Image provided by: The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs; Warm Springs, OR
About Spilyay tymoo. (Warm Springs, Or.) 1976-current | View Entire Issue (April 21, 1989)
Warm Springs, Oregon
April 21, 1989 PagE7
Grazing livestock in public and
private forest plantations can save
thousands of dollars in weed and
grass control costs.
Weed and grass conrol in re
planted forest areas is a major con
cern to forest managers because
competition for water and soil nut
rients can kill or severely stunt
young conifer seedlings, delaying
the establishment of the timber
Since it takes 60 years or more
for a timber stand to reach matur
ity, forest managers are anxious to
get a new plantation off to as
smooth a start as possible, which
usually means a weed and grass
control program for at least 10
years or more.
According to a study in the Sius
law National Foreest, controlling
weeds manually cost S 1 1 5 per acre,
while using herbicide sprays costs
S 1 10 to S 1 43 per acre depending on
the herbicide used.
The third alternative is grazing
livestock, sheep or cattle, in new
Asparagus is an exotic vegetable
of the lily family enjoyed for its
delicacy of flavor and nutritive
values from ancient times. Known
to have been cultivated before 600
B.C., asparagus was propagated by
the Greeks, introduced by the
Romans to the Gauls, the Germans
and Britains. Asparagus was popu
lar in classical times as a vegetable
(a potherb) and as having medici
nal values in fact, asparagus was
probably a medicine long before it
was a food. The second-century
Greek physician Galen described
asparagus as "cleaning, desiccative
and healing." Galen's teachings were
law in the Western world for 1,300
years and claims for medicinal bene
fits of asparagus persist to this day.
Nutritionists know asparagus is
Check forfood freshness, quality
Check your canned goods shelf
and freezer after you've finished
the spring once-over of your house.
Canned foods should be kept in
a cool, dark place and kept clean
and dry. Use within one year for
optimum flavor and nutrition.
Avoid storage near the furnace,
water heaters and upper kitchen
As long as the seal is not broken
or cans rusted through, the food
should be safe to eat longer than a
year's storage; however, the nu
trition, flavor and texture will
v decrease with each year the food is
Frozen foods should always be
save you $$
If your recipe calls for boneless
breast of chicken, you can save
money by buying whole fryers and
cutting them up into parts. Bone
and skin the breasts and save the
other parts for another recipe. If
you buy just the whole breast sec
tions, then bone and skin them,
you'll end up paying more per
pound for the cutlets than if you
had bought them skinned and boned
in the first place.
Buy the whole chicken and cut it
Stock your freezer when chicken
is on sale, but remember, whole
poultry keeps its quality consider
able longer than parts or cooked
poultry. Whole frozen chickens last
up to one year while fozen parts
last nine months. Cooked poultry
will only keep for a month.
Learn to use the whole chicken.
Wings, back and neck have little
meat but they make excellent broth.
Cook the broth and freeze it in
small containers. Use it in recipes
and for lunches. Frozen broth will
hold its quality for about a month.
Check around for best prices
Finding low cost materials and
supplies for your home sewing bus
iness can be frustrating. Some
wholesalers may not want to deal
with you if your business seems too
But dont give up. There are sev
eral things to try.
First, sewing publications list
supply catalogs that can be very
helpful for people with fairly small
Local retailers may give you a
discount for large purchases or
may direct you to wholesalers
Also, the Thomas Register, a
directory of manufacturers, is avail
able in many libraries. It lists sour
ce' of all kinds of products.
Manufacturers usually only want
large orders, but you can call them
to get a list of local wholesalers
who carry their product. This can
plantations. Done right, it can
benefit both the forest and the
livestock at a cost of S10 per acre or
less, and in some cases, the grazing
may earn income for the forest
This isn't a new idea, but a lot of
the research on grazing cattle in
forests has emphasized the nutri
tional needs of the livestock rather
than the needs of trees for relief
from weed competition.
An OSU study concentrates on
the trees. Called the "Cattle Graz
ing in Managed Forests" project, it
began in 1962 uder the leadership
of Don llcdrick, Kruegerand Marty
The project is designed to take a
thorough look at the effect of graz
ing livestock in new forest planta
tions in both Eastern and Western
Oregon over a period of several
We've learned that management
is a key to success. The numbers of
cattle per acre in forest grazing
tasty, nutritious vegetable
an excellent source of vitamins A
and C and for the minerals potas
sium and phosphorus. A delectable
vegetable of diuretic nature, it is
very low in calories, averaging less
than four calories per spear. A cup
of cooked green asparagus has 1 ,940
units of vitamin A and 4.6 milli
grams of iron, a mineral very diffi
cult to amass without taking diet
ary supplements. It is one of the
richest sources of rutin, a drug
whose chief value is strengthening
the walls of capillaries.
