The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980, October 15, 1925, Page 8, Image 8

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    -This cat is' used by courtesy of the
. Associated' Industries of Oregon
Dates of Slogans in! Daily Statesman
-ww-- (In Twlceo-Week, Statesman Following Day).
c ( With a few possible change)
- Loganberries, October 1
; Prone, October 8 -
Dairying, October 13 ' " .
. Flax, October 22
.Filberts,. October 29
Walnuts, Novembers
Strawberries, November. 12
1 Apple's," November Id
Raspberries, November 20-'
tnt, HeCember S -
Great Cows, 1eZtc December 10
; Blackberries, December 17
r .Clierrle, .December 24 '
Pears, December 31
'Gooseberries, January 7, 1025
Corn, -January 14 ,
Celry, January 21
Kplnarh, Etc., January 28 ,
Onions, Ktc February 4
Potatoes, Ftc, February 11 "
Bee,' February 18
, Poultry and Pet Stock, Feb. 25
Cityf Beautiful, Etc.. March 4
rIten, Ktcv, March 11
Paved Highway; March 18
Hen Jtufrj March 2.1
Kilojs Eic4 'April !
legUinn,'' ArH 8
Asrac4, Etc., April 15
Grapes. Etc., April 22
Drug Garden, April 20
' ; 260 POUNDS
Above, That There Is on the Average a Profit: Below That
J figure There Is on the Average Dairy Farm a Loss
This Was Arrived at After an Investigation Carriec
'-.on in Four Counties for a Year Moral: Breed Ur.
.Your Cows !
; 'TheHrPOtTuetioii of 210 pounds .
of fat ter cow a year Is the point I
above -and below -u, which , profits t
were made or losses suffered by j
the Targe number of Oregon dairy
men hose- production costs have
been surveyed and reported by Hie
. Oregon. Agricultural eollege exten
sion, service. . Production ' per cow
farthermost Important factor in
the! economy of production, other
Important factors being feed,
le' of herd, management, and
labor coFts. -
. ,'. Tie surrey was conducted in
Multnomah." Clackamas. Colum
bia and Washington counties for
tUeiyear 120, 1921 and 1922.
Classification was made as-to dis
position cf the milk as condens
ery milk, market milk, and cream.
Delivery costs were not included
In the report. "..'.
In. .'determining cost, all farm
raised, eed. was charged at farm
prfces-j-the value at the farm.
Purchased feed was charged at
actual costs. All labor put on the
dairy enterprise, .. whether per
formed by hired help, the farmer,
c.r members jZ of his family, was
-.charged at the current wages paid
for, geaeral - farm-help. Miscel-
- lan.ouiexpenses included taxes
;rnd- Interest on . the dairy Iirvest
juent sowa, amr. equipment ) de
prertatroBtmTtiirrjpmen such
'general, expense as" veterinary
1 eeSf fSD.sl3I (expense; -ans,
etc.' Credits comprising the farm
value of manure, increase in value
of da4rferd.T-yBng stock, and
la ' (he cream sections the valne
' of skim "mirk: fei' to other live
stock, were deducted from the
'"total cost.'to arrive at the "net
, cost."
'" 4The requirements ot feeds and
labor In producing 100 pounds of
milk1 and their "respective costs
were figured separately. This
jukkes it possible to use the unit
requirements and apply existing
prices-to determine cost at. any
period, a fa V which should; make
Ihese data"of"future value, while
If 'pre'seMPa'tSh'the cost basis only,
the "results of. but tem
porary interest- j " . ' ,
Jt will be noticed that the aver
age of 90 herds visited, each year
totaled 1256 cows, or an average
. of-14 cowjs.-to ,hf herd.. It also
shows the .feed, cost to anproxi-
' mate per 'cent, labor" 30 per
.cent, and overhead 10 per cent of
j the total cost of producing dairy
products,-1" '-'--
While the average for all farms
' showed 5 tons of succulents, 2.2
1oLsi of hay,-i ton of grain, and
193 days of labor, there was
fome, variation within the di"
" enl group. The condenserjr group
ppparentli S ed about 50 per cent
Xmofe succulents, 20 per cent more
)iay, 40 per cent more grain, and
Ve.ulredv,lR per cent more labor
than the average requirements
per cow for the market milk and
creamery groups. This was largely
due to the. fact that market milk
n d butter, at farms had much
v more pasture available, as will he
.brought out in the next table.
