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About Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 11, 1884)
The Host Suitable Lands for Sheep Ranges in
Sal, Or., Jan. 3, 18S4.
Editor Willamette Farmer:
"Our mutual friend," 17. W. Cary, of
this county, recently received a letter of
inquiry from a gentleman of Brockton,
Mass., asking an answer to the following
First Is there any land suitable for
sheep ranges between the coast range of
mountains and the Pacific ocean?
Second Is tlieio any lands for sheep
yet attainable between the Cascade and
Third Is there good opportunity for
the sale of good thoroughbred Meiino
rams in Oregon?
Fourth Is it profitable to raise sheep
Tho above is the substance of the
questions asked by a gentleman, who is
referred to Mr. Cary by Mr. Garland and
who says he learned tho management of
sheen (I kudposo Merinosi under Mr
. --4 v A x- ,
I J Geo. Campbell, of Vermont, and has fol
lowed the business successfully in
Texas, but docs not like Texas climate.
Mr. Gary sent the letter to mo with a re
quest that I answer if, and I have done
so. 'Hut, it occuis to me, that amongst
the 100,000 immigrants who aic expected
to arrive on theNorthwet Coast this
coming season there may be many who
would gladly receive ever so little infor
mation which might aid them in decid
ing a lino of investment and a location
for a new home. In order to help in such
a field the following is at your 'service :
Between the coast range and the sea
along the Oregon coast there is no large
tracts of open land. There are some lo
calities, as at Clatsop Plains, at Tilla
mook Bay and many other points, linv
Hod areas of open lands, some of them
6andy dumes thiown up by the sea and
wind, and some of them rich afuvious
or tide lands. These lands are good as
far as they go for grazing stock of any
kind, but are much more suitable for
dairy and cattle farms Uian for 6heep.
Back a little distance from the beach
and valleys of the many small streams
(in which lands are very rich but gener
ally covcied with fine timber growth),
there are at intervals all along the Eea
ward side of the coast lange districts
over which fires have run in yeais past
and killed the timber, on some of these
the tops and south sides of ridge6 have
grown up to grass, fein and wild pea,
making excellent summer ranges for cat
tie, for which for many reasons they are
better adapted than for sheep. Soil and
climate combine to keep grasses green
and growing nearly throughout the year
wherever the timber and underbrush is
got out of the way. In the southwest
corner of the State these openings and
bald hill districts are mewt frequent, and
ihere sheep husbandry is taking hold,
and increasing by the judicious use of
the fire brand, the axe and grass seeds.
It takes labor ; in most places persist
ent and patient labor, but given that
there is ample room for thousands of
homes between tho summit of the co.ut
range and the ocean.
Between the Cascdes and coast range
lie tho valleys of Willamette and Ump
'qna in which the pioneer settlers loca
ted. In both of them lands free from
timber by nature are long ago the sites
of homes. In the Willamette sheep hus
bandry is now mainly an accessory to
wheat raising, and on account of the in
crease of dogHjuidothvf destructive ;; ri-
ii po, is uiuiiiiuuiiig vu wueav innus, oui
is perhaps extending into the foothills
nd into the bench lands of the tnoun-
mint surrounding the valley. In tljee
di the tops of spure and ridges there
ire good summer ranges which aie not
et all occupied, and in the vicinity of
any of thee partial openings land
Heap, ailording opportunity, forfairly
fitabk investment. In Unipiwvjl-Ilw.iv
ley where a larger proportion of the
best lands are used for sheep,' there are
still moie favorableopportunitiestomake
safe investments covering theso cheap
partially open ranges. Taking the best
of all tests the niaiket price theUmp
qua valley produces the best wool grown
on the Pacific Coast. The Willamette
valley until recently has rated next. The
Merino is the prevailing breed used and
will always be so; but, I piesume there
are local breeders there now sufiicient to
meet the local requirements, and the
country is not favorably situated for the
supply of that portion of the country
where the greatest demand is.
Note. Mr. Minto has prepared an
other article upon this subject, which
will be continued in our next issue.
Hop Picking in Sumner Valley.
