Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, September 23, 1881, Page 2, Image 2

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Hon T. C. Jones ami Hon. II. W. Furnas,
of Nebraska, who, with l'rof. Hilginl, of the
State University, constitute the coinmision
appointed to report on the condition and pros
pects foi 'agiicultural progress on what are
known as the arid lands of the Cnitcd .State?,
arrived in San Francisco, September Ith. A
meeting of the commission for consultation
was held on Mondaj, and a plan of operations
was partly agreed upon. J"ho commission
finds itself cmhariassc 1 somewhat by the pros
pect ol an Indian war in Aiuonu, and until
the southtastcrnly lionon assumes a moro
peaceful aspect they will not xenture in that
direction. We understand that the commis
sion was advised by telegraph fiom Washing
ton on Monday, that they had bettei devote
the immediate future to a study of California,
and if there should be war below, it is pos
sible that Nevada and eastern Oregon, and
Washington Territory will be investigated
before any movement is mado in the direction
of Arizona and New Mexico.
It has transpired that tho first schedule of
instructions to tho commission considered
chiefly tho study of the southeast country
with a view of determining its adaptability
to tho growth of tho vine as already existing
in California, ami a consideration of its live
stock interests, and the chaneo for its improv c
ment and extension. It is now probable that
tho commission will take a widei view of the
field. It is iii:te ccilnin that such was in
tended by thoo who seemed tho passage of
the arid land act in Congress, 'llic chief idea
in tho proposed investigation was to securo a
report upon tho condition and piospictsof
agiiciiltuiu thioughout tho whole Pacific
coast eonntij, and ns tho repoit is to bo the
woik of ltcognied ('lutein experts, guided
mid aided by a well known local authority,
tin ii coin buttons would havo mote weigh in
thogieat I'istcrii countiy than any iipoit
which I'mauatul wholly fiom thoso whoso in
teiestsaio identified with tho region under
eonsidciatioii. It is altogethci likely that
broad Inquiry contemplated by the piomoteis
of tho act will be sanctioned b the Commis
sioner of Agricultuie, in whose charge the
investigation was pi iced.
Tho Commission proposes fit st to consider
the agiicultiiro of California, and they come
at an appoitunc time to view tho irsults of
somo of our pioducing specialties, as tho agri
cultural fiiu aio now beginning. Wo under
stand that Judge .Tones and cvGov. Furnas
will stait at onco for Los Angeles to attend
tho Horticultural fair in progress at that pheo
this week. 'I hey may then examine) counties
adjacent to l,os Angeles as timu permits
them, until tho opening of tho .State fair at
Saciamento, Septeinbei 10th, Aftci that
othor directions of observation and investiga
tion will bu taken up as seems host at tho tune.
As l'rof. Ililgird is occupied with his Univer
sity duties, anil is illicitly well acquainted
with agn'eiiltvial allaiis ill this.State ho will
not accompany his associitis, but will liitius
them to public spirited citicns of thoStito
whom no doubt not will secure them every
oppoituuity for Hieing. Missis. Jems and
Fiimasaiu will trained ohsiivus and tliej
havo come heio not foi a jaunt, but fin a close
utility of conditions, achieve incuts and nppoi
tunities foi pioguss 'Hun work will no
doubt lednund to the hi nt lit of nut western
1 inds in mini vvajs,
By the w.ij of intiodiumg the imnibirs of
the ComuiisMou to om u.idtis whom they
nay miet in Iheditlcient legions of tho coist,
wo ma) itmark that wo lino long known
lion. It. W, I'uiuas as pioimutnt in the pio
grcssno inoveiuiuts lookiui' to ngueultuial
advaiict'iiieut, not onlj in his uvvu State, hut
lie) olid Ho Ins a wide ai'ipi ilntaute with
piactical iiiltuiis of vanous kinds, and will
ho well able toappitiitto tho aihioviumits
which he ma) find hue, and the pttuliartoii
ititioiia iiiittt'i whith the) have bttnsituied
lie will also bring a tiaiutd obsnv.itioii to the
detection of the iidiptahihtns of om touiiti),
audtofoini.a tiustvvoith) and businesslike
judgment ooutiining timu, and this is just
the kind of judgment which will hem lit us
Judge Jones, of Ohio, is letogmtd as a
leading authm it) on the live stock inUustof
the tountiy. Ho lias done inoit ettllout
tciilco a a cnutrihutnl to the Xulioiml iiv
.xfih. Join mil, and as a high ollner m the
Auieiieaii Shoit Huiu llivcMiis asociitiou.