The conifensery group had higher
.producing' cows.
There Is" apparent consistency
Jo annual requirements per cow.
Sugar Ilee4n, Sorghum, Ecc,
-y s
Water Powers, May 13 '
Irrigation May20
Mining, May 27
Land, Irrigation, Etc., June 3
Floriculture, June 10
Hops, Cabbage, Etc., June 17 .
Wholesaling and jobbing,
i June 24
Cucumbers, Etc., July 1
Hogs, July 8
Goats, July 15
Schools, Etc., July 22
Sheep, July 29
.National Advertising, August 5
Seeds, Etc., August 12
Livestock, August 10
Grain and Grain Products, A ng-
t ust 26,.
Manufacturing, September 2
Automotive Industries 'Septetn-
I ber 0 " , i v
Woodworking, JJte;, September
la . . '
I'upcr Mills, September 2.1
I (Ilaclf cop!8 of the Thurs
day edition of The Daily Ore
gon Statesman are ju nancfc
They are for mie at 10 eents
each, mailed, ta any address.
J current copies 5 cents). .
For . instance, the condenser
(roup shows succulent , require
ments per cow to have been 6.4
6.6, and 6.5 tons for the year
1920, 1921. 1922.- respectively
The other factors for any part icu
Iar"grouplfor the. three vears shov
but little variation- 1 This consist
ency in quantify of feeds indicate
reliability in data submitted.
I The reports show the annua:
costs of keeping a cow. It applie'
values to the amounts as indicat
ed In Table II. For instance- afte
subtracting credits we find that
including all' farms: for the three
years it cost tin average of: $16f
to keep a cow for one year. Ther
was some variation in the aver
aze cost for the different groups
the cndenserv group showing r
eost of $30 higher than the mar
ket milk and ? creamer ) proup
rThe market milk proup with al
most 800 pounds less milk produc
tion and the cream group with
$43 -worth of credits instead o'
$2r. due t the va'ue of skin
milk, are undoubtedly the chief
reasons for this difference. When
compared one year with another,
each group shows a variation in
netcost per cow; this of course U
due 'primarily to the fluctuationf
ialthe- market and farm values of
noups for the, three years t-otJ.fWTUiwW'-"6?
At,,.. iriA Ujo t.t.-'i. I Inr the-Tjer canita of consumntion
succulents ISt nounds, hay mii. .W -Connection progress is bfci
pounds, grain S3 pounds, and Ja-
bor 3.2 hour?; With this as a'basls"
the average farm can at any time
determine its production costs.
The net cost of jrortucinfrOO
pounds of milk for 1920 Vas
$3.54. while in was' onlv
12.34. In 1922 there Jivas' slight
rUe to I2.K7
The costs of the cream group
reduced to a pound butter-fat
basis, the 'average requirement be
ing: 34 pounds- sncculenee, IS
pounds hav. $ pounds grain, and
4 ." minutes of labor t to. produce
one pound of bntter-fat.
One table shows-the variation
in costs per 100 pounds of milk
on the farms producing whole milk
for each of the three years. The
approximate average farm price
received by tha dairymen produc
tion whole mtllf was $3.D0 per cwt.