For the best quality, select
straight, green stalks with closed,
compact tips. Look for spears of
uniform size, so all stalks will cook
in the same amount of time. Thin,
medium and thicker spears are
equally tender and flavorful.
stored at 0 degree F. or lower and
stored in moisture-and vapor-proof
wrap. Improperly wrapped foods
will get freezer burn. You can lose
as much quality in three months at
IS degrees F. as in one year at 0.
Meat, poultry, fruits and vege
tables can be stored up to one year.
Ground and cured meats, cooked
meats, fish and breads should be
used in three to six months for
Growing vegetables at
Don't let lack of yard space ruin
Your vegetable garden plans. With
the help of a few containers, you
can turn a patio, porch, balcony or
windowsill into a small but pro
Unfortunately, where garden
space is limited, vegetable selection
is also somewhat limited. For
instance, growing corn on a bal
cony may not be practical. On the
other hand, tomatoes, peppers, egg
plant, carrots, beans, squash, rad
ishes, watermelon, chard and spin
ach are all good container garden
Use dwarf and minature varie
ties where available and if they are
adapted to local growing condtions.
Put vine crops in hanging baskets
or train them vertically on stakes
The amount of sunlight should
Prepare your children for self-care
Self-care children, those child
ren caring for themselves on a regu
lar basis, need to be prepared to
stay alone. They need to know how
to react when they are: locked out,
afraid, bored, lonely or having argu-
be time-consuming, but it wil pay
off in lower costs for supplies to
produce your product.
Wok demonstration and taste testing
Wednesday, April 26
7 to 8:30 p.m.
4-H Center (Old Boys Dorm)
$2.00 per person
Thirty people maximum, first comefirst
served. Please sign up at the Extension
Office. Pay $2 fee when signing up.
be beneficial to many
areas and the timing of the grazing
are important factors.
In a portion of the study con
ducted on Hall Ranch acreage at
the Eastern Oregon Agricultural
Research Center, cattle were grazed
on five-acre plots at the rate of 1.3
animals per acre in reforested areas
Elanted with ponderosa pine,
ouglas fir, western larch and west
ern white pine.
Those trees were planted 23 years
ago. Observations since then indi
cate conifer growth is significantly
greater in plots grazed by cattle
compared to plots where cattle
And the grazing was beneficial
Plan for "Summer Fun"
Spring has sprung! The grass has
risen. You'd be surprised how much
fun summer is in Jefferson County
especially if you are involved in
"Summer Fun 1989."
To keep its freshness longer,
refrigerate asparagus upright in two
inches of cold water. Cover loosely.
Wash and snap off stem ends at
the point where they break easily.
Save for soups.
Steam spears upright with tips
extending out of water for five to
eight minutes, until tender. Add
spears to boiling water, and simmer
gently for three to five minutes.
Place asparagus in non-metallic
baking dish and V cup water, cover
tightly and microwave on high two
to three minutes turning once dur
Cut spears diagonally into one
to two inch pieces; add" to small
amount of butter or oil over
medium-high heat. Stir-fry for three
to five mintues, stirring occasion
ally. Soil from food, perspiration and
other oganic matter attracts moths.
The larvae feed on the soil and, in
the process, eat some of the fibers
in the cloth, leaving holes in your
garment. This happens not only on
wool garments but also on synthe
tics. To protect clothes against moth
damage, use paradichlorobenzene
or naphthalene also known as
moth balls or flakes. Or store clean
clothese in a sealed container.
determine the choice of crops. Root
crops and leaf crops (beets, tur
nips, lettuce, cabbage, mustard
greens) can tolerate light shade.
But vegetables grown for their fruits
must have at least six hours of
direct sunlight each day.
The container can be a bushel
basket, metal drum, gallon can,
plastic tub, wooden box, flower
pot or cut-off bleach jug.
The size of the container will
vary according to the crop selec
tion and the space available. Six
to 1 0-inch pots are good for green onions,
parsley and herbs. For plants with
larger root systems, such as toma
toes, peppers and eggplant, five
gallon containers are best.
No matter what type of con
tainer is used, adequate drainage is
a must. Place an inch of coarse
gravel in the bottom of the con
ments with their brothers and sis
ters. Parents have to be clear and firm
about having friends in, cooking
and use of kitchen equipment,
snacks and meals, talking on the
phone and duties to be completed
while home alone.
