Image provided by: The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs; Warm Springs, OR
About Spilyay tymoo. (Warm Springs, Or.) 1976-current | View Entire Issue (June 19, 1987)
Warm Springs, Oregon
Junel9,i987 PAGE 5
Organic gardeners face
Organic gardeners must deal with
many limits on the types of mate
rials they will use in the garden.
Fertilizer is a good example.
Since synthetic materials are out,
sources of plant nutrients for the
organic garden are compost, manure
and some commercial organic ferti
lizer. All gardeners should use com
post and manure as much as possi
ble. The use of organic matter in
garden soil improves its water
holding capacity and its ability to
Use a packaged potting soil or
composted soil available at local
garden centers. These soils make
Garden weed wars
are on the rise
For home gardeners, the spring
and summer weed wars are just
now beginning in earnest.
Weeds are a serious threat to
vegetable gardens and unless gar
deners wage a constant campaign
to eliminate them they will com
pete with and eventually destroy
garden vegetable plants.
Don't depend on chemical sprays
to control weeds. The use of herbi
cides on such a small scale isn't
There aren't any all-purpose her
bicides available for use on the
many different kinds of weeds that
grow in gardens.
You may find a chemical that
will control some of the weeds but
if it's good at killing weeds it will
probably be effective on vegetable
plants as well.
The most efficient way to des
troy weeds is through use of a hoe.
Shallow cultivation is recommended
in the garden, especially when the
garden plants are young. Try to cut
Weight loss combines
Before choosing a weight con
trol program consider how other
dieters rate different methods of
losing weight and maintaining that
In a recent survey a wide range
of individuals were asked their opi
nions on the most successful method .
of achieving wejght Joss, Thirteen
percent of the men and women
surveyed preferred calorie restric
tion only, while four percent pre
ferred exercise only.
The majority of those surveyed,
58 percent, said calorie restriction
plus exercise was the most success
ful method, notes Margaret Lewis,
Oregon State University Extension
nutriton specialist. None of those
surveyed said that formula diets or
pills were the most successful.
Results were similar when sur
vey group members were asked
what method they believed most
Communicate openly with aging parents
Adults often find an aged parent
needs support at a time when their
own lives and responsibilities are
the most complicated. If you are in
your 30s, 40s or 50s you may feel
pulled in several directions raising
your children, being supportive to
a spouse, helping aged parents and
or working all at the same time.
It's not unusual to wonder "Why
me?" or to ask yourself, "What
about my life?"
You may be adjusting to your
own age-related changes retire
ment, reduced income, widowhood,
or decreased health and may not
be able to provide the assistance
your parent needs.
It is essential to communicate
openly. Open, honest communica
tion helps build and maintain effec
tive relationships. Often times, family
members are not honest or direct
How to make delicious
There's nothing quite like pull
ing homemade jam from the freezer
in the dead of winter. And, it's sim
ple to make lower-caloried jams.
To prepare fruit for jam, sort
and wash fully ripe fruit. Remove
Now that the sun is finally begin
ning to shine again, do your win
dows look like they belong out in
the barnyard? Jean Carlson, Ska
mania County Extension Agent,
had the best idea in her latest
Fill pail one-half full of warm
water. Add: 2-3 tablespoons laundry
or dishwasher detergent; I tables
poon liquid dishwasher wetting
Brush or sponge on window.
Immediately hose off. Water will
sheet off, no drying necessary. Cau
tion: Be sure windows are tightly
closed. Use only on outside of
for excellent container gardening
because they are light-weight, ste
rile and drain well. A mixture con
taining one part each of perlite or
peat moss, sterile garden soil and
sand can be made at home.
Plant vegetable seeds according
to the instructions on the seed
package. After planting, soak the
soil with water, taking care not to
wash out the seeds.
Vegetables grown in containers
need fertilizer application regularly
because the soil will leach the nut
rients out more quickly than regu
lar garden soil. A soluble, all-purpose
fertilizer that can be mixed before-
the weeds olt just below ground
level with the hoc.
Perennial weeds such as morn
ing glory and quackgrass should be
removed every week. A light scrap
ing action with a hoe works best.
If a rototiller is used to remove
weeds, keep the blades as near the
surface of the soil as possible to
avoid damaging the root systems
of the garden crops.
To keep the garden clear of
weeds, cultivate regularly and prefer
ably by hand.
Bonding between babies, parents
A remarkable relationship is de
veloped between parents and in
fants during the early months of
life. No one is exactly sure about
the mysteries of bonding, but in the
hours after birth, mothers, fathers
and newborns start falling madly
in love with one another. Some
hospitals place newborns in moth-
successful in maintaining weight
loss. This study and others indi
cates that the help of a support
group increases the probability that
the weight loss will be maintained.