Ho has litely luturuel fioiu a pmlongod ox
uiiiiuatiou of tattle ud cattle binding of
Client lliit.un, uiidtitakiii in the intrust of
American pivgress in this grt.vt industi).
Judge Jones aUo pivmintut in othti public
endeavor ami eutiipiius, and is nt pitsint
Olio of the Hoard of Tuuliies of the Ohio
Agricultural college, futiudtd uiidci tho
Mornl act. 'ne(iV lural 'ren
t after Wheateverv
How. tear.
37 14
42 11
17 17
21 (4
:is 20
2.". J (8
34 18
based upon eroncous principles. Soils expos
ed to constant stirring and aeration were said
to aborb fertility from tho atmosphere. That
considerable amounts of nitric acid arc pro
duced where land is fallowed is tolerably cer
tain, but it is not easy to explain the large re
duction in tho yield, of the plot under exper
iment, except upon the assumption that tho
nitric acid proceeds from nitrogen already
stored up in the soil in an organic form, as in
farmyard manure or in commcrrial fertilisers.
It will hoof interest in this connection to re
Mew the experiments of Lawes and Gilbert,
uijxn wlncli tho above conclusion were based-
m is.il, one acre oi lanu was laiiowcu in mo
ordinary manner, and after receiving several
plowings during the Summer, was sown with
wheat during the autumn of the same ) car.
In 18ii3, there was, of course, no crop, but
the disadvantage of having a crop of wheat
on alternate years alone, was so obvious, that
iu 18l4-"i the land under experiment was
divided into two half acres, and has so re
mained over since. Tho wheat grown in IMS')
was thus necessarily wheat after wheat with
out a summer-fallow. The following table
gives the produce of the first seven crops, and
also that of the land growing continuously
uninanuicd whe.it crops:
1 8T1
In 185", when "the experimental plot under
fallow was divided into two equal portions,
and tho wheat followed the wheat of the pre
vious jtai, it will bo seen that the two crops
were alike.
'I ho fiist eiop of wheat aftei fallow is con
siderably moio than twice as much as the
wheat following wheat without a fdlovv; tho
sicoiul ciop is exictly twice as much, but
aftu that, the diflurcncc is less than twice as
much, ami fium 185U to tho picscut time the
fallow and tho permanently unmanuied frop
have appmximatid nearer and ncarci to cich
othti, until it has become a somewhat difllcult
question to deci e which of thotwociops now
glowing will yield tho hrgei pioducc.
'I his would indicate that there will cornea
timu when tho "baic-fallovv " will not be able
to lift the )ild above that of land on which
wheat is grown) ear aftei ) car, and this of
couise would be equivalent to tho loss of
ever) othci jcar to tho glower, without
counting the cost of the work on the fallow.
Will Cihforni i cxpeneneo lead to a similar
conclusion under om conditions? 'J his is the
question w hich should be borne in mind and
the )ield of fallen and wheat-over) -year land
should bo constantly compared and tho icsult
iccorded so that thcro may bo data for somo
futuio conclusions. Of couise tho conserva
tion of moisture in a fallow for a subsequent
ciop (a consideration of gieat vvoith in Cali
fornia) docs not hold in tho English experi
ence wo havo desciibed. Tho mattei must be
studied under local conditions and wo merely
mention it as worthy of such study. I'aafie
tin nl I'n ii.
A Comparison
Our wheat glowers in the great xallcishavv
for tho most part decided upoh tho gieat ad
vantage iusuiuiiicr-fallovving, and the piactuc
is oovenug larger areas evt'iy )cr How long
will this method of handling wheat Itud jiclil
satlsfaitoiy itwulU is a question of no little
impoitaui-e. "lluio i, of rotate , iitistrusof
oipirnninU nuulo in om condition which i
)tt old enough to give data for determining
this point, and it u epei unci under our con
ditiou which must linall) kettle the quwtioii.
