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About The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980 | View Entire Issue (April 19, 1931)
The OREGON STATESMAN, fiaka, Orcrroa,' Simday Mornin-r, "April 19. 1931
"No Favor Sways' Ua;
From First Statesman. March 28, 1531
THE STATESMAN PUBLISHING CO.
Charles A. SntAGUE. Sheldon F. Sacxett, PublUkr$
Ch axles A. ' SPHAGfE Editor-Manager
Sheldon F. Sackktt - - - - - Managing Editor
HfomhAT nf thm
The Associated Pres is exclusively entitled la the use for po bllca
tloa of kit ntwi dispatches credited to It or not otherwise credited la
thl P"1-- - - - : - ' " " -
Pacific Coast Advertising Representatives:
Arthur W. BtTp, tm-.. Portland. BfMty gd.
.. San Iranciaco. Sharon BlCs.1 Lo Antele. W Pac. Bids.
Eastern AdvertisiDj; Representatives:
Chtcas 36 J N.
Entered at the Porto ff ice at
Hatter. Published every morning except- Monday. ISuexneea
office, US S. Commercial Street. i
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Catalonia SuDoorts Republic
7VTEWS that the Catalonian
,111 new Spanish republic whose capital wiH be tne ancient
city of Madrid is of real importance. It signifies that a
umtea opain wiu ce cenina -uie new wujucuv, -
one. of the best assurances it could have of stability and
.permanence. Catalonia has long been the seat of discord.
There the Carlist thrusts for return i I the- throne were
lAiinehed. There the Spanish "socialists have Taised re
lated disturbances- There disaffection with the royal pow
er of the Bourbons has been
Catalonia is not merely, a part of Spam. In fact the
Catalonians declare themselves quite independent of Spain
in language in racial origin and in literature. It does have
An identity which has not been lost in its five centuries
under the Spanish crown. Catalonia occupies the northeast
ern triangle of the Spanish peninsula, from the river Ebro
to the Pyrenees. Barcelona is its principal city, and the
center for decades both of Spanish industry and of the rev
olutionary movement. 1 . ,
r The people speak their own language, distinct from the
Spanish, resembling more the speech of Languedoc on the
French side of the Pyrenees. They are lighter in complex
ion, with less of the admixture of Moorish blood than other
parts of Spain. .
Catalonia was long the corridor -of; conquest. .Rome
worked its way around the Mediterranean coast to place its
eagles at Saguntum. Hannibal from the Carthaginian prov
ince of lower Spain started his armies which seized Sagan
tum, crossed the Ebro, -marking definite invasion of the
Roman empire, traversed Catalonia, scaled the Pyrenees,
the Alps and swept down into Italy to conquest and to de
feat. After, the Punic wars Catalonia was an important part
of the Roman empire. Then came the Goths, rude barbar
ians from the north, who built a kingdom in Spain on the
ruins of Roman power. The Moors swept up from the south,
hot with the religious fury of Mohammed. They seized Cat
alonia in 712. forcing many of its inhabitants across the
Pyrenees, holding it until 788 when . Charlemagne bore the
banners of France and the cross to the relief of the con
quered Christians. Finally the province became an appanage
of Aragon, and when Ferdinand of Aragon was wed to Isa
bella of Castile, founding the modern Spanish kingdom,1
Catalonia, much against its will, was merged under the
' - With Catalonia loyal to the "new republic, with the
thrifty, business-like citizens of Barcelona supporting the
new regime, there is much of promise for Spain, which
within the week has thrown off the incubus of five centuries
of royal mis-rule. Time alone will tell "how solid the new
government will be, and how firm will -be .the affections of
the independent-minded Catalonians. j -
. , . - -if' ' ' ' .'
J; .. ..." I ., i' I '::
Publicity They Love It
FRANK R. KENT of the Baltimore-Sun is as acute an ob
server and severe a critic as the political scene has had
for many years. He is one among the political writers who
retains His attitude of aloofness. Usually the reporter soon
er or later becomes the protagonist either of party or of in
dividual coming into the favor of himself or the paper he is
writing for. Nojt so with Kent, who writes like a judge, yet
r ,with the devastating style of a free lance journalist.