In 1920 and $2.00 per cwt. In
1921 and 1922. It Is interesting,
therefore, to note- that-. approxi
mately 28 per cent of the milk
was produced at a profit in 1920,
22 per cent in -1 21, and 1 5 per
cent in-1922. The reasons for the
variation in costs to the individual
dairymen, and what made It pos
sible to produce a certain portion
of the milk at a profit, are - the
outstanding practical questions of
interest. An attempt to analyze
the results is made in the follow
ing ables and graphs. V ,-- - v
One thing a dairyman thinks
about in reducing costs is produc
tion per cow. That it ia "neces
sary to keep cows of good Hreedf
lng - is generally recognized al
though not always followed; at
the same time, it is important to
feed right. Much improvement can
be brought about by better feeding-
" " ,
There was a constant Increase
"OREGON QUALITY products are establishing themselves in world markets; they make
our pay rolls; they build our cities; they! attract new capital and new people; they provide a
market for the products of our farms. ! Oregon farms produce a wider variety of profitable
crops of "Oregon Quality food than any othr spot on earth.
The Fairmount Dairy Had One of the
Best Equipped Plants in
The Fact Is, This Most Extensive of the Milk Products Supply Depots of Salem, Is One of
World, Which Pact Was Attested by the Visit of an International Comi
Sanitary Equipment and
i To furnish Salem consumers
with: the cleanest possible milk
supply has been the purpose of
the Fairmount Dairy since its es
tablishment in its thoroughly
modern quarters at 910 South
Commercial street in July, 1922.
jrhe business has increased con
tinuously from that time, and the
past year, has seen an even more
narked advance than was before
Experienced. New facilities for
handling milk in the most approv
ed' manner have been added.
J' liqual to A n Anywhere
A!gijup of Norwegian dairy
! j o n ii fa uvava w fa ! csA
the Fair-
jitrVuni' plant ibou t- a ' "year ago
when on a tour of the United
itates and Canada and pronounc
jad the Fairmount system at that
time equal to any they had in
i ;pected" on their tour.
.The basis of operation v at the
Fairmount Dairy is perfect pas-1
teurization. In fact the trade slo
gan of the company is "Perfectly
Pasteurized." In the popular mind
pasteurization is a complex pro
cess. In operation it is extreme
.n its simplicity. Reduced to low
est terms the process simply con
sists of heating milk to 145 de
crees, holding tor 30 minutes and
then cooling to 40 degrees. This
process kills all pathological bac
teria, including the dreaded colon
bacflli. .
' U. S. Consumption Ixw
Consumption of dairy products
in the United States is lower on
a per capita basis than in many
of the leading European countries.
One Kit the problems facing the
dairy-industrp which Is one of,5lhe
enterprises'- ot
ing made. Some industrial plants
where large forces of men are em-
ployed"tmder strenuous conditions
especially in extreme heat, as in
foundries, the management has
adopted the practice of furnishing'
wholesome milk In mid-forenoon
and mid-afternoon. Schools in
various parts of the world have
also adopted the practice of furn
ishing pasteurized milk for lunch
, : Cleanliness Xeedeil
ff he basis of the advantages
from these practices is absolute
cleanliness, and that includes pas
teurization: Cleanliness in the
milk supply extends back farther
than pasteurization, however.
While this process will kill di
sease carrying organisms it does
not elimiuate foreign matter
which serves as the carrier.
Progressive dairies. carry their
campaigns for cleanliness back to
the farm, and in this development
of the) industry 'the Fairmount
from 197 pounds of fat per cow
to 320 pounds'. There was a great
er amount of feed fed 'per cow in
the smaller herds than in the
larger ones. . Tne average number
of cows per herd was 22 in uroup
I, which gradually, diminished to
9 In Group V. This may not al
ways be the case, bu,t .was true
here because the larger herds were
In the districts where pasturing
was more prevalent and consider
ably less grain was fed.
