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About The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 15, 1923)
Hznt Bros. Packing
: " Cczpany
Devoted to Showing Salem District People the Advantages
and Opportunities ofThpir Own Country and Its
Cities and Towns.
Quality Fruits, Ik.
Proper growing, -Proper
Intelligent selling, -Courteotis
At all -times to assist la
an? poalbla war the dTel
opment of the ' fruit anl
berry Industries Xa tills Til
ler. The Way to BuHd Up Your Home Town j The Surest Way to Get More and Larger
Is to Patronize Your Home People . 1 ' Industries Is to Support Those You Have
SEELING SALE M DJ ST R IGT ;.
BSSBSBBbBBSBBBJBBJbSJBBJBBJBM - T-'V.:-
Axe the steps to business
success' ; 7 ,
DEHYDRATED and CANNED
t; FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
4 Oregon Products
King's Food Products Company
.wV . Salem Portland The Dalles ; ;
Gidsca Stolr Ccsipany
. , Salem brfcjjo
Pure Cider tflnerar j
, and ...... 1
tj i; ' . ... - ? j.
Track dallTary t all 'patts of tk
, WiUu "Valley
The oldest Association In
.-' Secretary said Manaeer
1 Trade St XlJsh Bts. . .
Warts. JU furnaaa, i plnmbinf
. kaatlcf mad Ltei matcl work, ia ,
,'an4 sraTjU ; rvofin. nrl , JV ..
- 't!r ta Ua rtlTsaistd Iron
i -; 1 " ' . -' "
SsVCtaiaeisU1' St. ' rfcdne ' 190
Dixie Health Bread
Ask Your Grocer
ARvays IUda" the
Economical, toor .
Tioketo Bare Time
JEk)ld.in Stripe of R for 30c .
Sczticra Pacific Lines
Tka Statemas' haa'beao iptr
; inir tha wanta et . th , critical job
; J pnatinc i tfada " :
; - Troef jHiTa w ; ara - prlntara
. at worth and narit. J '
j Voders aqntpneat and idaa ara
tVa Ufa taat ga ar, -
rv3M "a a us. t s.
SEED POTATO IW1PR0VEMETJT RULES
the Procedure That Is Proposed for Cleaning Up Oregon
in Order, That More Oregon Farmers May Secure Bet
ter Yield and Quality and Achieve the Distinction of
; Certification Station Circular 25 in Full.
"(The - following is' n full
Station Circular of .the Ore-
egon Agricultural cbtl&ge Experi
ment station; the subject being
"Seed Potato Inxprorement," the
date being April, 1812, and the
author, "being ,Prof. George R
Hyslop of the; farm crops depart
xnent: ) '.--" ! .
NEED FOR IMPROVEMENT
The aTerage acre production of
potatoes for Oregon in 1 3 2 1 was
90 bushels .Twenty other states
exceeded it. Maine, with three
times our acreaga produced sn
arerage5 acre'yleld' of .28S bush-ebi-
" This 13-2 times our acre
production forthe same year.
Malntt's ten-year acre produc
tion f or V thWreflrs 1 9$2 to 1 921
Inclusive was 210 bushels, com-
i pared with 118 for Oregon. Ore
gon was twelfth in' the United
States in production tb the acre
for the decade. -That" Oregon
production is perhaps slowly im
proving ; is indicated by ' the fol
lowing United J States department
of agriculture statistics .by de
cades for Oregon, for Q.years. : .
Tears 1870-79. acre yield 115
! bushels; " 1886-89, 9 8 bushels;
1 1890-99.. 103 bushels; 1900-10.
i 109 bushels; 1910-19. 120 bush-
eds. -r V.v
We hare a few gallons of
u and. -:
' PAINT M
Whih we are closlas; ont at
$3.00 Per Gallon
Call .and ' aeo . our - stock of
palnt.1. leads,' oils
Lamb er Company
A. B. KeUar. ilrr.
349 S. 12tk St. Phona til
CLOTHING CO. ;
-305 Slate St.f
Men's and .Young Men's
Clothing and Furnishinirs"
Uso my stairs. , " .". It pays
SALEM IRON WORKS
Founders, Machinists and
.' Corner , Woat A Stat 8ta.