: Speaking in Washington before the society of American
newspaper editors, Kent declared that publicity, newspaper
publicity, is what public officials crave, I and not merely
publicity, but favorable publicity. Careers are founded on
publicity. Publicity does not mean necessarily, editorial fav
or, but news attention. The public draws its own conclusions
more from the news columns than sthe editorial columns.
Its reactions come from the account of events rather than
intelligent analysis of the events and the motives which the
editorial page supplies.
The difficulty for the public man of course is to analyze
tne publicity he is getting. He is. naturally flattered by the
friendly news articles; while the sharp criticism he either
refuses to read or to heed. True it is, he cannot chart his
course by what the newspapers say, for their voice is di
vided. The successful politician is one who correctly ap
praises the public reaction to the publicity which his actions
" receive. .
The important thing to be noted from the Kent com
ment is that newspaper publicity Temains the dominant
force in molding public opinion. People may say they do not
believe what they read in the papers. But if they read it
often enough they will not only believe it but act upon it.
May we add the further footnote that never in our his
tory was newspaper reporting so pbjecti ve, and so little
partisan as at the present time.
.; " :-.: 4 ' fy' ; v r ,"f
Join the Life-Savers
AN eleven-year old boy, Jimmie Hargreaves, who lives at
Yakima, saw a little red cap floating in an irrigation
ditch through that city last Thursday. He recognized the
cap as belonging to a little neighbor boy of 18 .months, so
he ran along the ditch and sure enough there was the boy
being carried along in the current. Jimmie -reached down
and pulled the boy out of the water, turned him over his
knee to get the water out of his lungs and used artificial
respiration to get his lungs to working. He succeeded and
then carried the dripping, but breathing youngster back to
his parents. " . 1-
t, ST Ji-year old lad learn his stuff? Well,
he attended one of these swimming classes in Yakima last
summer; that's where he learned how. -.
, . Jimmie is a real hero, not only in saving a boy's life,
-but in showing ability to put his knowledge to use in an
.emergency. So many people flatten out: when the pinch
Salem has been hMt fnr umi A.t : ' ... .
; ferene. Oregon. Tas meeting ka. been of .1 tot lKe2L
"t'i0111118 tOT m ot th bewtifal new church edlSi
, which the Salem branch ot this bodr baa Just completed on Summer
street. Todar this building is to be dedicated. It is a rreat erSnt
not only in the life of the cbarch bat in -tho : ewnmanlS beUuM
, through thU newer building tha church bopea te aerri thV?om-
' ' - '' l- t f
: "Hare faith In Massachusetts" the' insurance companies in
creased their. investments in Oregon by si end a-half milUona fn
v. aiwer aaa the teawruy at Eugene to propose another
Not Fear -Shaft Awe"
Associated PrCSS . ,
Neir York, 1JJ kfadlsoa Are. t
Satenu Oregon, as Second-Clae
republic, will join with the
long-establislied . and deep-
Today's Talk v
By IL 8. Copcland, 11. D.
At this time of the year, due
to sudden ehangei In weather, and
possibly carelessness on your part.
yon are likely
to hare an at
tack of laryngt
tis. This is aft
mation of the
brane, or ) the
lining of the
X .71". larnyx. 11 as us
fV ? J aally the result
I . of . exposure to
I "SC V ret and cold.
V 'X In many in-
1WJ iani it tn
timply an ex
tension . down
ward of a cold which started in
It frequently follows the brer'
use of the voice. It was not un
common in the late war from the
inhalation of Irritating gases.
Many individuals bare a ten
densy to inflammations of the lar
nyx. It may he one of the com
plication in measles, scarlet fo
yer, chicken pox or typhoid fever.
In laryngitis 'there is a tickling
in the threat. Cold air irritates,
the throat nd breathing may be
unite difficult. The voice ia al
tered or may be : entirely lost.
Speaking is gnerally fatiguing
and often very painful.
In adults with, this condition,
there is no alteration in 1 the
breathing. But in children with
laryngitis the first sign is van
ally that of difficulty in breath
ing. This is due to the inflamma
tion of the throat but often it is
so misleading as to be mistaken
for croup. ;'
' la treatinr this condition, it is
most essential that the larynx be
put to rest. There must be no un
necessary talking and, above alt.
In severe cases it is best to re
main in bed. The room should be
keDt at an even temperature and
the air saturated with moisture.