It i well tnoiigh to Wt in mind, hovveui,
that careful experiment elsciv.-uio show that
hud tires of this treatiiH it t as it docs of an)
other treatment whielt doe not latum to it
noine equivalent of value itctived
Vhu oxpeiiiuent of Lum and (Illicit, the
will known Knglisli experimental farmerv,
whoe tual eroj lum bet n grow n on tho
same Ian J foi about HO xexjm, tent to show
thai the k) tenia of farming advocated bx
Jethro Tull and tho llev .Saiuii I Smith, vtrro
A f.iiniet, not more than ten mihs fiom our
gioiiuds,tuins u) his noso at "flint growing,"
andsa)s "it's small business," ami "haul on
hoists and wagons." Let us sco about this
"small business." e have about tho same
amount of hud which this f inner possessts.
He uuplo)s on an avu.igo thiough tho entne
)cu one uniiiuiicd milt and one gnl, thus
giving mi ins foi Mippott to lno persons, be
sides his own family. Wo emplo) on an uv ti
nge twelve men, heads of families, and as
many moro single men and women, fm moat
tight months, in fact, the nvn ige number that
we give iiitploxmcnt to, including piokns,
fiom Apiil 1st to Dttombei 1st, u thnt)-five
tofoity pirsons, thus giving nu ins for sup.
pint to at bust set cut -live to one bundled
ptrsons, hi Miles our own famil).
lie pi)sto htlp, s.i) S 100 ptr)cai. Wo
pi) at hast SlI.OOO ptr )t.u. Ho sills from his
film, si) .'00 toSl.WX) yeaily, gross We
15,000 to $18,000 (which includes om phut
ti itle )
He plows, hariows, soivs, trips, diavvs into
the bun, thitshts, clians and draws to nur
kit the piodutt of nu aire, si) an avn.ige of
liftttu bushels of vvhi.it, foi which he obtains
gloss, wi) JJO Wo plow, hai vest, plant, cul
tivate, hoe, .ithir and mil kit fi om an acrti
an ,iv t i.igo of lift) bushel of fruit, for w Inch
we obtain gross, s.i) SI50, Ra)iug nothing of
the pi nits sold fiom same Ho uid his lulii
fiom five o'tloch in the morning till dark; oui
htlp work, 7-00 v. xi. to tl (HI i xi. Ho tus,
lifts and svvtats. We don't. "Mil ill btisi
nets," isn't it, UMilei' llie Fiutt 1,'nviil
or native stock, does he not lose mone) every
year he continues in the business of raising
the latter? or, in other words, does he not
lose $5 apiece for c ery one of the latter he
raises? Then docs it not actually cost more
to raise a poor animal than a good one ? We
are aware that it is not in this sense in which
tho statement is generally made. The general
proposition means that a good animal con
sumes no more than a poor one. Even in this
sense the statements conveys only a part of
tho whole truth. What farmer docs not
know as a rule that their best animals con
sume the least actual food and give a greater
return for the amount consumed? We have
often heard fanners in speaking of this or
that horse say he will do more work on the
least food of any animal they ever owned.
This is the quality that makes the animal tho
best. So the cow that giv ea the most good,
rich, butter making milk from a certain
amount and quality of food is the best. Now
the best way for each farmer to pet into rais
ing the best stock is by selection. If a farmer
has half a dozen cows, for instance, and by
actual experience in milking and raising calves
ho has found that three of the lot make more
butter and raise better calves than the other
three, he should make it a point to build up
or increase his herd from the three best cows,
and thus in a few years he will have, if his
business be m the dairy line, a herd of cows
equal or supctior to the original three cows
he had prov cd to be good. The male animal
is, howcv er, a more important factor in raising
stock good or bad, than tho female. A dozen
cows will ordinarily raise but a dozen calves
in a) car, while this dozen calves ma) be all
the get of ono male and so of an inci cased
number, 'lhe cow may be the inothci of but
one calf in a year, w hile tho bull may he the
sue of fifty. It is then fifty times more im
portant that tho stock raiser who Ins fifty
cows should secure a good malo than that he
should secure . i good animal in any one cow .
