c Spilvav Tymoo WARM SI'ltl.NGS, ()IU:(;o 97761 November 21, 1986 I Ask questions when purchasing appliances Whether it'i refrigerator or a blender, a new home appliance is an investment which becomeiupart of the family" for (hopefully) a long time. The following checklist will remind you of some simple steps toward making the best use of your money and ensuring satisfaction with your purchase decision: Ask the dealer for specification sheets from several manufacturers of the appliance types you plan to purchase. Study them carefully and note the different features, designs and capacities. Ask the dealer to see the war ranty before purchasing the appliance. Does the warranty cover the entire product? Is labor included? Only certain parts? How long is the warranty coverage? Ask the dealer for the use and care manual. Read it carefully before you purchase the appliance. The Dealer should have manuals avail able from the floor models on dis play. These manuals will help you to ask pertinent questions, tell you how the product operates and what special care it needs. Decide what special features you will really use. Consider the possi bility of adding on features at a later date such as an icemakcr for a refrigerator. Decide what capacity or size your family's lifestyle requires. For example, if purchasing a room air conditioner, know the dimensions of the room and number of win dows. Make certain the model you choose has sufficient BTU's to cool the area. Check the space available for the appliance. Will it fit where you plan to put it? Is there adequate clearance space in the hallway or doors through which the appliance will have to pass before installation? Check the product design care fully prior to purchase. Does the Eroduct's design meet your usage abits. Compare the designs of dif ferent brands. If you are purchas ing a combination microwave oven range, check the space between the units to be sure your favorite pans will fit. Clearly establish the cost of delive ry and installation. Are these coats included or are they extra? Ask the dealer if he services the appliances he sells. If not, ask him where to go for authorized factory service on the appliance you plan to purchase. Compare price in relation to convenience and service. Both vary according to the model. As more features and conveniences are included, the price increases. Be sure your house has adequate electrical service for the appliance in order to avoid overloading cir cuits. Also, be sure your home has adequately grounded, three-hole receptacles. a4L OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY GXTGN5I0N SERVICE The Oregon State University Extension Service offers educational programs, activities and materials without regard to race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or disability Clay Penhollow Mollie Marsh Joan Davidl Add safety precautions Solutions for landscape drainage problems Injuries do not get as much pub licity as heart disease or cancer, but they are the leading cause of death among young people (age 1 to 44) in the United States. Fortunately, they are among the most preventa ble causes of premature death. If you need to be persuaded to add safety precautions to your life, consider these statistics from a recent report in the Journal of the Ameri can Medical Association: Injuries are the fourth leading causes of death nationwide, account ing for nearly 150,000 deaths each year. More than one percent of all persons aged 10 to 34 today will die of injuries by the year 2000. About 75 percent of today's ten-year-old males who die during the next 15 years will die of injuries. For people now aged 10 to 24, the risk of dying of injuries during the next 1 5 years exceeds the risk of dying of all other causes combined. A white male aged 1 5 today has a one in 110 chance of dying as a result of an automobile accident by age 30. A black male aged 20 today has a one in 50 risk of dying of homicide by the time he is 25. For children aged 5 to 9, the risk of dying of injuries in the next 15 years is 2.6 times greater than the risk of dying from all other causes combined. Water, water everywhere and not a drop will drain. If the winter season has you thinking along these lines, perhaps your landscape isnt draining properly. Drainage problems around the home are usually caused by under ground springs, seasonal high water tables, ponding of surface water, or poor soil permeability. We offer the following drainage solutions. Underground springs. Natural springs may flow all year, or only during periods of heavy rain. Sub surface drains at least four inches in diameter and surrounded with six to 12 inches of gravel can be placed along the outside of the foundation to divert the water. Subsurface drains are made from various materials. Checking local building codes for approved mate rials and other drainage regulations. Seasonal high water table. The term water table refers to the level below which soil is saturated with water. The water table usually fluc tuates by several feet throughout the year. On some homesites, the seasonal high water table may be at or near the ground surface for long periods. Again, subsurface drains around the outside foundation walls may lower the water table. On lawns where only a small area is affected by a high water table, a small exca vated pond may be the answer. However, before building a pond, be sure to check