Soi.vnn. W. T., Jan. 3, 18SI.
Editor Willamette Farmer.
The first Monday in September ar
rives, tins is a momentous one to the
hop-grower, and he is astir as soon as it
is light, lie has already engaged his
overseer, who must bo a man of experi
ence, firmness and good natured withal,
for he has a peculiar class to deal with.
He has carefully chosen a man to take
charge of the hop kilns. He, too, must
be experienced, faithful, and must possess
good judgment as to the condition of the
hops, the heating apparatus and every
thing which pertains to the drying pro
cess. There must be two or more as
sistants in this work; besides, must be
several other men to drive the teams, un
load the loxe6, and haul away the cured
hops to the store houses. Such are the
white workers. We find them busy
tlnN morning in finding the kilnand
nailing down new sacking on the floor
It is scarcely down, but throntrli th
gray fog, grotesque figure nu- d miv
seen mpving-along to the fields. Tneti
are the workers that make two boxes u
day and are anxious to impiove cveiy
moment; they are generally "klutcli-
men." 'J. lie men raiely make their ap
pearance so early, for in this respect
they are the proverbial fcred men" and
prefer laziness to work every time.
Should yon stroll down to the camps
you would find an unwonted bustle and
hurry. Fires are blazing, the squaws
cooking, packing water, or scolding, at
tne last oi wnicn tney are adapts, for
in this art they rival any white woman
we ever met. Hastily improvised meals
of dough cakes, baked on the coals, dried
salmon or clams are disposed of. The
crying papooses are cither left in charge
of some of the children too small to pick
hops, or they are strapped in the Indian
cradles and borne to the hop yards.
But time Hies and tho camp is deserted
and almost all are at work, for "new
brooms sweep clean."
The Klickitat, Sound Indians and
British Columbia Indians rarely pick
together, but divide into groups. Each
division has two or more pole pullers.
These are men generally selecte-d for
their strength and their abMity to talk
English or Jargon. Their duty is to
cut the vines, pull the poles and convey
them to the pickers whenever they call
for them. They sometimes assist in re
moving the boxes, to the wagon-. They
receive about $2.50 per day for their ser
vices, they endeavor to impress the be-
holder itb the dignity of their office.
In that respect, thry would make good
In some yards, as many as four hun
dred workers are employed, but usually
theie are not more than a hundred.
These chooso their boxes very carefully,
although it would take an ohsenant eye
tofind an eighth of an inch difference
in size. Ue-nerally, two or more go"
"canot," (to use the Jargon), and pick
together as it is nceshary to till the
boxes as fast as possible " to avoid the
hopn sinking, the boxes are paid for by
size and not by weight. Great care fc
taken in filling thrin. Each picker has
a method of hi own. Some never put
a hop into the luxe until they have
gathered enough to fill them. They
bring large Itfi-kei of (heir own work
manship, into which they threw the
hops' or fllr spread shawl upon the
ground and heap the bop npon them.
The favorite plan is to put'the bops first
in the corners, of the boxes and till the
t ntre at the last moment. Ufae major
ity till one box per day. The expert.
however, by working caily and late,
manage 10 till two l-oxo. These are
women, and line i once, that the!
SALEM, OREGON, FRIDAY, JANUARY
"weaker sex"' excel. In fact, after a few
days roll by, the "klutchmen" do tho
most of the work, .while their liego lords
gamble, trade horses, and drink bail
whisky whenever they can obtain it.
So eager arc they for stimulants, that we
have heard instances of their drinking
bottlo after bottlo of Jamaica ginger.
we have heard it privately hinted, how
over, that said bottles were "doctored."
Many of tho men uso up, in this way.
the hard earned cash of the women, and
sometimes leave them with scarcely any
thing to eat. They have learned tho
lesson of submission and do not grumble,
out expect tins as a matter of course.
iet us visit tne groups. All are in
good humor this morning and call out
"clahiyah," or ask if tho white "tilli-
cums" are going to pick hops to-day.
The Klickitat men are more moroso than
the othor Indians, as a general rule, tho
women more shy. The whole sot love
flatter' ; should you chance to remark
that such a ono was-afast picker, or that
one was good looking, a smile lights up
the features showing they comprehend.