This is accomplished by placing a
pan of water over the radiator or
on the stove. I
Inhalations of various prescrip
tions your doctor will give you
are helDful in reducing the diffi
culty In breathing. For pain, eith
er ice or heat may be applied to
the neck. The ice bag usually
gives great relief.
The more severe forms ot acute
laryngitis require careful watch
ing by a physician. But these se
vere cases are rare.
Answers to Health Queries
B. E. A. Q. There are creams
on the market advertising the per
manent removal of superfluous
hair. Is there danger In using such
creams or preparations?
A. Since I am not laminar
with these preparations I cannot
advise you about them. -
E. E. Q. What do you advise
for poison ivy?
A. Send self-addressed envel
ope for fujl particulars and' re
peat your question. r j
C. F. T. Q. What causes a 6-year-old
child to perspire excess
ively at night?
A. This may be due to rickets,
nervousnous, etc. fc Have the chUd
L. J. Q. What causes the ear
drums to dry up. leaving me deaf?
A. This is probably due to a
catarrhal condition. It would be
wise to see an ear specialist.
Ends With Both
VERSAILLES. Ind. . April 18
(AP) Orville Chamberlain. I 35,
Norwood, Ohio, and Jess Rodgers,
70, shot and killed each other in a
pistol battle -late Friday. Cham
berlain's mother was wounded
when she attempted to act as
Coroner J. F. Burst, who con
ducted an .inquest, said Chamberlain-and
-Rodgers had quarreled
about tin cans thrown over a fence
by Rodcers on to the DroDertv of
Chamberlain's mother, Mrs. Mary
DEPRECIATION CHARGES ; 1
Ws rockoa -depreeiativn on ear mi
ehla at as crvr Jaerusinr rata; hat '
who tha world thinks of reckoning
the depreciation on oar pet political or
lfl asiesMt" William Orton ia Ap
ril "AtUatie." I
Who indeed allow depreciation
on their religious doctrines, or
on their prejudices? What should
be the, yardstick of this depreci
ation? What are the elementa of
value which are enduring, which
really increase with time and
We cannot measure deprecia
tion of our beliefs after the man
ner of the machine. For the lat
ter there may be the rule of ten
percent or five percent; for ! the
former there may be appreciation
instead.- Or there may suddenly
come the element of obsolesence
an ancient belief suddenly be
comes 100 antiquated. The mor
al virtues of truth-telling, of re
spect for person and property,
they do not grow of less worth
as time passes. But many of our
taDus and beliefs do. Cardinal!
Newman wrote a treatise in
which he showed how the church
had given up doctrines once con
sidered, of great importance. Pure
Calvinism with its dark belief In
original sin and fatalistic pre
destination, how rarely is it ac
cepted now as compared with a
generation ago? The Darwinian
theory and -the Copernican dis
coveries have profoundly altered
our conceptions of creation and
ot the universe.
; It is easy to cling to the old
because it Is old. For long
time the wheels of Tokyo and of
Kioto bad a different number of
spokes tn them. Why? because
survey, but this time it was of American agriculture. What the peo-'
pie ought to surrey first Is the U. S. senate which hatched the bunk
It seems that Meyers' trouble is that .be usee Meier's methods.
4 'A Knight
He had now reached the com
gated metal side of the hangar.
The light from the interior of the
great shed flooded the near end
of the flying field. By contrast
the shadow through which he
crept was as palpable as a sea
fog. A dozen more feet would
bring him to the edge ot the open
door. He drew Joan's automatic
from his pocket and released the
safety catch. The metalUc click as
he cocked the ugly little, weapon
wad a very comforting sound.
Now, every nerve tingling in an
ticipation, he strode iwiniy
around the corner. The two men
stared at him in astonishment.
The shotgun swung upward in a
gleaming arc but dropped again
as its owner looked into the blue
steel muzzle of Dave's automatic
Taken By Surprise
Drop that gun," snapped
Dave, "and put up your hands."
There was a brief Instant ot
hesitation. Then the shotgun clat
tered to the cement floor.
"Lie down, both of you. Quick,
now, I'm in a hurry."
Without a word, the two men
on the floor then sprawled out at
full length. Their eyes as they
watched the. intruder, were dan
gerous. Stay right where you are un
til I'm out ot here," Dave warned
them, kicking the shotgun into a
corner far out of their reach. .