In other winds, it is of much importance, so
fai ns the character of tho progeny is contei li
ed, that the one malo no first rate as that tho
whole fifty females bo of that diss. In tho
abuve suggestions we haw made no lefciencc
to bleeds; the suggestions apply equally to
ill breeds. Hut our own experience and ob
servations are de;idcdly in support of tho
proposition that in stock raising of all kinds
blood will tell. If the object be to raise
stock for beef, then by all means secure the
Shorthorns or tho Herefords, of if the location
bo in a mountainous or hilly countr), the
Devons. If the object bo to make butter,
then select the Jerseys or vAlderncys, or a
cross of theso w ith the best milking families
of Shorthorns or native stock. If the olijoct
bo to make cheeso or to furnish milk for a
route in a town or city, then select A) isliue
or Holsteins. The Jersoys give the richest
milk, while the A) rshires givo more of it.
The foimci will bo most profitable in a butter
dairy, and the latter iu a milking dairy.
Sua iwieiilo l'c oi - Union.
happens when the wax is compounded with
innocent materials. 1 alwa) s prefer making
my own grafting wax to buying it. as I know
it to be of the best materials, and after a good
many years' experience I have settled down
upon the following composition as combining
all the necessary qualities of a good grafting
wax i Take of linseed oil one pint, clear resin
six pounds, pure beeswax one pound; melt to
gether slowly, so as not to burn, and stir
thoroughly together; pour into a pail of cold
water, and xvhen cool enough, work white, like
molasses candy. Make up ipto rolls six inch
es long, and lay upon a beam in a cool cellar.
It will keep there perfectly good for many
jears. When taken out into the garden in a
mild day it will soon bo soft enough to handle
easily. If the hands are rubbed with linseed
oil, the wax will .not be troublesome to them.
"A, S," in Xtw Emjland farmer.
Midsummer Bee Management
A a mlis nil fanners ato stock laiseis It
is true time, tspcoiall) in this State, too
many exceptions to the rule, but tho excep
tions often illustrate the eouootness of tho
rule, and we think the) do in this case.
Scarcely n fanner iu the State that can bring
things about to suit lum that dots not intend
to woik gradual I) iuto tho practice of raiting
moro stock. This fact of itself is a general
admission of the piopcwitiou tint this State
furnishes too minx exceptions to tho rulowe
hid down at first, Hut it was not tho gen
eral proHition we proposed to discus. H
ln Ikm ii said tint it costs no inure to raise
good stock than pool stotk This is not mil)
tuie, but it half hl.tjes tho truth It costs
Itta to I xise gothl stot k than it docs poor stock.
Xot only this, but wo aro pit pared to m
fiirthei Out it Is a loeing busim s to an) far
mi r to raise poor stock. If, foi instance, a
iK.au oau dear ten dellars an acre on his land
iu ruuing-eoru, and van char old) five dolhrs
an aero in raising bailey, is it nut a loiug
bninr to nuse larlej? IHvo not the farmer
Itvsojust live dollars per acre bj continuing
tho kirlc) raising .Vow upon the same
rtMnniiugif a farmer can clear 610 a piece in
raisin,; ten .lere) cows, and can clear but $5
The Jlimil Arf ic Yoiker coutafhs the follow
ing article on Summer management:
In caso of scanty pasturage for bees at this
season of the jtar, there is great necessity of
prov iding them food in tho lux c. Tho follow -
ing should be dono regularly after sunset, and
as the) aio moio liable to bo vicious when the
fields fail tosupply them with honey, the bees
should bu'smoked suthcicntl) to keep them
quiet; and then, as alwavs, thoy should be
distill bed as little as possible Tho practice
of feeding, either in Spiuig before flow era
bloom or in tho Summer intervals during tho
absenco of thu best bout)-pioducing llowers,
is i vviso one, as it kttps tho btesin good con
dition foi tho woik hcfoio the iu. Cheap hon
es is ucoiuincnded by somo asa good food,
but "A"sugu leduccd to the consistency of
hone) , is quite as good. '1 hire is little to bo
said in favoi of feeding iiripo sugar and gluc
ose, Hone) winch is re moved from the hive
in hot iveatliei is apt to lw inhabited by the
moth worm, which hatches fiom tho eggs
deposited lnonowa) or anolhti by tho bee
moth. Just how, oi whtn, this is done is not
known, but it is not at all unlikely that the
moth finds hei w.i) into the hive and there
h)s hi i i ggs, though some sa) sho deposits
them on thu bottom builds of the hive and
thin the) aiotariie.l inside b) adhciing to
tho fett and legs of tho hi es f honey taken
out is to bo kept in boxts during the Summer,
it should be closely watchtd iu 1 at the first
appiaitncoof a tine whitish powder on the
tombs, it should lie removed by fumigating
with sulphur. It is vi 11 to smoke combs
from which homy is extracttd. It is im
portant to keep the light colored hasswooj or
clover honey separate from the dark-colored
such as buckwheat hone). The apiarist who
cxpicts to get good pnets for his honey will
lie cartful not to let thtco two kinds go to
market in tho samo box. White honey, though
it bo but soiled with dark, will not command
a good price, howtvtr, nice buckwheat lion-
e), though not commanding as hrga price, is
) et a soiireo of much profit, inasmuch, in some
sections, a good suppl) ohtaimd after tho
white honey plants have filled. The hixes
should 1k protected from the intense heat of
the sun during tho heated ttrm, though early
and lato m tho season it is issmtul that the
hives bo exposed to the u.iuiir.ivs of tho sun.