state and local safety regulations about pond construction. Ponding surface water. Small diversion ditches will channel sur face water off the lawn or drive way. In developed residential areas, these structures usually are installed near property lines, or in back of or alongside houses. Generally, yards should be graded so the surface water drains away from the house. A minimum grade of one foot in 100 feet is sufficient. Installing downsprounts to con trol roof water may prevent pond ing in low areas of the yard. Down sprouts can empty into a subsurface drain or into dry wells that carry the water away from the house. Poor soil permeability. Some homesites have a dense layer of clay soil that restricts the flow of water and creates puddles or ponds. If the dense layer is near the sur face, a small trench can be dug through the layer and filled with sand, gravel or other coarse mate rial to improve the drainage in a low-lying wet spot. For large areas, subsurface drains four to six inches in diameter at a depth of two to five feet may be necessary. They should be packed with six to 12 inches of gravel. If possible, sand and gravel should be used to back fill the drain trench to within a foot of the ground surface. Even on well-drained soil, heavy foot traffic during rainy periods will compact the soil and reduce its permeability. Restricting foot traf fic in the wet yard helps prevent soil compaction. Energy saving suggestions from OSU Timet0 clean' store9arden equipment Q. How often should I clean my chimney? One neighbor suggested a once a year and another said to. do it after burning three cords of wood. A. Clean it when a quarter-inch of creaosote accumulates on the interior walls of the chimney. How quickly that thickness develops de pends on your wood stove, the type and location of the chimney and if you keep a fire going for long peri ods of time. Inspect a newly cleaned chimney every two weeks until you learn how fast creosote, builds up. This will give you an idea of how often to clean your chimney. To aid in visually checking stove pipe and metal chimneys, you may want to install a cleanout tee. It can replace the lowest elbow in the connecting pipe, or the lowest pipe section of a metal chimney. Masonry chimneys usually have a cleanout door giving access to the bottom of the chimney. Check the chimney and stove pipe by looking into the cleanout using a flashlight and mirror as necessary. Q. We heat with a heat pump. My wife was told that all registers in all rooms should remain open for maximum efficiency. Cant we save money by closing off an unused room or two? A. There's no simple answer to your question. Heat pump manu facturer's recommend that at least 400 cubic feet of air per minute flow through your heating system for each ton of heat pump capacity. If you shut some of the registers, two things will happen: air flow and heat pump efficiency both will decrease. How much, depends on your system. Manufacturers recommend not shutting registers for two main reasons: Your system probably is already designed for the optimum air flow. If you reduce air flow too much you can damage the compressor. If there isn't enough air flow to carry away the heat, the compressor can overheat. A similar product can occur when you air condition. You may be able to save some money without problems, particu larly if your heat pump was installed with a generous air supply. You could try (against most manufac turers recommendations) to close the registersd in one or two rooms. Look carefully at two things: air supply temperature and energy savings. With a thermometer, measure the temperature of the air coming out of a register in one of the rooms not closed off. If the temperature while the heat pump is heating increases more than a couple of degrees after you've closed a regis ter, check with a heating contrac tor to be sure you aren't damaging the cpmpressor,,,,, , . To- check your energy savings, record the reading on your electric meter at the same time each day. If the weather is about the same, and you use less electricity with a few registers closed, enjoy the savings. A final caution: If closing one or two registers changes the supply air temperature more than a couple of degrees, or the noise from the open register increases, check with a heating contractor. Having to replace the compressor would more than offset any savings. Garden equipment that is cleaned and stored every fall does a better job for the gardener every spring. Properly maintained equipment will give many years of service and cut down on costly repairs and replacement. Small hand tools should be cleaned and sharpened. Be sure to remove rust spots as well as dirt. When the tools are clean and dry, apply a light coat of oil to protect them against rust through the winter months. Make sure garden hoses are I.., drained. Then coil them and hang them from a curved surface. Plac ing hoses on a nail or hook puts a sharp bend in the hose that can weaken or tear it. It's best to follow the manufacturer's direction when cleaning power equipment. Generally, gasoline engines should be drained of gas. Also make sure all fuel is removed from the gas tank, carburetor and gas lines to prevent a build-up of gum from gasoline evaporation. If the engine oil is old and dirty, change it. Also remove the spark plug and squirt a small amount of oil into the cylinder. While the spark plug is