The best weight control program
is one that includes several compo-
jnents.Jh.es.e include moderate calo- :j,
rie restriction, increased exercise,
and weight loss goal of one to two
pounds per week. Also, access to
information on behavior change
and someone to give you support
in your efforts will increase your
chances for success.
To be successful the goals of a
weight control program should be
realistic for you. Don't expect to
"diet away pounds"and then return
to yotfr regular behavior patterns
and stay at the lower weight. The
name of the diet game is change, a
permanent change in the way you
eat and exercise.
enough with each other. Adult sons
daughters dont always tell the truth;
sometimes they say only what they
think their parents want to hear or
what they think won't upset their
parents. This tends to create mis
trust and wastes energy as family
members "walk on ice" with each
"I" messages promote commun
ication. With "I" messages, the
individual speaks from personal
feelings and identifies both the spe
cific behavior or situation or con
cern and its effect on him or her.
An example of an "I" message is,
"Mom, because of your recent fall,
I'm concerned about your safety
living in this house alone; I'm afraid
you'll fall again and not be found
for several hours or even days."
Mother is much more likely to be
willingly to discuss the situation if
stems, caps and pits. Peel fruits
such as peaches and apricots.
Jams contain fruit pulp, or pie
ces, which tend to stick to the kettle
during cooking. Stir constantly to
The cooking time for the pectin
recipes is one minute at a full boil.
The full boil is reached when bub
bles form over the entire surface of
Jams can be made without pec
tin by the long-boil method. In
place of sugar, you can substitute
artificial sweetener. Use two table
spoons liquid sweetener for each
cup of sugar.
Cook the crushed fruit with the
liquid sweetener until the product
has thickened slightly. The jam will
thicken more upon cooling, but
these jams will be thinner than
jams made with sugar.
Sugarless Peach Jam with Pectin
(Makes one pint)
4 cups peeled peaches
3 to 4 teaspoons liquid artificial
1 tablespoon unsweetened lemon
'i teaspoon ascorbic acid
special growing needs
hand in water is the easiest type to
use with container plants.
This type of fertilizer should be
applied every second or third day.
Dry fertilizers sprinkled on top of
the soil offer an alternative. If they
are used, they should be applied
every three weeks.
Proper watering is also essential.
The soil in containers can dry out
quickly, especially on a concrete
patio in full sun. Daily watering is
Water when the soil feels dry and
continue watering until the water
runs out the drain holes. However,
do not let the soil become soggy
and avoid leaving water standing
on top of the soil.
Plants may need protection from
extreme heat caused by light reflec
tion from pavement or walls. This
is especially true with white plastic
and metal containers. Simply move
containers exposed to extreme heat
to a cooler spot during the hottest
Don't forget the "commons"
Don't forget soda, vinegar and
A tablespoon of baking soda to a
quart of warm water is great for
cleaning the inside of refrigerators
and freezers, vacuum bottles and
corks, coffee makers that are not
made of aluminum and glass cook
ware with burned-on food.
er's arms, next to her skin, breasts,
and the sound of her beating heart.
Fathers hold and caress their new
born. All these things only enhance
Although baby's attachment to
parents does not instantly occur,
observers report some infants show
preferences for parents voices as
early as the third day. It is believed
that the soothing effects of han
dling, feeding and care of baby
promotes attachment to them.
Attachment is a special relation
ship between a child and adult that
endures through time. They need a
continuously responsive adult who
meets their need for positive inter
actions and responds to distresses
of hunger and discomfort. Infants
need to be constantly reassured
that the world is a Rood place in
Thin vegetable plants
Garden vegetables need room to
grow. The gardener must provide
this living space by thinning the
Many gardeners plant too much
seed and then become so proud of
how their garden is growing that
they don't thin out the plantings
Rows of plantings that are
crowded, with individual plants
too close together, will yield stunted,
poorly developed vegetables, or no
you communicate feelings directly
instead of with a "You" message
(You must move, mom; this home
just isn't safe for you.")
Adequately expressing your
thoughts and feelings to another
person is only a part of effective
communication. You also need to
actively list and emphasize sense
and understand the feelings and
emotional needs of another. The
worst thing to say to a person is
"You shouldn't feel. . ."or "There's
no reason for you to feel. .
If you listen actively, the person
to whom you are listening feels
your care and concern. When older
parents experience changes and
losses, they may experience many
feelings fear, anger, grief, helpless
ness and frustration. Having an
adult son or daughter who is wil
ling to listen and understand such
1 -ounce package powdered fruit
Crush peaches in saucepan. Stir
in sweetener, fruit pectin, lemon
juice and ascorbic acid. Bring to a
boil; boil one minute. Remove from
heat. Continue to stir two minutes.