1 Know you. saia ine man in
the breeches and puttees, sudden
ly. "You're the fly bird who
cracked up in the grove the other
"And I know you, too," retort
ed Dave.- "You're one of the few
rotten crooks who have learned
to fly and to give the whole sport
and business of aviation a bad
name. I don't know how anyone
who " isn't above running liquor
ever gathered endugh nerve to
take his first solo flight. Ordin-1
arily you bootleggers- have cour-
age only when you're standing be-
hind a gun. Maybe you take a
of respect for the- ancestors who
had first constructed them. Even
after Che repeal of the laws ord
ering no change from ancestral
customs, the people of each city
continued to use wheels with
their own number of spokes in
rues is under test at the present
time-and religious doctrines as
well. What shall be retained?
What shall- be discarded? What
have permanent values? Which
have become obsolescent? And of
our prejudices how sharply do
Ljre depreciate them? Or do we
still retain our animosity -toward
other creeds and other Ideas
and other nations which we have
always entertained? "
"Time makes ancient good un
couth," sang the poet -Tennyson.
Not merely the lapse of time but
the change In men's minds, their
difference vn outlook. In evalu
ating the, "ancient good". The
problem of discarding the out
worn and preserving the perman
ent is not simple. It is easy to
throw out good with the bad, or
retain bad with the good. It is a
continuing problem, -the more
acute now because the recent re
lease of scientific knowledge has
thrown many challenges at old
belief. ... , '
There is no rule for "deprecia
tion 4f Ideas and beliefs". The
individual or the Institution must
write its own formula. The im
portant thing Ia to be aware of
the -.need of such depreciation.
and the willingness to "charge
off"- those, notion which havel
really become outmoded.
. "?s--ll-l'''UIJJ! ."'.'.'..-..
THE CALL OF SPRING
Iore turned in his teat mid
shot In the arm before you climb
into your plane. Anyone who'd
use a good plane to carry liquor
across the border is Just a louse,
that's all, and if I had time I'd
take a lot ot pleasure in batthtg
you In the eye until you couldn't
see for a month."
"Yeah," snarled the pilot, his
face twisted with fury. "It's all
hot stuff for you to crack like
that while you got a rod in your
hand. Put it down and see, can
you bat me In the eye."
"That's a good point," conced
ed Dave gravely, "but I haven't
time now. But whenever you
want to meet me. unarmed and
alone, just drop me a line in care
of the Metropolis Trust company,
New York, and I'll come when
ever you are. ' My name s David
Ordway. Remember. Metropolis
Trust cbmpany. New York. And
now you 11 have to excuse me."
Taking care not to turn .his
back upon the recumbent pair, he
studied the' outlines of the sUent
planes that were waiting there
for their liquid cargoes.
"All I got to say," dec.lared.the
gangster pilot, "is that you better
get as far away from here as you
can, and then keep right on go
ing. If you don't get bumped off
for this. It'll be because you got
horseshoes hanging all over. you
thickern the links on a bullet
proof vest." .
-Two land planes stood- nearest
the open door. Behind them stood
the awkward looking bulk of the
amphibian. Dave realized that he
could not more the airplanes out
Jot the way unassisted. He would
nave to aoanaon the plan of tak
ing -the amphibian and be . eon
tent with one of the others.
"This Isn't a bad monoplane
you have here," he said, stooping
under the stubby wing. "You
d-'t mind if I borrow It," do
you?" - '
The man who had been hold
ing the sawed-off shotgun rolled
over and began to scramble to
ward the open door. Dave -wheeled,
took careful aim and fired.. A
shower of flinty sparks ' and a
puff of concrete dust flew --up in
to the crawling man's face as the
bullet riocheted off the floor end.
struck the metal side of the han
gar with- a deafening -clang; The
man drew back instantly.
"AH right, mister," .he called
hurriedly, "I'm through."
He lay down again on the floor
beside the pilot, motionless ex
cept for his furtive eyes, which
followed Dave's every movement.
The other, who had sat up as
Dare levelled his automatic, re
laxed and lay still.