out, turn the engine over by hand so the cylinder walls are lubricated. Put a light coating of oil on power equipment parts that come in contact with the soil when used. Other bare metal should be painted if the original paint has been damaged. A lockable cabinet or closet is ideal for tool storage. Hanging tools from the storage wall is another way to keep them under foot. Indoor gardening season begins Save energy in the home There are many ways you can conserve ' energy in and around your home without sacrificing your level of living. Although some of the hints involve money investments, the long-range benefits will pay for the cost. As energy supplies decrease and costs rise, you must weigh your use of resources with great care. Following are some suggestions for enhanced management in your home: If a change of housing is planned, consider how much space is essen tial. Extra space takes energy to heat, cool, light, and clean. Whether shopping for housing to buy or rent, evaluate it for energy efficiency. Insulate cealings, exterior walls, under floors, and heat ducts. Install storm windows and doors to reduce heat loss and or heat gain. Find and weatherstrip air leaks around windows, exterior doors, exhaust fans, and attic access pan els. Use good quality materials on doors and frequently-opened win dows. Caulk joints, holes, cracks and openings in the exterior skin of the house. Caulking can be applied on interior surfaces as well as exterior. Install foam gaskets approved for the purpose on all exterior wall electric outlets and switches. Check heat ducts in cold areas (crawl spaces, attics, garages) for leaks and insulation. Seal cracks with duct tape; replace missing insulation. Adjust thermostat setting by 5 degrees on heating and air condi tioning systems and compensate for comfort with the clothing you wear. Use exhaust fans effectively to control heat and excess moisture at the source. Check exhaust fans in bathrooms, kitchen, and laundry for freely operating back draft shutters with proper seals. Keep damper on fireplace and or wood stove closed when not in use. Inspect and clean or change fur nace air filter every 30 to 60 days during heating season. Check water heater temperature setpoint. Except for automatic dish washer and some laundry require ments which may require 140F, 120F is usually adequate. Check temperature at a tap with a candy thermometer. Wrap water heater tank with insulation if located in an unheated space. Insulate accessible hot water pipes passing through unheated space. Install water flow restrictors in showerheads and sink faucets. Vacuum or brush dust and lint from refrigerator and or freezer grill and evaporator coils every two to three months. Use lighting efficiently. Light the areas in your home being used. Select energy-efficient bulbs, tubes, and fixtures when replacements are made. Use energy-powered home appliances efficiently. Consider energy efficiency when purchasing appliances, automobiles, and other powered equipment. Con sider life-time cost when making purchasing decisions. Good management means using resources effectively to obtain the maximum comfort, convenience, pleasure and satisfaction from your energy investment. The outdoor gardening season may be over, but the winter indoor gardening season is just beginning. For example, it's easy to transform a sunny window sill into an herbal mini-garden. Basil, chervil, savory and thyme can all be grown in small flower pots or a window box, and snipped as needed to add the finishing touch to a sauce, soup, or salad. Basil can be planted from seed and will germinate in about 12 days. Chervil germinates from seed in 12 to 14 days. Other herbs, such as thyme, are best started from an already growing plant, and chives should be started from a clump of bulbs. Sage, lemon balm and rosemary can be grown from stem cutting. Take the latest growth or the upper part of older stems. Cut them into three or four sections, making sure each section contains leaves or leaf buds near the upper end. Insert one-half to two-thirds of their length into a box or bowl filled with four or five inches of clean moist sand. days. Cover the plants with glass, leav- Roots should develop in two ing a half-inch opening for ventila- weeks, and within four to six weeks tion. Shade the plants on sunny the cuttings should be ready to pot. Shopping tips for insulated garments If you're shopping for insulated winter coats, jackets or jump suits, be sure to look carefully at the garment's label. Classic down is still popular as an insulation material. However, a major drawback with down is that it loses most of its insulation capac ity when wet. It's also quite expensive. Several synthetic insulations have been developed that provide var iety in performance and price. Hol lofil 808, Hollofil 1 1, and Quallofil are three insulators from Dupont that work well in clothing and sleeping bags. Quallofil is the most expensive and Hollofil 808 is the least expen sive of the three insulating mate rials. Polarguard, from 3M, is designed to be shift-resistant in insulated garments, and it retains its loft better than other insulators. When judging the construction of an insulated item, remember that quilating lines that go all the way through the garment have no insulation along the stitching line. Baffled construction or a two-layered construction where there are no sewn-through stitching lines will be much warmer. Be sure when you try these items on that you have plenty of room for movement and bulky clothes you may wear underneath. Support plants against winds 4-H Clubs in the community The following is a list of the scheduled 4-H clubs for the 1986 87 year. Call the Extension office at 553-1161, ext. 238 for more information. 