August is a good month for luliatiuiug. as
the queens iau 1k obtained quite rcasonaldy
then, and good Italian workers will bo ready
for the next season Kv'tr) cilort should uow
bo made to build up the eolomes with young
bets, even if feeding is ivquind. Colonies
well pivpansl will stand the WmUr.
To be perfect fleeces ought to have two
good qualities. They must bo fine and soft
both. Also they should be regular, having
each staple of the same quality throughout.
The sheep known as the Merino and the An
gola reach this standard the most frequently,
the fleeces of Saxony keeping fairly abreast of
them; while irregular fleeces are occuring con
stantly among the ordinary flocks of Spain
and Portugal and Italy, in which there will be
found an intci mixture of long coarse hair, of
thick opaque hair, that makes dealers look
shyly upon the wool, as not being "true
grow n." These incriminating hairs are called
"kemps,"and "kemps" are liable to appear in
any of the fleeces of Kngland and Wales when
the sheep have been exposed to the inclemen
cies, and tin lr food has been consequently too
scanty and too fitfully obtained. For regular
ity, or evenness of staple, wether wool ranks
much higher than ew e w ool or any other. It
shows scarcely any difference in it, in its
thickness closo to tho skin and at the far
point. To stimulate softness there has been a
practice of snieanm; sheep with tar and but
ter among foreign dealers, and the compound
xery fairly imitates "yolk," or the grease
abounding in fleeces naturally, and found in
excess in the fleeces of the Merino. In nil
fleeces this "yolk" represents about 25 per
cent, of weight. Iu the Merino fleeces it lep
rcsents nearly 50 per cent. After cleansing it
is gone; and it is of paramount importance
that it should he gone. Flock growers like it
to be present, liecause, during their short
ownership, it keeps tho fleeces sound and lets
no harshness bo detectel. Fleece buyers get
rid of it at their quickest, because, after eight
or nine weeks of packing, fermentation, which
they call "sweating," ensues. This sweating
makes the wool hard and brittle; in the inner
part of the packs it even gets xv arm, sponta
neous combustion has again and again result
ed, ami oolcn factory hav o been lev eled by it
to the ground. When flock growtrs desire to
consult the interests of fleece buyers they will
sco that as much as possible of this yolk is re
moved. The Spaniards try for this after
shearing, when they give the fleeces a good
wash. Saxon growers wash the sheep them
selves before the scissors are set to work.
1 hey hav e tubs ot w arm water and soap lees,
into which the animals have their first dip;
then tubs of clean w ater are ready for extra
purification. Tho English, as is familiar wash
beforo clipping also, hut they only use clean
water, and they squeeze this out, when the
sheep aio removed from it, with the hand.
All the Year Hound,
dertaking for any fanner in the Connecticut
valley, and xve are glad that Mr. Wilkinson
has dared to do it. If he succeeds, he w ill
have ensilage to sell, unless he keeps more
stock than any other farmer in Massachusetts.
