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About Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887 | View Entire Issue (June 4, 1875)
Test of American Iron and Steel.
The Sundry Civil Appropriation bill, passed
among the last acta of the late Congress, con
tained an appropriation of $76,000 for tests
of iron and steel, to be made by a Board of
Engineers, who are to serve without pay, with
the exception of the Secretary. The members
of the Board have recently been appointed by
the Secretary of War, aa follows: Colonel
T. T. S. Laidley, Ordnance Department, TJ. S.
A., resident; Professor B. H. Thurston, Secre
tary; Commander L. A. Beardslee, TJ. S. N.;
General Q. A. Gilmore, Engineer Department,
TJ. S. A.; Chief Engineer David Smith, TJ. S.
K.; W. Lovy Smith. 0. E. ; A. L. Hoiley, 0. E.
A tes'ing machine is to be built, and set up at
the Watertown arsenal, where the experiments
are to be conducted. The Board will receive
instructions from, and report to the Chief of
the Ordnance Department of the Army.
The members of this Board are all well
inown engineers, several of whom have al
ready distinguished themselves by their in
vestigations of the properties of materials nsed
in construction. It would be difficult to over
estimate the value of their future experiments,
if carefully conducted. To mention a single
instance, it may be stated that the English
formula deduced from Gordon's experiments
is almost the only authority available to our
engineers for computing the resistance of ma
terials to compressive strains. Very few of our
engineers could afford to make such experi
ments aa they desired ; and when suoh investiga
tions were conduoted by companies, the results
were not usually available for general use. It
seems probable, therefore, that the appropria
tion, made by Congress for these experiments,
will be productive of more good than many
other items for whioh ten times the amount
Nw Mode or Tbeatino Belts.-A correspond
ent of the Scientific American writes as follows:
I have for the last 25 years, on every Saturday
-evening, turned the inner aide of my engine
belt outside, let the engine run slow.and washed
the belt well with warm water and soda, applied
with cotton waste. Next, I take a piece of sheet
metal and scrape well the belt, next wash with
clean warm water, and dry off. I colleot the
waste oil from the shafting and apply to the
belt as much of it as possible. The washing
must be done as quickly as possible so as not
to dissolve the glued parts. I let the belt stand
on the pulleys till Monday, then give another
scraping and turn the belt as before. I keep
the pulleys very clean. I have long been sur
prised at the economy I have effected with
very little trouble. I have not bought a new
belt for the last ten years. There is an engine
next me, 11x36 inches (mine is 12x36). I have
nearly double the shafting and belts, and my
neighbor cannot run with less than 38 lbs. of
steam when all the belts are on the loose pulleys.
Mine will run at full speed with 5 lbs.
These suggestions, adds our co temporary, will
be appreciated by our readers. One must begin
with a first class belt, made in the best manner,
and nse considerable judgment, in following
the practice of our correspondent.
A New Heating f ubkace. A new inven
tion has recently been made by Messrs. C.
Reese, master mason, and Thomas Johns, su
perintendent of the mill of the iron and steel
company, at Ironton, Ohio. The improvement
is practically a double furnace, having a grate
at both ends, with the flue in the center, pass
ing down between the two doors under the
body of the furnace into the chimney on the
other side. The inventors claim that this fur
nace will do one-half more work, for the reason
that the beater can be charging at one door
whilst drawing at the other; and that it will
cave largely in iron from the fact that the cold
air passes directly to the flue before reaching
the iron; that it will save greatly in coal, there
not being so large a surface to be heated as in
the ordinary furnaces; and further, that it costs
Icbs to build and less labor to work it, doing
away with the labor of pulling the flue piles to
the bridge for sufficient heat, the last pile
charged being the first ready to draw out. The
furnace is said to be well suited to rail, bar,
plate, guide and hoop mills. It is believed by
practical iron workers that this furnace will
prove to.be an important addition to the pro
ductive capacity ot rolling mills. There will
be one of them put in the mill of the above
mentioned company as soon as possible.
Absence of Oxyoen feom Abtesian Wateb.
M. Gerardin, in a paper read to the Paris
Academy of Sciences descriptive of the artesian
welh oi Grenelle, finds there is no oxygen
present in the water from the lower hand
atone of this locality, nor from the Billy
gravel beneath the clay and at contact
with the chalk (the water was obtaintd
out of contact with air from various depths by
means of a syphon invented by the author), nor
from the Soissonais gravel. Ntithtr was this
gas discovered in the water from the artesian
well at Gonesse. M. Gerardin concludes that
vater obtained from subterranean depths does
not contain oxygen if kept from contact with
the atmosphere. This precaution is essential,
for in contact with the air it dissolves several
cubic centimetres of oxygen. The author Una
often found in the interior of the ascension
tubes long white opaline filamentary algoc.
These algto present the curious property that
they remain white in solar light as long as the
water is deprived of oxygen, but they become
green the instant the water is the least aerated.
Their sensibility to the actiou of oxygen is
most delicate. The action of the alga) serves
to confirm the chemical test with hyposulphite
Oeiqin and Philosophy of Limestone
Caves. Caves in limestone have usually had
their origin in fissureB, through which water
flows, or at one time nowea, at nrei siowiy per
rnlatincr throuch them, and then, as they crad
ually became larger and larger the volume of
water likewise increased, uuiu ma unsure u
came converted into a true underground river
or water course; even in cases where no water
flows through them at the present day it can
plainly be seen that such was the case once.
They are eaten out of the limestone by the
solvent power which water charged with car
bonic acid possesses. Ordinary water free from
carbonio acid would be quite incapable of dis
solving out the limestone, but all natural
waters contain more or less of that gas, derived
by the rain from the atmosphere and from the
decaying vegetable matter which it meets with
in its passage through the soil. All limestone
caves usually retain more or less completely
their original form of fissures, expanded, per
haps, in parts, into vast caves and chambers of
immense proportions, but again contracting a
little further on into a mere crack or tunnel.
Comparatively large rivers are received by such
caves, which then continue their course under
ground, in some cases suddenly appearing to
the light of day again, but in others making
their way beneath the surface right out to sea.
Certain of the South Australian creeks are thus
The Andes Gbaduaixt Sinuno. The highest
foints ot the Andes are thought to be sinking,
a 1715, when measured by La Condamine,
Quito was found to be 9596 feet above the sea.'
In 1803 Humboldt made it 0570 feet, in 1831
Boussingaolt 9567 feet, in 1867 Orton9520, and
in 1670 Beiaa and Stnbel 9356 feet. It the earli
est and latest measurement were exact Quito
has sunk 240 feet in 125 yeara.
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DEWEY Jt CO.,
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We not only more readily apprehend the points
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serving the publio who aro more ready to give
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To Obtain a Patent,
A well-constructed model is generally first need
ed, if the invention can well be thus illustrated,
It must not exceed 12 inches in length or
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