1. Bead work: Brenda Scott, Trish Courtney, Caroline Tohet (Com munity Center). 2. Boys Cooking: Arlene Gra ham, Tammy Hoptowit. 3. Sewing: Joni David, Jewell Minnick. 4. Holiday cooking: Orthelia Mil ler, Nina Rowe. Hay list The Extension office now has a listing of hay growers in the Cen tral Oregon area with hay and grass straw for sale. Each card con tains information about the type of hay or straw, the cost per ton, and the grower's address and phone number. Stop by the Extension office for more information or call 553-1 161, ext. 238. 5. Grooming: Yvonne Nathan. 6. Photography: Esther Surface (Set for a later date). 7. Knitting: Virginia Forseth. 8. Rifle: Set for a later date. 9. Rocking' 4-H Livestock: Jeff Sanders, Biff Johnson, Luke Sanders. 10. Cultural & Heritage: Reggie & Beatrice Winishut, Pat Smith. 1 1 . Arts & Crafts: Carol Allison (Community Center). 12. Skiing: Lee and Cheryl Tom, Wendell Jim. Watch tire pressure As winter rolls in, automobile owners need to keep an eye on the tire pressure. According to the American Automobile Association, a tire that was correctly inflated at 60 degrees could be much as four In home landscape exposed to blustery winter winds, trees and tall shrubs may need some insu rance against wind damage. Protect your larger landscape plants from high winds by instal ling guy wires to hold them in place. Installing supports against the wind is especially important for young or recently planted shrubs and trees, and for landscape plants recently damaged by high winds. The number of guy wires needed depends on the size of the plant. You may wish to use wires with a turn-buckle. This lets you adjust the pull of the wires, and allows you to tighten them if they loosen. Place guy wires high enough in the tree or shrub so wind blowing against the top of the plant won loosen the wires. Looping the sup port wires through the crotch of the tree or large shrub usually Patience, understanding saves time . . . u pounds under-inflated at 20 degrees. Baking WOrKSnOpS Checktiresoftenandwhen"coId.- nv CUIU, wc mean umi nit vai iiaa Two "Holiday Baking Workshops" will be held Mondays, November 1 7 and 24 from 7 to 8:30 p.m. in 4-H Center. Cost is S2.00. Call 553-1 161, ext. 238 to sign up. not been driven for some time. For each 10 degrees Farenheit drop, tire pressure drops approximately one pound per square inch. It may be surprising but in long run patience and understanding save time and energy. As a child's teacher, you want to learn a variety of ways to work with children as they are all different and situations are different. You will find it pays off in satisfaction for you and a happier child. Wise parents know that they are human and make mistakes. There will betimes when you will yell at them, say "donl," or spank a child. Your patience will be tried many times in a day. tven it you are a superparent and use these methods most of the time, you will find that Judy or John do not always co-operate. Children are human, too. Some days they are tired and weary or not feeling well. At those times, it is harder, if not impossible, to learn new things. Good parents try all the time, gently helping their child with the best methods they know. Children are preschoolers for a very short time in comparison to their total life. The experiences and satisfactions they receive during these years are the basis for future actions and learning. One of the best safeguards against trouble in later life is to develop togetherness, love and respect before school. works well. Use a short length of rubber hose around each wire to protect the bark from injury. Do not wrap the loop so tightly that the growth of the bark is restricted. Fasten the wires securely to sturdy stakes or solid anchors. If three guy wires are used, space anchors evenly. Place one anchor against the pre vailina winds. Cattle management session Dec. 16 Don't forget the second session of the Beef Cattle Management Series titled "Winter Brood Cow Management." The session will be held Tuesday, December 1 6 beginn ing at 7 p.m. at the Senior Citizen's Center. Topics will include feeding and nutrition, herd health, production records and culling and marketing. Women have to work harder I 3 chocolate cup cake with fudge It isn't fair. Women generally have to work harder than men to control their weight. As a woman gets older, it is even harder because her body needs fewer calories. She will gain approximately three pounds if she eats and exercises the same after her mid-forties as she did at age 21. (The American Diabetic Association). Only 100 calories of extra food a day above energy requirements means almost an extra pound of fat in a month. Food Equivalent to 100 calories icing. I inch sector 2-layer chocolate cake. I three-inch diameter cookie. V cup custard. 13 chocolate eclair. I link cooked pork sausage 3x1 inch. 1 tablespoon butter or margarine. l-'S tablespoons commercial mayon naise. 2 chocolate creams. 35 to pound. 4 5 of an average hot dog. I 3 cup chocolate ice cream. I inch square plain fudge. 18 to lb.