Self-care chilldren need to know:
Good telephone skills, includ
ing where to find emergency num
bers; what to say in an emergency;
how to respond when someone
calls; when to call for help and
for the cattle too. Yearling heifers
Jut on the Hall Ranch forest acreage
0 days of the year had weight gain
ranging from SO to 80 pounds for
the one-month period.
The Hall Ranch research also
looked into tree seedling damage
caused by livestock grazing, or
browsing, on tress as well as grasses
Observations taken over a period
of several years show no increase in
tree seedling mortality in planta
tions where there are cattle graz
ing. Some seedlings die in all refo
restation areas, but we haven't
found livestock grazing to cause
more seedling mortality.
Summer hun is a program de
signed to provide quality youth
activities for the kindergarten
through high school age youth of
Jefferson County during the sum
mer months. Summer Fun is a
coordinated effort between the OSU
Extension Service and the cities of
Madras, Culver, Metolius, the
Juvenile Commission and private
The program will begin Mon
day, June 19 this summer and con
tinue through August 18. The many
activities will be compiled into a
"Summer Fun" catalog which will
be delivered to the schools in May.
There will be a S5 registration fee
per child for the first five activities
and an additional S.S0 charge per
activity above the first five. This
one-time charge covers insurance,
newletters, and other costs. Addi
tional money may be charged for
particular activities. Scholarships
will be available.
The catalog will also include a
registration form and an Oregon
4-H health card. In order to sign up
for "Summer Fun," the individual
registration form and health card
will need to be filled out and mailed,
along with the registration fee, to
OSU Extension Service, 530 D
Street, Madras, Oregon 9774 1 . You
may also stop by the Extension
office located in the Old Court
house building in Madras between
8 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through
Keep your eyes open for the
"Summer Fun" catalog and start
now to schedule a summer full of
new experiences, opportunities and
If you have any questions, con
tact Kathy Burke, Summer Fun
Coordinator at 475-3808.
home in small pots, plots and lots
tainer and drill drain holes along
the side about one-half inch from
Vegetables can be grown from
seed, or they can be set in the con
tainers as transplants.
Use a packaged potting soil or
composted soil available at local gar
den centers. These soils make for
excellent container gardening be
cause they are light-weight, sterile
and drain well. A mixture contain
ing one part each of perlite or peat
moss, sterile garden soil and sand
can be made at home.
Plant vegetable seeds according
to the instructions on the seed
package. After planting, soak the
soil with water, taking care not to
wash out the seeds.
Vegetables grown in containers
need to be fertilized regularly be
cause the nutrients will leach out of
when to handle the situation them
selves. Good personal safety skills,
including how to answer the door
when alone; how to lock and unlock
doors and windows; what to do if
approached by a stranger on the
way home; what to do if they think
someone is in the house, and how
to give basic first-aid.
It's important that parents talk
with their children about their fam
ily's ground rules and the skills
needed for self-care.
Knowing these things will give
new self-care chldren confidence in
themselves and assure them of your
Fourth through sixth graders
are urged to contact the Extension
Office if interested in attending
Round Lake 4-H Camp June 24
Any students in the ninth grade
or above who are interested in
being a camp counselor this summer
are encouraged to attend camp
counselor training May 19 and 20
and June 8. Applications for train
ing are due May S.
Information on this page provided by the
by tho Warm Springs Office
of the Oregon State University
Phone: 553-1161, ext. 238 or 239
Nothing quite pleases a toddler
like being able to eat grown-up
food. And parents take equal delight
in their child's accomplishment.
Conquering solid foods, however,
takes practice. Until they have all
their teeth and are able to chew
their food well, children are inclined
to swallow certain foods whole.
That can cause choking, which is
especially dangerous because of a
child's narrow airway and under
developed ability to cough up ob
structing foods. If you are caring
for a child under five, the following
steps may help prevent choking.
Avoid giving young children
hot dogs, hard candies, grapes and
nuts. A study at Johns Hopkins
School of Hygiene and Public
Health blamed these four foods for
more than 40 percent of all child
hood food-choking deaths.
Encourage vigorous chew
ingprobably the best way is to
demonstrate it from time to time.
How to prevent wrinkles
in your home laundry
Preventing wrinkles from setting
in your clothes takes a little work,
but it is a manageable task.
In the washer
Never use less than the medium
water level when washing perman
ent press. Clothes must have room
to circulate freely in the washbasket.
