now organized
under the provisions of a law passed In
1S56, which is entirely inadequate to ex
isting conditions. The Interest shown by
so many commercial bodies throughout
the country in the reorganization of the
service Is heartily commended to your at
tention. Several bills providing for a new
consular service have in recent years
been submitted to Congress. They are
based upon the just principle that ap
pointments to the service should be made
only after a practical test of the appli
cant's fitness, that promotions should be
foverned by trustworlhvness, adaptabil
ty and zeal in the performance ot duty,
and that the tenure of office should be
unaffected . by partisan considerations.
Treatment of Indians.
In my judgment the time has arrived
when we should definitely make up our
minds to recognize the Indian as an indi
vidual and not as a member of a tribe.
The general allotment act is a mighty
pulverizing engine to break up the tribal
mass. It acts directly upon the family
and the individual. Under its provisions
some 60,000 Indians have already become
citizens of the United States. We should
now break up tho tribal funds, doing for
them what allotment does for the tribal
lands that is, they should be divided into
Individual holdings. There will be a tran
sition period during which tbe funds will
in many cases have to be held in trust.
This is the case, also, with the lands. A
stop should be put upon the indiscrim
inate permission of Indians to lease their
allotments. The effort should be stead
ily to make the Indian work like any oth
er man on his own ground. The mar
riage laws of the Indians should be made
tne same as tnose oi tne wmtes.
- St. Louis Exposition.
I bespeak the most cordial sup
port from the Congress and the
people for the St. Louis Exposi
tion to commemorate the 100th an
niversary of the Louisiana Purchase. -
The people of Charleston, with great
energy and civic spirit, are carrying on
an exposition which will continue
throughout the most of the present ses
sion of Congress. I heartily commend
this exposition to the good-will of the
Library of Congress. '
Perhaps the most characteristic educa
tional movement of the past 60 years is
that which has created the modern pub.
He library and developed it into broad and
active service. There are now over 6000
public libraries in the United States, the
product of this period. In addition to ac
cumulating material, they are also striv
ing by organization, by Improvement in
method, and by co-operation, to give
greater efficiency to the material they
hold, to makte it more widely useful, and
by avoidance of unnecessary duplication
in process to reduce the cost of its ad
ministration. In these efforts they naturally look for
assistance to tne r eaeral library, wmcn.
though, still the Library of Congress, and
so entitled. the one National library of
the United States.
Permanent Census B-arenn.
For the sake of good administration.
sound economy and the advancement of
science, the Census Office, as now consti
tuted, should be made a permanent Gov
ernment bureau. This would insure bet
ter, cheaper and more satisfactory work,
in the interest not only of our business.
but of statistic, economic and social bci
ence. ' ' .
The Postal Service.
,' The remarkable growth of the postal
service la shown In the fact that its reve
nues have -doubled and its expenditures
have nearly doubled within 12 years. Its
progressive development compels con
stantly increasing outlay, but in this pe
riod of business energy and prosperity its
receipts grow so much faster than its ex
penses that the annual deficit has been
steadily reduced from $11,411,779 in 1897 to
$3,923,727 in 1901. Among recent postal ad
vances the success of rural free delivery
wherever established has been so marked,
and actual experience has made its bene
fits so plain, that the demand for its ex
tension is general and urgent.
It is just that the. great agricultural
population should share In the improve
ment of tbe service. The number of rural
routes now in operation is 6009, practically
all established within three years, and
there are fiwv applications awaiting action.
It is expected that the number in opera
tion at the close of the current fiscal year
will reach 8600. The mall will then be
dally carried to the doors of 6,700,000 of our
people who have heretofore been depend
ent upon distant offices, and one-third of
all that portion of the country which is
adapted to it will be covered by this kind
Owing to the rapid growth ot our power
and our interests on the Pacific, whatever
happens in China must be of the keenest
National concern to us.
The general terms of the settlement of
the questions growing out of the anti-
foreign uprisings In China of 1900. having
been formulated in a joint note addressed
to China by the representatives of the
Injured powers in December last, were
promptly accepted by the Chinese Gov
ernment. After protracted conferences
the plenipotentiaries of the several powers
were able to sign a final protocol with
the Chinese plenipotentiaries on the 7th
of last September, setting forth the meas
ures taken by China in compliance with
tne demands of the joint note, and ex-
pressing their satisfaction therewith. It
will be laid before the Congress, with a
report of the plenipotentiary on behalf of
the United States. Mr. William Woodville
Rockhlll, to whom high praise la due for
trva tact good judgment and energy be
Das displayed in performing an exception
ally difficult and delicate task.