They understand English better than
thny speak it, and ono has to be careful
what he says before them. The Klicki
tat women are the host pickers, they
attend strictly to work and cast a half
timid look at you which changes partly
to fear and perhaps to impatience as you
appioach their papooses. Hero undpr
the shade of the vines, you find them,
packed secuiely in their queer cradles.
They have a sphinx like look, relieved
only by their great black eyes which roll
at you in a wondering way. Ono is
stood up against a hop nolo like a stick
of wood. Another suspended to a
swaying branch fastened in the ground,
Here we come to a group and thero
swung between two sticks, is a cradle
witli h woe baby ensconsed within it. It
is actually clean; bright blue beads arc
around its neck ; a gay colored Bhell is
fastened at the ton of tho cradlo: a
string leads Jrom the branches to where
the mother is picking, when the baby
grows restless the string is nulled, the
cradle swing mid baby finds its way to
dream laud once more, for tho mother
ly ait nt Mic dusky native is as warm
aiid affectionate toward her offspring as
that of the white woman. But heie is a
sight! A year old baby emancipated
fiom its chrysalis state, has a string tied
around its arm and fastenpd to it is a
bit of fat pork ; that baby cooes, chokes
over the pork, dabs it in tho dust, smiles
under its fringe of hair and is evidently
asouiceof delight to its admiring rela
tives. Next is a ctoh papdose ; the
mother, in despair, straps it to. her back
and goes on with her woik. Time is too
piecious fo be spent in soothing its
cries. Covered over with shawls and old
rags, lies a sick child ; it feebly opens its
eyes and gaes languidly around. Poor
little bit of humanity! The lamp of
life will soon flicker out. Better so.
Perhnns n linv tov. nn nnnlp nr n vnlrpv
lies beside it, a token of somebody's love.
Rolicking, untamed children fly across
the fields in merry play; regular little
half-dressed, wild-eyed, they
torment each other and get into mis
chief generally. The "klutchmen" scold
them, send them back to the tents, or in
a fit of desperation, call them up and
strap a papoose on their backs. It looks
odd to see the little "braves" struggling
along, bent neaily double by their live
burden,. Some times one forgets, and
start oft on a wild run, until recalled to
duty by frantic cries fiom the brown
baby and Bharp words from its mother.
But we should not do justice to the
picture should we omit mention of the
dogs. Dogs to the right, of us; dogs to
the left of us, big, little, lean, fat, black.
white, any color, snapping, running,
tumbling over the children. You stum
ble over one unawaies, and aro only
saved fiom being eaten up by the ap
pearance of its master. Nothing could
induce ustoadnrre them, they aie a
pest and nuisance, and sometimes to be
feared as well.
We witnessed a scene lat summer,
not soon to be forgotten. An Indian at
the camps, was trying to break an un
Unifd cayui-e. In some way, the horse
angered the dogs laying ncjr and they
turned on him like untamed wolves.
The man, to save him, jumiied on his
back and rode for dear life with a dozen
of the curs cloe at his Ik!. It was a
thrilling sight; the Indians tcn-amed,
the dog-j barked, the rider and his horse
flew like the wind seemingly in great
danger, and what would have happened
we do not know, had not a half dozn
Indians on horse back started to the
rescue and with blows from their riding
whips, turned the dogt from the pursuit.
, Of course, all sort of grotesque habil
iments are seen. They are fearfully
and wonderfully made. Now and then
your eyes arc agreeably surprised with
wme attempt t neatness and ornament.
Here arctwo Indians almewt a old as
Mt. Hood, picking hops by faith nnd not
by sight, for they are nearly blind.