Some one has intimated that none but Hoi
stein cattle can appreciate "saur krout,"
Foitunately, if Dutch cattle are needed to
teach other cattle the language or diet of Hoi
land, they can be had. Larger importations
of this breed have been made this Summer
than ever before. One firm in New York have
recently received 127 head. We suspect that
the proprietor of the Wilkinson farm has had
ane)e on Holland, ex ersinco he began to plan
his dairy barn, and that ho expects to "beat
tho Dutch" in the city of tho big dam. Mill;
will probably be an important element in tho
future growth and greatness of that city.
We forgot to say that the massive walls of
the silos are to. be plastered with cemtuit, and
that the followers used in pressing will hax e
rubber weather strips on their edges to ex
clude the air. Every precaution will be taken
that ingenuity can devise to make the door
way air-tight. The foreman assured us that
he had 52 names on his time book last w eek,
exclusive of the masons.
The crops on this farm, particularly tho
corn, are show ing the effect of high manuring,
and they xvill will be likely to show it for
years to come. No other farm w ithin our ob
servation has had such manurial resources, or
has such mighty heaps for future greatness
laid up in store. The rye crop, which is to be
the first used for the silos, xvill be heax lly
manured and sown the last of September, and
next June when it is harvested xvill doubtltss
be worth seeing.
Tne Great Crater of Kllauea.
Ague mixture
Chills and FeVBr are permanently
cured by Dr. Jayne's Ague Mix
ture. With a little care on the part
of the patient to avoid exposure, and
the occasional use of Jayne's Sana
tive Piixs,thls remody xvill bo found
to be certain In its operation, and rad
ical in its efforts. In many section!
of tho country subject tp Ague nnc
other malarial diseases, it has an os
. tablished character as a popular spe
cific for theso harrasslng complaints,
and the number of testimonials re
ceived show that its leputatlon is
constantly Increasing.
Intermittent and Remittent Fevers
are effectually cured by Dr. Jayne's
Ague Mixture. In these com
plaints care should be taken to follow
the directions closely, and especial
attention given to the liver, which
should be assisted in performing its
functions by Dr. Jatne's Sanative
The following pen picturo of the fearful
crater of ICilauea is from tho Honolulu Ather
liner of July 2Gth: Tourists to tho xolcano
many j ears past all remember certain active
pools of lava, tho Noith and South Lakes,
which ordinarily bubbled and tossed a fiery
flood at a depth of about 120 feet below the
floor of the great crater. Now these lakes
have all been filled up, and there have arisen
peaks and cones of haul lava that rise over
100 feet above Jhe South bank of tho great
crater, xUiich is about 1,000 feet high. Hut
there has burst forth a new opening in tho
great crater floor not far distant from the old
lake, and a new lake, almost round in form, !
about 600 feet across and some 70 feet in
depth, in ordinary stages, below the surround
ing brink. Here the great Hawaiian, volcano
presents the most varied, fantastic play of liq
uid lava.
Hero are some of the phases of tho play of a
fire lake, as recently observed in the great
crater of Kllauea. Sometimes it almost seems
to sleep, and the disappointed visitor looks
down into a black x-alleyand observes a smok- , ''.'"S.'V.'L'',0,?,1.0,! V L,?V, c,Itl"e "'u
' , ana Is a 1'01T1 E J'tMElli ler all tho diseases tho
ing pit, giving no more evidence of combustion cause pilns In the lower jurt cf life bod) for Torpi
iz7ine6t tirav el Alx
ltODGK, DAVIS A CO, Wholesale Dealers Portlan
ftMnr R N U ti 'a SAtJM
I believe all animal I its and oils to lie uu
health) applications to vegetable growths.
Tlureforo, 1 question the adv liability of em
ploy 1115 nther lanl or tallow as an ingredient
in grafting wax. Indeed. I (uv0 remarked
that whin I formed) used such wax, tho lark
would frcquentl) die aw a) from the end of
j raising ten riKj rou,, junnii vicwr nut yo . mo slump &111I hle oi tile cltlt in quite
J apiece in inuuiij tne same immuer ot con moil j lualtliv jouug v cot
How 'shall we kill weeds and how lid the
sod of the species? A v er) simple matter in
deed, if wo would uso tho same common sense
shown in other things. Will a field of coin,
oats or w heat, or a hill of squashes or melons
pioduce good seed if cut close to tho ground
just as flowers are forming' Kvery annual
plant or weed wo know of will suiely die if
cut at the smfaco just beforo it blooms. Cut
a little higher, above a portion of the ltavcs,
and life may be continued till new sprouts
come out, which in time may produce seeds.