Save peered Into the cockpit of
? a!?"!i xt 73s ,iwter
ihi imi uuui iv Biaucoti Anx
iously . at the instrument board,
then smUed- contentedly. HIa lack
was still with him. The plane was
equipped with a compressed air
starter, so he would need ne sjk
sistance in cranking her. Holdina
his automatic ready for Instant
punched thm eanrster ailot full
action, he clambered into the
cckpit and eased himself down
to the seat cushions. As he ad
justed the patent buckle of the
wide safety belt he looked down
into the two pairs of unfriendly
eyes that were still observing
"Give my ' love and kisses to
Mueller, nee Cazzoni," he beam
"You'd better keep flying
straight on till you run outa gas"
snarled the pilot, "and then hop
the rattler for the farthest place
you . can remember. That way
maybe you'll lire a month or so
"You are so solicitous of my
-health!" murmured Dave appre
The other- cursed him whole
heartedly. Dave , pulled on the
starter lever. The whirring of the
gears drowned out the flood of
obscenities. The engine kicked
over and over., There was a puff
of flame from the exhaust pipe.
The man with the puttee rolled
over on his stomach and reached '
for his hip. The engine backfired
missed, then began to roar
emootEly, rhythmically. There
A good hearty laugh is in store for yon and sound, profitable advice will be
wrapped in every giggle. Beginning NEXT SUNDAY you can enjoy a NEW
COMIC to be published here by
Homer H. Smith. Insurance Agency .
OVER MILLER'S STORE TELEPHONE 9181
BITS for BREAKFAST
-JJy IL J.
A good Sunday story: -.
The Lausanne with the "great
reinforcement" for the Methodist
mission had arrived. June X. 1840
Jason Lee had sent the recruits,
fiX of them. Including men, worn
en and children, to their various
posts, at Wascopam f The Dalles)
Nisqually on the sound. Clatsop
plains below Astoria, The Falls
(Oregon City), the old mission, 10
miles below what became saiem,
and had located the site for the
mission mills and the Indian
manual training school, on Che
meketa plain, the ait of the future
oity of Salem, and had otherwise
set ia fuller motion the work of
the epoch making enterprise from
which he had been absent for
over two years.
Now he planned another station
on the Umpqua, which he had vis
ited before going east in 1838. On
Tuesday, August 18th, 1840, tak
ing with him saddle and pack anl
mala and camp equipment, he
started south, accompanied by
Rev. Gustarus Hines, Dr. Elijah
White and an Indian boy tor
guide, whom they called "Cap
tain." They galloped away from
the old mission after a late start
and "came 10 miles, to "where
ground had been broken for the
mission saw and grist mills." (To
what was to be Salem.)
They traveled over the hills
southward and arrived at "San-
tlam'a Fork" of the Willamette
swam their horses across that
stream, and camped tor the night
under a treat tree on the south
side Proceeding southward, they
later swam the Willamette, and
on Friday, the 2 1st, nooned on
"Bridge creek." so called because
a California party had thrown a
rude bridge across the stream. It
is now called the Sluslaw. The
California party was no doubt
Michel LaFrambolse's Spanish bri
gade, of the Hudson's Bay com'
The next day at Elk creek they
left I the "California trait," the
northward extension ot El Camino
Real the king's highway of the
Spanish missions. On Monday,
the 24th, they arrived at Fort
Umpqua and were welcomed kind
ly by "Gonea" and his Indian
wife, in charge there. I mis is
the spelling of Hines; others used
a different form tor Gonea.)
Here Dr. White turned back
with the Indian boy. "Captain,"
as he had decided to return east
on the Lausanne's homeward
journey; with his family. Dr.
White and Jason Lee had had a
disagreement, of which much was
made. It was no doubt caused.
among other things, by a differ
ence of opinion on the manage
ment of the missions. Here is
quoted the following excerpts
from Dr. (and Mrs.) White's book,
"Ten Years In Oregon:"
"Dr. White was accompanied by
an. Indian boy, who had been a
slave captured ln warfare when
10 years old, by 1 the Cmpquas
from the Chestes, remaining with
them for years, until purchased
by one of the Hudson's Bay com
pany, who afterwards settled in
the Willamette. Here the doctor
was no time to warm her up. Bet
ter to take a chance with a cold
enginej Dave advanced the throt
tle. The plane trundled forward
over the smooth concrete floor.
A Perfect Target t
The guard scrambled to his
feet and pounced upon the shot
gun. The man with the puttees
was up, too, running toward the
fuselage, A gun glittered in his
right hand. The rolling plane was
heavy, getting underway slowly.