Next, a man nnd wife aided by their
dusky progeny. Here are several girls
chattering away merry as crickets over
thoir tasks. Tho heart of nn Indian
"braye", is susceptiblo as well as that of
othcr'classes. Half hidden by a box, is
tho jbelle of tho hop yard; a dusky
maiden ornamented with gay colored
handkerchiefs, presumably gifts from
her lovers ; a red one adorns her brow,
a blqe one is tied around her neck, and
a purple one encircling her waist. She
casts coquetibh glances at her admirers
as thoy slyly slip handfuls of hops into
her box or bring her well filled poles to
pick. Human nature is the same vcry
where. Should you inquire names, you
would find Old Blue, clad in tho same
from head to foot; Duke William, the
possessor or an enormous nose; Jim
Wesley, a Methodist liko his namesake,
but alasl lie dances, gambles, and is a
iirBircjius JviicKuat uauuy; 1.001111,
stain cmct carries tlio lnsiirnia
office in the shape of a crimson handker
chief around his brow ; LaHush, Muck
iashute Joe, Jinij and Mala are devout
Catholics; Indian George, Abraham
Lincoln, Gen. Jackson, U. S. Grant arc
all hero and proud of their names too.
But it is noon, a sicrnal for a hastv
meal, it is eaten in the field nnd then
work is resumed. As tho dav lencthens
frequent calls are heard for tho overseer
to "chnreo" and pay the dollar for tho
filled boxes. They hasten the fivinsr fin
gers so as to finishtho woik before night
iuuo. juiu miuh, in groups or two aim
three, wend thoir way back to camp.
But it irrows dark before the mmt faith-
ful desist from their tasks. Indian-, are
considered to bo better pickers than
Chinaman as they clean the vines well
nnd'do not trample them down so much.
As to white pickers we know little, thoy
are said to be good. As far as our own
experience is concerned, for wo tried it
one day, wo find it pleasant work, though
tedious. We also realized that tho
"knack" of picking hops was not to bo
learned in a day for ft was after sunset
before the box was filled. Tho hops
would sink and the fingers giow tired.
Many wore the laughs at our expense.
Tho pole-puller was very compassionate
and brought us tho heaviest vines. Even
some of the ' klutchmen" kindly threw
in a few handfuls, butuoweie the last
in the field, despite it all. Of one thing
we arc certain, it is a healthful employ
ment. Tho balmy air, redolent with the
sleepy perfume of the vines, subtly in
vigorates tho system, brings the color to
the checks, and gives an appetite that is
surprising, but the evening dew is falling
and we will leave tho weary pickers to
an hours repose beforo wo visit them
around their camp fire.
Taxation or Money.
Editor Willamette Farmer :
I have watched in the Fai:mi:r and
other papers the discussion going on
concerning taxation of money and the
mortgage tax law. I have become in
volved and have borrowed money. I
borrowed $4,000 hero in Oregon and
2,000 from an undo in tho East. This
money is all drawing interest. On one
I pay ten per cent., and on the other six
per cent. I can offset the money bor
rowed in Oregon from my taxable prop
erty. My property has cost me 1 12,tK)0,
and tho total assessment is $lf0. So I
pay taxes only on $500. This is favor
able enough to mo, as I pay but little
taxes, but I feci humiliated that such
should lie tho case. Hnvin" irood prop
erty and paying so small a tax places
me in a poor Jignt in some lesjx'ctg.
What I wish to get at, however, is this;
That this law exempting debt from taxa
tion eaves me from paving taxe, and
therefore is favorable to me. I have all
the benefit possible from it.
Now, I have read in the papers all
that is said on this tax subject, and it is
decidedly mixed. I have been to Port
land to pay my interest and have talkfd
with the money lender. Ho ta he i
willing to be as's.jcd fairly, but com
plains that he is more than doubly taxed.
He tells me to be sure and pay up as
agreed, because he can loan money to
better advantige in tin- territories
wheiever that may be. Otheis lell me
that if money wa not taxed it would be
plenty, and much chriq r, at hast a
cheap as in the State'. An I have fi
lean of $2,000 at 0 r rent from an
uncle in Illinois I uppieeiatt- that fact
Having read and verbally dicued
this question I am heartily in favoi of
the scheme I hao wtn Kiiggeted (bat
money "hall not lie taxed, at all, not
from regal d to tho lender, hut the I .or
rower inyM-If I mean. If 1 can get
money at rix per cent. I can afford to
pay all tho taxes and not offset tho debt.