Pour into freezer containers, leav
ing '5-inch head space. Cover. Store
in freezer or refrigerator.
One tablespoon equals 10 calor
ies. Hoe, hoe, hoe
As garden vegetable plants begin
to grow, dont forget to use your
hoe on the weeds.
It's worth repeating that one of
the most important garden chores
at this time of the growing season is
the removal of weeds that compete
with vegetable plants in the home
And. dont forget that the hoe is
the preferred instrument for get
ting rid of garden wteds.
Using chemical sprays to elimi
part of the day.
Plants also may need to be shel
tered during severe rain or wind
However, organic materials alone
won't produce fertile garden soil in
a single gardening season. It takes
time. During the first year, only
about 50 percent of the nutrients in
manure are available to plants. The
rate at which the nutrients are
available to plants also differs. Gene
rally, the nutrients in poultry manure
are more readily available to plants
than nutrients in other types of
Don't count on one source of
fertilizer to supply all the nutrients
that vegetable plants need. The
three primary nutrients (nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium) that
plants need are seldom all con
tained in one type of commercial
organic fertilizer (such as blood
meal, rock phosphate or wood
Washing soda cleans drains and
traps, gas burners and greasy pots
and pans. It also softens water.
Vinegar cuts grease and removes
cloudy film on windows.
A solution of suds, vinegar and
ammonia will cut soil buildup behind
the range and refrigerator.
which to live. That assurance comes
from dependable caregivers who
may be a parent or an adoptive
parent. Parents of ailing babies
should be encouraged to handle
their infants in the nursery as much
as possible so bonding will occur.
The skills of mothering and
fathering do not require special
knowledge or social graces. They
do require awareness and a deci
sion on the part of parents to give a
child the best start they can. Smiles,
gentle pats, kisses and hugs give
baby a different message than
frowns, impatient handling and lit
tle touching. Your manner of atten
tion tells infants how worthwhile
they are. Infants' responses are
limited at first. But sometime in the
second month, don't be surprised if
baby stops in the middle of feeding
vegetables at all. Most seed packets
indicate the proper spacing between
plants. Follow these seed packet
Onions, carrots and beets need
space to grow both above and
beneath the ground surface. The
leaves of these plants are essential
for gathering the sunlight the plant
needs to manufacture the carboh
ydrates stored in the edible root or
feelings makes it easier for parents
to talk openly about their situa
tion, concerns and feelings. An
example of an active listening
response is, "I sense you're feeling
angry and disappointed because
neither Bob or I came to visit you
The acceptance that you give
through active listening may help
to break down old barriers and
allow a new relationship to develop.
Inaccurate interpretation of mes
sages often causes needless misun
derstandings and conflict between
parents and adult sons and daugh
ters. If you receive unclear or con
flicting messages, request clarifica
tion using statements such as, "I'm
not sure what you mean by. . ."or
"Is my understanding of what you
said. . .correct?"
Sugarless Berry Jam
4 cups crushed 'strawberries,
raspberries or blackberries
8 tablespoons liquid sweetener
Measure crushed berries into a
kettle. Add sweetener and stir well.
Boil rapidly, stirring constantly
until the mixture thickens. Fill and
One tablespoon equals 10 calo
ries. those weeds!
nate weeds in a home gaidcn just
isnt practical. Hoeing out the weeds
may be a more physical task than
spraying, but hoeing is more effec
tive and efficient.
With a hoe, you take out the spe
cific plants that are unwanted.
-, Chemical sprays may be good at
eliminating undesirable plants, but
the chemical may kill some, or all.
of the wanted plants as well.
So dont be afraid to do a little
garden hoeing. Your garden will
Th Warm Springs Extension
Service provides equal access to
II Its activities and programs.
shortens food life
Improper storage of commercially-canned
foods may result in loss
of quality in the food as well as
Shelf life of canned foods is
reduced when storage temperatures
Canned foods should be stored
in a cool, dry place. Avoid storage
near hot pipes, radiators, and stoves.
Temperatures above 70 degrees F
can cause undesireable changes in
the flavor, texture, color, and nut
ritive value of canned foods. Also,
harmless bacteria that survive the
canning process will grow whrn
to look lovingly at you. In later
months, you will notice that your
infant, who has had steady, gentle
attention to cries and is picked up
and handled frequently, will fuss
less and be more alert than those
who haven't had this advantage.
Some things seem to go together
attention from parents and trust
ing, confident children.
During the first year a sense of
trust or mistrust of the world and
people develops. Infants whose
needs are promptly met, are played
with and talked to, get the idea that
the world is a safe place, and peo
ple are helpful and dependable.