In ordinary cultivation wo aro quite apt to
keep root and top togethei, and to let a por
tion of the roots remain in contact with moist
earth. Weeds tieated in this way do not make
so niaiiiUoino a growth, but they will continue
tho species quite xv ell enough. A ) oung plant
buried root and branch in tho soil to a good
depth will surely die. It must have air,
warmth and sunlight. Ordinary cultivation
early in the season kills the larger part of the
weeds of a field, and if cultivation were fre
quent enough and thorough it would kill
ever) thing that grow s frcm tho ground. In a
stason moist enough to sprout seeds it takes
but a very few weeks to rid a field almost ab
solutely of both weeds ami seeds. ' A plough,
harrow and roller aro all the tools needed.
How to bring up the seeds from the under soil
and harrow just as often as a crop of seeds
start, rolling the ground each time to compact
the soil, that other seeds may germinate. A
dry season is not half so good as a wet one for
killing weeds' by tlus method. Almost all our
doorxariH and barnyards are nui series of
weeds, from which continual streams are flow
ing uuobserxed to other parts of the farm.
.Yrif KwjhiHil Farmer,
Mammoth SUos at Holyoke, Mais.
The faith of W. II. Wilkinson, the Holjoke
manufacturer, in the silo system, as the stor
ing of grexn food for cattle in air-tight pits
under a high prtsmre is called, reminds one
of another luiperturkable nun in lustory
uamed Noah. 'Dure xve re thoje, we aro told,
who looked 011 tho ark with some distrust as a
place of refuge while it was building. Mr.
Wilkins ni's silos grow apace, and are now so
nearly complete that the) can be easily com-prt-hc
nded by the common people. 1 here are
eleven of them 111 a row, 12 b) l.'i feet square,
and 21 feet deep. They are to lie filled at the
top, and there are arched door-wa)s in the
massive walls near the bottom. Trn of them
Mill each hold W tons, and one will take iu
100 tous.
The storm,; of 1,000 tons of gresu fcvlder
than a tar kiln. But the obserx er stands on
the brink of the pit, or great pool, or lake, as
now appears, about COO feet across, and xv hose
surface is about 70 feet below him. And vv hat
is this surface? It presents a daik Bilvcr-gruy
hue, with a satiny shine. -This is a crust of
quiescent lava, and the observer, who has ex
pected to hav e his sense of wonder strained to
speechlessness, sa)s: "Is this all?" No! look!
the frozen, glassy lake is alive. What a heave
in the center some mighty beast lifting up
tho floor! Now a wave of undulation runs
lound the incrusted marge. And thcie is an
outburst, a blood -led fount, gushing and bub-1
bhng from one of earth's ai tcnes. Tho broad
disk of the lake heaves and trembles. Fitful,
gaseous flashes flit across, and now the moving '
floor cracks, and a serrated fissure, like the
suture of a skull, runs from marge to marge,
and quick, darting streaks, sudden cracks of ,
the ciust, shoot across in all directions. Theso I
serrated streaks are at first ros) lines on the 1
gray suriace, tnca tney vvulen like cumson
ribbons, broadening to the view. They undu
late with the billowy motion of the whole up
heav ingsuiface. Anothcrcrimson fount springs
up along the now fretting and roaring nm of
the lake, and another and anothci of now
wildly upleaping fountains of fire toss high
their gory crests, even casting gouts and clots
of the red spray, that fall and harden neii the
obset v er's feet.
lly this tune the spiut of our infeino is
aroused. The whole fierce led lake is all boil
and leap and loar. It is more than the loar of
loud sea surfs beatiug bold bluffs. The snrg
nil' tide of the molten earth sounds a deeper,
bellow ing bass than auy note of the sounding
sea. And now the beax ed-up crust, broken
iuto fragments, is churned up and dissolved in
tho boiling flood. The roaring gulf is uow, in
deed, a xortex of iudescnbable glories and
teirors. Cu os open on the sides of the sur
rounding wall, and man sees more of a hell
than he ever imagined. A thous md demons
aro now holding high carnival in this bottom
less pit and the leap and play of a fiery Hood
the dance and swell of a red, surging tide, I
and the roar and shnek of the dread forces is
suing irom tne reu-not, pulsating heart of the
planet, make a thoughtful observer hold his
hand to his own heart and say "This is
enough; the Almighty is here."