As you say: Theio is a great deal of dis
honesty practiced by money lenders and
deljtor to avoid paying just tnxos, and
money is when assessed at its face
twieo or thrico taxed. Tho assessment
of my land proves it. I am honest in
offsetting my debts, but I see where dis
honesty is possible.
If all property that is visablc pays
taxes, that will secure a far greater in
come to the government than it receives
now. If interest is low and money not
uixcu mere win ue no excuse to sweax
off debts. Adopt this system and all
will bo benefitted and no one be loser.
I have studied it long and caiefullr. and
from my own standpoint as a debtor.
itn all the advantages that possibly
can accrue from the mortgago tax law,
with the taxation of money and ex
emption of debt in my favor, I am thor
oughly converted to tho belief that I
shall bo better oil", so will tho State
(which includes the whole community
if the existing laws nro repealed ami
money is not taxed. If I can stand it
and be benefitted by it cveiybody can. I
have no doubt that bitterly prejudiced
people, will denounce me as "in league
with money and doing itsdiitv work."
The Tax Law.
CoTi-Af.i: Gisovk, Or., Jan. o, 1884.
I see that one of the correspondents
of your excollent paper has struck it in
lcgaul to the tax law. I refer to A. C.
Jennings, in the last f number. Tho law
is all right, let those who nro aggrieved
put it in force. J. P. T.
Warts on Horses.
Svixji, Jan. 3, 1S84.
E Utor Willametto Farmer :
Warts may bo removed by excisions or
torsion ; twisting or pulling by the hand
being very often sufficient. If they aro
on the sheath of the penis, or on the
prepuce surrounding the auriface of the
urethra, the animal has to be cat and
tlio whole mass removed by cautery or
knife, and their seat cauterized. If this
is not done they are apt to grow again.
External or epidermic warts may be
effectually removed by the following :
Acide nraen. tt drachms, ung. petrolis .1
drachm, M. ct w'g. Apply to the wart
every four hours until they drop on",
then grease tho part with lartl.
C. W. Ji:n isi.v, V. f.
The above lecipe appeared in last
week's issue, but as theire were tome fla
giant errors in it we icpnblish. Kit.
Bmi: Crhkk, O., Jan. ii, 1S84.
Editor Willamette Farmer :
You ask experience in taking 'warts
ofl'horeee, I will give mine, i had a
two-j car-old filly with a wart on the in
side of the fore kg, up close to the body,
and as large as a small teacup, and about
the tame shape. I threw her to cut it
off with a sharp knife, and took a hand
ful of pulverized blue vitriol and held it
on the place until it quit bleeding, and
that was tho last of the wait. 1 also
took one off a horses ear by wetting and
putting thp same thing 011 two or three
times a week. II. Tiiovic-ox.
ComoE (JnoVK, Oi., .Ian .1, ISM.
Editor Willirnett Farmer:
Put a heavy plaster eif ellow fir pitch
on the wart and tlien cover it with a
piece of brown piper and then gicae
around the edge of the plaster with lard
to pievcnt the skin from lieing irritated
unnece-sarily. Whon the wait (omen
off gieat.e the placej with Ijrd'and it will
heal smoothly and hair eivor naturally
This ha been my experience with two
v cry lai ge wart. J. I'. Ti vi oil.
A New Year's Wadding
Si vit-oid), Or,, .Inn,
KJitor WilUmett Farmer;
Tho vvidiliug tin New Yer' day nt
H.wlia. the country icnidnii'i of Mr.
and Mis. A. It. Shipley, new Oswego,
Clackamas county, of their daughter
Mis I.inmeJ who was. united in matu
monial liond 10 Mr; Elmer K. Miller, of
Purest Grovet, XWhinton county, Mas
an exct'dingly pleasant and (iujoyable
occasion. The marriage ceremony was
irform-d by Bev. H. K. Hine-s, I). I),, of
Portland, a great nneleof tho briJo, who
in his uMial dignified and graceful man
ner impri'Mscd njxm the nrimN of (he
y . "
bridal pair tho solemnity of the vows
by which they pledged fidelity to each
other. Tho attendants consisted of Mr.