. Increased - feed had a direct
bearing on the production. In
creased production per cow indi
cates quality of business. Volume
of business is also of importance.
as the size of the herds increased
, , - ; f , - I I IT-""-' T,t '
-Z.''' "' ' ' it "I fill ' ' r rmiti nn '"'"! ., I
snrTo!l f: ;'
ILL -JL v ft? ks
v-Z- -4&&v!'-SPi& -T,.,;;-'.-?: - III I lii I
. : 1 - 1 r m
Management Has Been Neglected.
Dairy has been in the front rank
Sediment tests are made weekly
and different grades of milk esf
tablished on the basis of o reign
matter. A bonus is paid thei pror
ducer or the cleanest milk, thus
making the basis of settlement
freedom from foreign matter as
well as butterfat content. I This
plan has been in operation at the
Fairmpunpairy or about a; year
and uie,-reu)i. has been a re
markable jimpruyement ! In I the
quality toC Jie Jttlk received
rw 1ll0t: Construction
Thejplaiit was' constructed with
every regard for complete sanita-j
tion. Well drained i concrete
floors, prevent accumulations of
waste matter. Extensive wtnd'ow!
space, including skylights, permit
the maximum of sunshine. A
series of fans was installed two
years ago as an additional ! safe-i
guard to abate the fly nuisance
Bottles received are immediate-!
ly placed in a hot alkaline solu
tion and then run through into
scalding water, and prepared for
re-filling by means of automat
tic conveyors. A prime objective
is elimination of all personal
handling and human contact; with
either bottles or milk. . - j, j
The bottle filler and tapper on?
erates In harmony with j this ideaj.
Bottles are capped without perj
sonal handling. In former j days
this operation was conducted by
hand and in fully half the in
stances the thumb of the opera-
Refrigeration equipmcnl at the Fairmount Dairy. A modern ice machine is a requisite for
handling quality dairy products. The cooling equipment is the latest devised and was ob
tained from the York Ice Machine Company of York, Pa.
j from less than 8 to more tljan 22,
the labor and 'overhead expenses
which constitute 40 per cent of
the total cost of producing dairy
products, dropped from! $105 per
cow to 6S. Cruph 2 brings this
out in definite form. i ii,
The saving in labor andi over
head effected by iu iarger herds
was apparently drtset i' by Their
lower production per cow. The
smallest herds had and average
production of 289 pounds of. fat
per cow, and this gradually ' de
creased to 224 pounds; for the
largest herds. A study; of condi
tions on the farms showed that
this decreased production Was not
due primarily to less care and Ja-In
Commission Last Year.
tor came in contact with the milk.
This feature is exclusive to the
Fairmount Dairy in the Salem dis
trict. Upon receipt of the milk, lids
are removed from all cans and a
careful inspection made. Im
mediate rejection is made of all
cans not up to standard. The Bab-ejx-k
test is utilized for determi
nation of butterfat content.
The Pasteurizing, V0Vl5 1, ,
The milk is then placed in a
sterilizer receiving1 vat connected
by an enclosed conveyor with two
pasteurizers. As soon as the first
filled, pasteurization is started
and by the time the second pas
teurizer is filled the process In
'the first is complete. In the pas-
teurizers the heat producing j
-medium is enclosed in revolving
coils and does not come "in con-1
tact with the milk. Fi'om the
pasteurizers the milk is pumped
by a steam pump through fully
enclosed sterilized pipes through
the cooler, which is also complete
ly enclosed, to the bottle filler.
-; All delivery pipes are taken
down and cleaned daily. Brush
ing in an alkaline solution is the
first step. Following, rinsing
with cold water then with scald
ing water, and later yet, a steam
, treatment, Is the practice. When
the pipes are reassembled another
cleaning is given by means of
compressed steam. This steam
bath is then directed towards the
bor but to less feed.. With simi
lar feeding and similar cows, the
larger herds should show a lower
net cost per pound of butter-fat
as well as a lower labor and over
head expense per cow.
j The feed cost per pound of fat
decreased -from 55 centa In the
Iqw producing group to 43 cents
ia the . high producing group.