How do parents build attach
ment and trust?
Respond promptly to baby's
Talk to babies, all the time tell
ing them what you're doing.
'Hold babies securely while
bathing as you let them feel the
warm water around them.
Divorce decisions have
The financial decisions made at
divorce have long-term implications
for each person concerned.
Unfortunately, these decisions
are being made at a time of emo
tional turmoil and in a setting that
doesn't always lend itself to rational
Adding to the confusion is the
fact that many couples have only a
sketchy idea of their financial situa
tion, including income, debts and
Economic information and under
standing is critical to the decisions
being made. However, there have
been few ideas available to help
couples develop the information
they need at that time.
That's why the OSU Extension
Service has published a new circu
lar called "Making Financial Deci
sions when Divorce Occurs: An
Written by Alice Morrow, fam
ily economics specialist, the publi
You can change your mind
The law says that if you buy
something at your front door that
costs more than $25, you have
three business days to cancel your
purchase. This rule also applies if
you invite a merchant to your
home and sign a contract for, say
painting or wallpaperting.
To cancel, all you need to do is
sign the cancellation form that
should be included with the con
Cutworms could be working
The disappearance of toiiage and
stems from plants in the home
garden is a good indication that
cutworms are at work. The cut
worm active in the spring is the
stem-cutter type. It feeds on young
seedlings as they emerge from the
When full grown, cutworms are
about one inch long. They vary in'
color, but are usually gray, brown
, Cutworms have good appetites
and can do a lot of damage in home
gardens. Dark green droppings
around he plants are a sign of their
activity. Cutworms curl into a c
shape when disturbed.
These pests can be controlled in
small gradens by handpicking them
from the plant while they are feed
ing at night. During the day. cut
worms can be found in the soil
around the base of the plant. Slight
ly scraping the soil with the fingers
OREGON 5TAT6 UNIVERSITY
Eraina Palmer Secretary
Jonl David Program Aide
Arlene Bolleau Extension Intern
Motile Marsh Extension Agent
Clay Penhollow Extension
storage temperatures are high.
As gas forms, cans swell, and the
contents may leak. This is a hazard
to food safety.
Cans should be inspected before
use. Any that are bulging or leak
ing should be discarded. Cans that
are badly dented along the seam
may be more prone to leak.
A regular turnover of stored
cans is recommended. For best
quality, use canned foods within a
year. By marking the purchase date
on each can, it will be easier to use
older products first.
Plav with baby's toes, fingers.
hair, cheeks and legs.
Cuddle baby closely while feed
ing and relaxing together.
Concentrate on smiling at
baby's face when dressing or diaper
ing. Will all this attention spoil in
fants? No. Catering to infants in
the first year usually results in a
happier, more alert one-year-old.
Infants act to satisfy their needs of
the moment. The more adequately
needs are met, the more satisfied
they become. Crying is normal,
waking at night is normal and
curiosity is natural and desirable.
Infants have a hard time if par
ents expect them to understand
directions and obey rules before
they are able. Lots of child abuse
occurs to children under two. Par
ents become angered when infants
do not remember or behave accord
ing to adult expectations that are
beyond baby's capability.
cation includes nine worksheets
which a couple can use in determin
ing their financial picture. Work
sheets have been included and cover
such topics as estimated proceeds
from sale of the house, debts, life
insurance, and child raising costs.
Morrow, who is an attorney,
worked with family court counse
lors in Clackamas County as well
as other attorneys and counselors
in developing the publication and
M orrow feels the publication fills
a void in the decision-making pro
cess faced by divorcing couple.
"Although no one goes into a mar
riage expecting it to end in divorce,
many marriages do. The publica
tion simply addresses the need peo
ple have when they face that situa
tion," she points out.
Copies of the publication. EC 1 242,
may be obtained from the Warm
Springs Extension Office free of
tract. If there is no lorm, send a
letter by certified mail and request
a return receipt. The seller must
refund any money you have paid
within 10 days.
For details, write for: "Cooling
Off Rule Booklet" (50t) from R.
Woods, Consumer Information
Center. P.O. Box 100, Pueblo, CO
usually uncovers them.
Methoxychlor, used according
to label directions, is an effective
control agent, especially for young
Another control measure is to
cut I quart milk cartons into thirds
and place each third around young
plants. These should be placed
about I to 1 !4 inches into the soil.
Buying your own
teiephone saves $
If you're still renting a telephone,
you're paying from $20 to $40 a
year for the privilege. Better to buy
once and pocket savings from then
on. Quality phones range from $40
to a basic desk model to over $! 00
for designer or high-tech models.