Charles W. Miller, brother of the groom,
and wife, of Hood River, also Mr..
Loster A. Shipley, of Ilazelia, brother
of the bride, and wife. The dress of the
bride was a handsome garnet silk and
velvet, with veil and wreath of orange
The congratulations of tho ciirhtv
guests in attendance having been ex
tended, refreshments were served con
sisting of a variety of meats, sandwiches,
cakes and confectionery. Thus happily
engaged in social converse, tho hours
(fitted by until the newly wedded pair,
anel many guests were compelled to
break away from the enjoyment of homo
and tho associations of friends, that they
might take passago by steamer at Oswego
for Portland, thenco by rail to Forest
Grove. Mas. H. E. II.
There was an oxteuded list of piesents
which wo aro obliged to omit on acconnt
of a lack of space. Ewroit.
Sowing Spring Grain Tlio Value or Boilers. .
CoTTAeiE GnoVK, Jan. 5, 1884.
Editor Willamette Farmer:
I wish to address a fow words to your
leaders in regard to putting in spring
crop". 1 nave uecn running harvest ma
chinery in tho Willamette valloy for
some twenty-five years and finel more
crops spoiled by late plowing and neg
lect in pulverizing than by all other
causes combined. I believe that I could
have mado !f200 last year by using a
good roller on my crop after it was ready
to begin jointing, and what is true of
mine is true of many others, to the
amount of hundreds of thousands of
bushels. In my observations last har
vest I did not see a field where the ground
was piopcily cultivated and compressed
but what had a good ciop. And I ran
over several fields with my machinery
that had good ciops that could not bo
property gathered on account of the
looseness, of tho ground, the grain hav
ing fallen down among the clods. Had
the giound been properly compressed
tho stalks would have grown strongor
and not have fallen so much, and thon
tho harvester could have run lower and
I would suggest that it would bo h
good layout for somo foundryman to cast
a lot of iron rollers for the farmeis. Tho
rollers should bo cast in sections three
feet in diameter, with eine foot face, 200
pounds weight each. With such weight
the ground could be compressed after
the grain was giowing and thus avoid
having to work when too wet. Tho worst
thing to make clods is to wait until the
ground is too dry befoie plowing. AH
ground should lie plowed early in this
country, if it is not sowed until late. I
raised forty bushels per acre of club
(white) wheat lart year on early plowing,
towed just before the last spring rain,
which waon tho Iftth of May, 1 beliove.
Yours, etc., .1. P.'Tavlok.
Weather Report for December, 1683.
Eoi.v, January 1, 1S8I.
Editor Willamette Farmers
During December, 188.'!, there wero 10
ilayt during which rain and snow fell,
and .l.till inches of valer; thero wero
G clear and 15 cloudy days, other than
thoMs on which rain and snow fell.
The mean li'iiivi.Huic for the month
wa 10.I12 d g.
Highest daily mean tcuii''ialuru feii
tho HHinlli,.VMi2 deu'. on the 2tith.
Lowest daily mean temperature for th
mouth, 20 dig. on tliclllsl,
Menu teniH latum for the month ftt
o'clock I'.M., lUtMUg.
Highest t-iiiK'iaiui( lor the month, oil
deg. at 2 r. m on tlic'titli.
Lowest t'fiiH-iaiiuc for the month, 24
dg. 111 7a. m. on the :ilt.
Prowls o-vdrr.Hl on tho I, 8,11, 10,11.12,
12.1:1, Jl.i:.. HI. 17, 18,22, 2!l,!10, 111.
Tin p;'vailiug uimU' for the month
wcie fiom the north dining 17 day,
oiihwit 11 days, south I days.
During D'Ci-mlier, IS82, them vveie 2ft
rainy dii ami U.70 inches of water,
." lew, and ti cloud diivs,
Mean l iii;r.itui: for the month,
Highest daily mean tcihiicrature for
:he- month, ' ieg., on the l.ftti,
I-owcst daily mean tcmiiemture for
the month, 29 (leg. on the 3ht.