The agreement reached disposes in
manner satisfactory to the powers ot the
various grounds of complaint, and will
contribute materially to better future re
lations between China and the powers,
Under the1 provisions of the Joint note
of December, . 1900,. China has agreed to
revise the treaties of commerce and navi
gation and to take such other steps foi
the purpose of facilitating foreign trade
as the foreign powers may decide to be
White House, December I. 1ML
NEWS OF THE STATE
TEMS OF INTEREST FROM ALL
PARTS.. OF OREGON.
Commercial and Financial rUppcningi of Im
portance A Brief Review of the Growth
and Improvement! of the Many Industries
Throughout Our Thriving Com motrw tilth
Latest Market Report
Two hold-ups occurred recently in
Socialists in Salem have organized
for the purpose of taking part in the
coming state campaign.
The old placer diggings, 40 miles
west of La Grande, are being worked
for quartz with good results.
A 10 stamp mill and other new
machinery is to be installed in the
Copper Stain mine, near Grants Pass.
The Grand Ronde Lumber Co.,
with mills at Perry, is constructing a
$10,000 dam for floating logs in the
Grand Ronde river.
The Malheur Gold Mining Com
pany, with mines in Malheur county,
has commenced extensive improve
ments upon its property.
The Western Oregon Poultry and
Stock association has been organized
MCAlinnviIle to encouarge the
breeding of blooded poultry and
The Tip Top mine, in the Williams
district, Southern Oregon, has been
sold to San Francisco capitalists.
Consideration has not been made
The Granite Hill group of mines in
Josephine county have been sold for
A pool of 3,500 bales of hops has
been formed in Salem for shipment
The annual convention of the East
ern Oregon school teachers has proven
a very profitable one.
The Lewis and Clark exposition
fund, being raised in Portland, - is
nearly to the $300,000 mark.
The O. K. & N. is building a spur a
half mile long at Pendleton in order
to connect with the flouring mill.
The primary law governing elec
tions in Portland, enacted by the
last legislature has been declared valid.
A. G. Marshall, an Oregon pio
neer of 1852, died at bis home at
Knox's Butte, Linn county, aged 69
Thanksgiving football games were
played in various parts of the state by
the elevens of nearly every "school
A man in Baker City who was com
manded to hold up his hands, grabbed
the gun. He saved his money and
life, but lost two hngers.
The circuit court has decided that
the bond of G. W. Davis, former
school land clerk, who was short $30,
000 in his accounts, is invalid, hav
ing been outlawed.
A company has been formed in
Salem for the purpose of i operating a
system of automobiles in that city. -
It is expected to have the machines
in operation early in the spring.
Wheat Walla Walla, 5960:
bluestem, 6061c; Valley, 69 c.
Flour Best grades, $2.65(83.20
per barrel ; graham, $2.50.
Oats Nominal 95$1.00 pr cental.
Barley Feed, $1616.50: brewing.
$1616.50 per ton.
Millstuffs Bran, $16.50(817: mid
dling, $20; shorts, $17; chop, $16.50.
Hay Timothy. $11(312: clover.
$77.50; Oregon wild hay, $56 per
Butter Fancy creamery,22 Jffl25c :"
dairy, 1820c; .store, 12K14c per
Eggs Storage. 2022-; fresh. 27
28c, Eastern 2225c.
Cheese Full cream, twins. 13
13)c; Young America, 14 15c.
Poultry Chickens, mixed. $2:50(3
3.50; hens, $4.00; dressed, 910c
per pound; springs, $2.50(8 3.00,
per dozen ; ducks, $3 for old; $4.50
5.50 for young ; geese, $66.50 pr doz
en; turkeys, live, ll12c: dressed.
12 15c per pound.
Mutton Lambs, 3 c gross; dressed
6c per pound; sheep, $3.253.50
gross; dressed, 66c per pound.
jaogs Gross, neavy, XO.IZW: lieht.
$4.755 ; dressed, 67c per pound.
veal small, 8oc:laree,7ffl7c
Beef Gross top steers, $3.50400f;
cows and heifers, $3.50; dressed
beef, 37c per pound.
Hops 810c per pound.
Wool Valley,ll14o per pound;
Eastern Oregon, 812Jc; mohair,
2121Kc per pound.
Potatoes 8595 per sack.
.The distress caused in the eastern
provinces of Russia by the failure of
the crops is so severe that the authori
ties have forbidden the newspapers to
publish any save official information.
The production of anthracite coal
this year in Pennsylvania is greater
than in any previous year.
A young society woman who lost a
bet on Shamrock II rode for an hour
in Broadway, New York, attired as a
Colorado is now boasting of being
the "Switzerland of America." The
railroads report thut-thpv tonk an nnn
tourists into that state during the past