With the single exception of
Group I, which included ' only
small number of cows, we find the
amount of labor required to pro
duce a ponnd of fat decreased
constantly from 54 minntes la the
low-producing herds to 40 minutes
the high producing herds.
. i.-uSiiiWMw ....
ic" r- 1' ' f-l ' '" -sir. ' j - r - -
This Country
the Very Best Found in the
No Detail of Modern and
entire equipment.
Bottled milk is conveyed from
the filler to the refrigeration
chamber where it is held at its
then temperature of 38 degrees
until loaded on the delivery
Up to Date
This cold room is ne of the
most fundamental features of the
plant in that it is a phase &f the
handling method which makes
one of the largest contributions
to, retention of high quality.
Milk breaks down rapidly abnor
mal temperatures, but continued
cooling of both milk and contain
er enhances retention of quality
even after delivery. ,
In addition to handling perfect
ly pasteurized milk the plant is
equipped to supply all grades of
cream, cottage cheese, Bulgarian
buttermilk, butter and eggs.
A substantial retail business is
conducted at the plant..
Employment is furnished a staff
of fifteen. Four delivery trucks
niet the needs of Salem consum
er. Four trucks are required to
bring the milk to the plant. Fifty
farms furnish the .bulk of the raw-
material handled.
Milk bottles are purchased in
carload lots and western manu
facturers are patronized. The not-
: ties now u3ed are obtained in San
Francisco. Milk bottles are a con
siderable item of expense. The
; ayerage number of trips per bot-
He is 22.
1 1 .vV
Air Mail Will Save Ten
Days Between Two Cities
LONDON. A weekly mail ser
vice between England and India
is being undertaken, by the Im
perial Airways, Ltd., through a
subsidy and a five-year contract
given by the air ministry.! Malls
will - be delivered . in : Bombay in
five days, against the present .15
days, and when the service comes
into regular operation next sum
mer passengers also will be car
ried. - At the outset - passengers
will only be carried between Cairo
and Basra. I
. I
M il II
-This cut is used by courtesy Of the
Associated Industries of Oregon
DID YOU KNOW That, in the matter. of dairying, our
dairymen are at least 7 cents a pound of butterfat ahead
of the dairymen east of the Rocky mountains? That
there is a least that much difference in favor of our
dairymen, cn account of the fact that they are not
obliged to combat the effects of the intense summer
heat and the winter cold in the keeping of cows? That
in addition they have the same advantages in the raising
of their families, and in their own comforts? This one
fact, if it could be generally understood, would fill the
Willamette valley with a population as dense as that of
Belgium. Besides,' our dairymen usually sell in higher
markets than are available to the eastern dairymen.
And did you know that Salem is making a very satisfac
tory and rapid growth as a dairy center?
C. W. Larson, Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Dairying,
Makes Plea for Further Production Per Caw Net for
Milk of $75 Annually Above Feed Cost Possible, In
stead of the $26 Average Now
In a Chicago address, recently,
Dr. C. W. Larson, chief of the
United States bureau of dairying,
made a plea ;for greater produc
tion per cow rather than an In
crease in the number of cows.
The average cow in the United
States yields annually only about
4,000 pounds of milk of which
2.7 per cent is butterfat.
Careful breeding and elimination-
by test in the milk herd
makes an increase to S,000 pounds
of milk annually per cow not im
possible with the average dairy
man. This would net the milk
produced $75 above feed cost per
cow as compared with the present
average of only $26.
Membership in a cow-testing as
sociation and the maintenance of
herd records are extremely desira
ble. The system of records should
When the Farmer Prospers
Conditions' Generally Are
Very Good
(The- following communication,
directed 'to the editor of The
Statesman, was printed in the an
nual dairy Slogan number, last
year. Jt Is worth reproducing, as
an echo of the fight that was car
ried on and lost. It should not
have been lost It should , have
been won liand down. And it
should be taken up again, and
carried, through tr victory: );'
The farmer needs the simnnrt
f everyone, for when the farmer
prospers, conditions generally are
favorable. ' "
TTf Tb the duty of all of us to
protett a 109 per cent home in-
The dairymen of Oregon and
Washington have, such strong ar
guments for curtailing the sale of
oleomargarine that the oleomar
garine Interests . 'are grasping
every opportunity, no matter how
weak, to influence the voter.