A Lecture on Astronomy.
At a school near London, the learned master
was giving a lecture on astronomy, and after
alluding to the representation of tho world on
the shoulders of Atlas, asked the class gene r
all) on what atlas stood. One replied, as the
world was chaos, he must stand on chaos;
another eoiijecturcd on a rock; when a lad
from Cardiff, at the rttom of the class, ex
claimed, "I know, sir." Indeed'" replied the
doctor, "pra) tell us on what jou think he
stood." "I know," answered the boy "but it
is not my turn jet." When the question
passed to him the w hole class was on tiptoe
to hear tho young Welshman idea; when,
with an air of consequence-, ho exclaimed,
' On hit less, to be sure! On what else could
ho stand?" jv.lm.r.
Liver Headaches Jaind!re-
nria, anil all dltlttuulct of the I Idncvs, Liver and Ur
narj Organs 1'or lEMALH Dill AiYi, Jlonthlj Men
struatous, and dutlng 1 renuiii, it 1 as 110 equal It
rest rc the oig-.iiis tint vuirtlc Mood; and Is hence
oneof the heat II LOOM lUIIULUS It is tho onlj
kuw 11 routed) th it cures I'll ht's tlleae tor Dia
heos, uso W Alt:. Ett'S SAVE DUBtTLS CUKE
tor bile I j HuiK-jl-tMinJ oil IHaltrs at SI 25 per
bottle. Largest bottle in tho marl et Tr .t
I!. II Wuriicr & Co., "
Rochester, N. Y.
, man in Kngland once sai I. stwalin of a
youth w ho had married imprudent!) "Whv
I he uliln t want a w ifa nne iimr tr.t.1 .. ...,
in acei lent that rat el) I for the use of domestic animals is a bold'un- a side pocket."
For more than a third of a century the
Mexican Mustaiirl.liilmeiituasbccu
known to mllllnnn nil nvrp Ilia vn.M ..a
the only safe rcliauco for the lellef of
ucuiucms una pain. Jt is a medicine
above prico ami pmtso tlie best or Its
k lutl. i or overy form of external pain
Mustonsr Liniment Is xv ithout nn equal.
It Penetrates Heal, nii.1 mii.pl. ,n
the very bone maklnp; tho continu
ance of puln and inllamntlon Impossible
Its effects upon Humnn Flesh and tho
Brute Creation aro equally wondcrfuL
rue Mexican
Liniment is needed by snmelinuV In
every house. K ery day brings new a of
iiiEuanroiu nxriiil scnai or burn
suouueu. or rnaninatle mirtirM ro.
stored, or a aaluable horse or ox
" uy mo ucounff power of tnls
which speedily cures such ailments of
the HUS1AN lEsII as ,""uuuls
'Rheumatism, NxTelllngs, atlflr
"""- -. juuiciH, jsurns
- nc.ioi, cuii, umiiM and
Sprtlni, PbU.uoii.i Bites and
HtlURs, Btluuess, Lameness, Old
Sores, ITlc.rs, Frostbites, Chilblains,
.1 Nipple, Caked llrcast, and
Indeed eyery form or external dii-
.,?' arlthout scan.
For the llnLTE CKEiTioK it cures
Sprains, Swlnny, SUIT Joint.,
Founder, Harness Sores, Hoof IU
?? r Boi Strew Worm, Scab,
S Hollow Dora, Scratches, foind.
alls, Sparln, Thrush, Ulna-bone.
..,4 ,.0V. .oU ErU' ritmwpon
the BlRht and erery other ailment
to which the occupants of the
S.bU Jnd Mtatlc Yrd " liable?
Tho Mexican Mustang I.lulment
V Y,:. 'Vir" S"HS IX TltEATIhO
'i wnirrt
I umiciifil Itir urnliii III...
U hi win 1 i..tio Ii' j tol s VV U Tir
r.uMtlr l..l.rfl u, .,,i'iif ,.,, 7.'!"'
m, !
.Z., r '. V" Vest euroi, et
tat C nxttiU it iiV.UbuteU.
t- if