Avoid overloading. Permanent
press loads should be smaller than
Use the permanent press cycle,
especially if washing clothes in hot
water. This cycle automatically pro
vides a cool-down rinse to mini
Avoid laundering heavy perma
nent press articles such as work
clothes and heavy pants or jackets
with lighter permanent press arti
cles such as shirts or blouses.
Proper use of fabric softeners
will help minimize wrinkling.
In the dryer
Always use the permanent press
the soil more quickly than from
regular garden soil. A soluble, all
purpose fertilizer mixed in water is
the easiest type to use with con
This type of fertilizer should be
appied every third day. Dry fertil
izers sprinkled on top of the soil
should be applied every three weeks.
Proper watering is also essential.
The soil in containers can dry out
quickly and daily watering is not
unusual. Water when the soil feels
Last year a warning was issued
regarding the Wade'Rain Model
70 mover unit. This is once again a
reminder do not operate the
1 15 oz. can kidney beans
1 15 oz. can garbanzo beans
lA clove garlic, minced
1 onion, chopped
1 cup tomato sauce
'$ cup whole tomatoes
lA tsp. each of oregano, thyme,
cumin and basil
1 tsp. chili powder
Place all ingredients in large pan
Hearty Corn Bread
2 cups cornmeal
'A cup whole wheat flour
xh tsp. baking soda
I tsp. baking powder
1 Tbsp. brown sugar
2 egg whites
2 Tbsp. oil
2 cups skim milk or buttermilk
Stir together dry ingredients. In
small bowl, stir together egg whites,
oil and milk. Combine all ingre
dients and stir only until just mixed.
Pour into a lightly oiled 8"x8" pan.
Bake at 425 degrees for 20 to 25
For moister bread add xh cup
more milk or I cup grated carrots,
whole kernel corn or applesauce.
Monitor all eating sessions.
For kids under three, cut up
solid foods in small pieces and
serve them in small quantities.
Don't allow kids to eat while
talking, running or jumping. And
no one at any age should eat or
drink while lying down.
Don't let kids toss foods into
their mouths or pour small candies
from the package into their up
Any tribal member needing to
register a brand for inclusion in the
1989 edition should come into the
Natural Resources department.
Range and Agriculture office to fill
out a registration form. All new
brands should be in by May 31,
1989. Brand book will be available
Use the proper temperature and
dryness setting. Do not overdry.
Be sure to remove clothes from
the dryer immediately when the
Dry only a single washer load;
do not combine loads for drying.
If only one or two article are
being dried, add a few similar arti
cles, even though they are dry, to
ensure proper tumbling.
If an article has heat-set wrinkles
from laundering, it should be ironed
to restore a smooth surface. If you
follow all these suggestions and
wrinkling still occurs, the perma
nent press finish on the garment
has deteriorated due to normal
'wear and laundering. In this case
; there is little you can do and iron
ing will be necessary. Some fabrics,
even though they are made of no
iron fibers, may require some
touch-up ironing. This is especially
true if the fabric is woven rather
dry. Continue adding water untl it
runs out the drain holes, but don't
let the soil become soggy or have
water standing on top of it.
Plants may need protection from
extreme heat caused by light reflec
tion from pavement or walls. This
is especially true with white platic
and metal containers. Simply move
them to a cooler spot during the
hottest part of the day.
Plants also may need shelter dur
ing severe rains or wind storms.
Model 70 mover unit without the
yellow safety cover closed and in
place. Failure to keep the yellow
safety cover closed when operating
the unit can result in serious per
sonal injury. If the yellow safety
cover is damaged or missing, do
not operate the unit until a new one
In addition, during the past sev
eral years, Wade'Rain personnel
have been installing, at no charge,
additional secondary guards under
neath the yellow safety cover on all
mover untis which have been lo
cated. If the guards have not been
installed on your units, call
(503)692-5353 immediately. The
company will have someone install
a guard as soon as possible at no
charge to you.
However, it is important to
remember that the additional guard
is not a substitute for the yellow
safety cover and does not change
the requirement that the over unit
is to be operated with the yellow
safety cover closed and in place.
If you have sold your Model 70
mover units, please advise the com
pany of the name and address of
the person who purchased your
units. Contact Wade MFG Co.,
10025 S.W. Allen Blvd., Beaver
ton, OR 97005.
If you can't be a highway, then
just be a trail;
If you can't be the sun, be a
It isn't by size that you win or
Be the best at whatever you