She lurched off the runway and
began to waddle clumsily across
the rutted turf of the landing
field. . :
A hand appeared on the pad
ded edge of the cockpit, right at
Dave's shoulder. A sweaty face,
twisted with : rage, appeared
above the cowling, a perfect tar
get, but Dave could not bring
himself to kill in cold blood. He
turned in his seat and punched
the gangster pilot full in the
mouth. The contorted face dis
sapeared, but the dirty hand re-'
mained, clutching the padded
cowling. Dave pried one ot the
fingers loose and bent it up and
back until Jhe thought the bone
would break. Perhaps it did. The
hand opened convulsively, and
dropped out -of sight.
(To be continued tomorrow)
T 1 v
V . V--w -L.
found him, and bought bis free
dom, and the youth accompanied
him on this as well as other ex
cursions, and was a valuable as
sistant, being an expert rider and
remarkably trusty for one ot hU
race. They retraced their lonely
way over the mountain; . . . found
an encampment for the night.
They built a fire beside a log and
stretched themselves on the
ground; but the doctor could not
drive from his mind the Idea that
he was 100 miles from any of his
own race, and in the midst of,
for aught he knew, hostile tribes,
and It dissipated the repose his
weary form so much coveted.
"About sunrise they were arous
ed by a , light, quick tread, and,
to their alarm, discovered advancing-
towards them, on the last
night's trail, half dozen well
armed Indians. Springing to
their feet, they grasped the guns
which lay beside theta, and
stood pa the guard; but soon saw
there was no occasion for appre
hension, for the leader came for
ward, trailing his weapon, and
proffered his hand with the grace
of a well bred Frenchman. His
companions followed his example,
and then quietly seated themselves
on the ground. They said they
had heard the missionaries were
in the country, seeking tor a place
to settle; that they were glad, and
had come to seek and welcome
them, but. being unable to find
them, had discovered the trail th
day before and followed it.
"Alter some conversation the
chief gave a slight history of the
last six years of his life. A large
party of the Hudson's Bay com
pany, passing through the country
on their way to California, persuad
ed mm to go with them on a
hunting and trapping excursion to
that country. He gave a very lust
description of the character of
the company, light, .gay, frivolous.
and sometimes profane. One only
of the party widely differed from
tne rest. The one. the chief ob
served, at the close, of each day's
journey, to retire to a distance
from the camp and kneel in an
attitude of deen devotion, for
some length of time. This, with
his calm, consistent demeanor, im
pressed the son ot the forest so
forcibly that be begged and re
ceived permission to accompany
him, and there listened to the de
voted prayers and pious Instruc
tions of the good man; and It
was followed by good results, for
he learned of God.1 Ills Son. and
the Holy Spirit.' He longed for
the time to come when he should
return to him home, for he wished
to communicate to his people his
lately, acquired knowledge of a
religion which had Imparted to
his spirit a new and delicious en
joyment. ; 1 ...
"At his strange revelations they
were amazed, and like a 'little
leaven leavening the whole lump
the work began, and spread
among them, and, for a time, a
forcible change was -perceived in
the whole tribe. But gradually,
as it often is in other countries,
one by one they lost their first im
pressions, till, as he expressed It.
pointing to his little number, 'all
but tnese have left me. and the
good and the right way.' Tears
rolled down his cheeks, and grief
was portrayed on his dark face.
I've told them all r know, and
many times, till they have become
tired, and now my heart jumps
within me that the missionaries
are coming to ; give them - more
knowledge, and make attain God's
love to shine in their hearts.'
Their listener told them all he
knew of Mr. Lee's purposes, and
Invited them to visit the mission.
When the time for separation ar
rived, the little company knelt in
prayer to the Great Father, and
the doctor observed with interest
the humble, devoted bearing of
his visitors, and their emotions,
as they listened to the words of
"He also, for the first, discover
ed they were Catholics, by their
crossing themselves repeatedly
and devoutly. Himself and his
companion left the place, and al
ways remembered It as a hallowed
spot, consecrated . by the Impres
sive scene they had witnessed."
SON IS BORN
KEIZER, April 18 Keiser's
population was Increased this
week. April 13 by the birth of a
son weighing- five pounds to Mr.
and Mrs. Carroll Poole. No name
has yet been given to him.
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