Their foremost argument has been
'"protect your pocketbook; butter
will be $1 per pound." This is
ridiculous, and every broadminded
person knows it. Nevertheless It
has a strong influence on the
consumer to know that he is help
ing to raise the price of butter.
With oleo entirely ont of existence
'the price of butter will not be
affected. Oleo has not been sold
in Canada for years, and still they
pay the same price for butter that
we do here In the United States.
If our price raises one or two
cents above normal, our' market
is flooded with outside, butter un
til the price drops to normal;
The fact that; Oregon is pro
ducing about two and a half mil
lion pounds of surplus butter an
nually that must be shipped to
market outside the state, and
generally at a. loss, if the sale of
oleo were prohibited in Oregon,
we would consume -this two and
a half million pounds Tight at
home, thereby creating a demand
for our own prdduct, keeping our
own money at home, and, In this
way, creating a more healthy con
dition all around.
During . 1923 approximately
$8,000,000 was paid to Oregon
farmers for butter fat. During the
same year, Oregon' farmers real
ized over $20,000,000' for dairy
products. It oleo is allowed to pa
at least include an identification
record, on account of production
for each cow the amount of feed
given and breeding dates. For a
grade dairy herd, the record sys
tem may be quite simple.
Cow-testing associations promote
a more faithful folio w-throuKh of
the rudiments of dairying. Among
them are intelligent, feeding,
proper stabling, regular milking,
thorough grooming. periodical
clipping of the long hair from
flanks, udder and underline and
other attendant precautions
against the presence of bacteria
in the milk.
In cow-testing associations, rec
ords of the m'ilk and butterfat
productio of pure bred cows are
made under the supervision of the
association and are give official
rade under butter colors, to be
sold as a butter substitute, thu
$20,000,000 industry will fail
Dairy dollars stay at home. Ole
dollars go out of the state. Prac
tically all oleomargarine is made
from vegetable oil produced ii
tropical countries; therefore, thi
large amount of money spent foi
oleo does not even stay in the
United States, to say nothing of
the fact that the Oregon farmer
does not benefit one bit but loses
from the sale of oleo.
You need the dairy industry;
the dairy industry needs you.
Corvallis, Or., Oct. 15, 1321.
Country -Gentlerhan' Tells t)f
- Latest on Crops
Vera Brady Shipraan, well
known radio :swriter, who some
months ago Visited in Salem, ha.l
an article in a recent number of
the Country Gentleman, under the
title, "Oregon;, Farms by Radio;
KGVV Mixes Fun With the Latest
on Crops." The article was ac
companied with five half-tone
pictures appropriate to the text.
The wording of the arctkle was
as follows: )
Well, the radio did it," shouted
the old-time Kansas newspaper
man as he entered the office of
the Oregon Statesman, in Salem,
the morning after Coolidge's elec
tion. "This is the first year we've had
a chance out rfiere' in the West to
really hear what the candidates
had to say.
TWe heard radical candidates
over KGO, at Oakland, lam&ast the
administration, and then we heard
Coolidge's speech rebroadcast
through KGW. at Portland, the
night before election when he ap
pealed to all Intelligent listeners,
especially to the 'women; to exer
cise their franchise and vote- He
didn't say for whom to vote, but
to be sure to vote,
"And the home man and his
wife turned to each other and said
'That man is safe to have again
for President. We cannot risk
these radical promises. sAnd the
radio did it. yessir."
For the first time political ean
didates used the microphone of
the leading stations of the coun-
(ConUnned oa pig )