Maanfactarara . et.. tha .Baaad
pnnrp for irri)fmlka . and other
pnrpoaa. ' Corrapaaduni- : aolie
itl. ' Irrirttion - inftfrmatie aap
Jiakars f Salem iroa Tories
Brae Stwi,,.; . .
100 rooms' of Solid Comfort
A Home Away From '
- Selling Salem
This campaign of publicity for community upbuilding has been made
possible by the advertisements placed on these pages by our public
spirited business men tp m ; whose untiring efforts have builded our
present recognized prosperity and who are ever striving for greater and
yet greater progress as the years go fcy v r - .
WHY SUCH SMAL.L. YIELDS
The small yields are due to four
principal causes. r :
I. Too .Many Varieties ; . j
: Varietal Standardization ' Need
ed. Potatoes of Oregon must be
standardized , on i varieties ' that
will yield well, sell well, and be
of good cooking- quality. Earliest
of All and Early; Ohio are good
early yarieties for eastern Ore
gon. 4 Earliest of All! and .Early
Rose are excellent for western
Oregon ; -vu. ;, y - 11 j j
r For eastern ! Oregon main-crop
potatoes. Netted Gems, Burbanks.
and Idaho Rurals are very good.
Western Oregon varieties are
Gold Coin, Pacific White Rose,
and some 'Garnet Chili for a spe
cial market i . .!'? vV-
; Many other varieties and strains
would better . be dropped because
of low yields, poor market, and
; IT. Unproductive Hills ' ! j
i Many, fields have, low yields be
cause of planting run-out and dls
eased seed. Such - seed produces
hills that die i early and yield tew
if any marketable potatoes. These
unproductive hills may he elimin
ated In part by selecting ; only
smooth, symmetrical, . disease-free
tubers t of I market size, treating
properly-with the corrosive subli
mate and usmg plenty of seed cut
right, r J- ,.f:;.x , i: :
- Planting rough, pointed, crook
ed or misshapen tubera or little
ones 'usually means ; diseased
plants. These off-type potatoes
are often the result of infection
with some form of wilt and the
little ; ones often are small be
cause of wilt or mosaic. ' These
are the most difficult of the tu
ber-borne diseases to combat.: (A
lot of potatoes rough or small is
usually diseased. (Pull descrlp-
W. W. R0SEBRAUGH
' ca . ; r
Foundry and Machine Shop f
,17th & Oak Sts., Salem, Or.
Wa Ara Ont Attar Two MUUona
W ara now payinr orer three:
quarter of a million doll ara a yoar,
to tha dairrmea of , thia aaction
foremilk. ,-i i .... u . i ' '
"Marion Butter", 5 j
; X th Boat Bnttar -
Mor Cowa and Bottor Cows is
tha erjln naad . .
& PRODUCE CO. !
Salem, Ore. Phone 2488
8atem Carpet Cleaning and
; WORKS , '
All sizes of ItK and Fluff
' Ruga Woven
.Old Mattress Steaming and
' " Remaking - - 1
Otto Zwicker, Prep.
J3H & WilbHr StreeU
District is a continuation of the Salem Slogan and
Pep and Progress Campaign l' ; ! v
tion of these diseases may be
found in Oregon Agricultural Col
lege Experiment Station - circular
24.) ' Failure to treat permits
more disease to develop and low
yields ' are harvested. ' -
" " " III. Poor Stands ; -p -Examlnations
during the grow
ing season show that, tnanyf fields
are full of missing places.1' Targe
yields cannot be secured from
empty ' fields. " Plants, must' be
there in large number target
Planting Machines. The best
average stands are secured with
the "two man" potato planters.
Next often comes band planting.
and usually: the poorest average
standi come from the "one man
type of planter.:: ; Faulty planting
makes thin stands. i J,
Small Pieces Bad. Some thin
stands are in part due to the use
of too small seed pieces. ' Pieces
one and one-half to, two ounces
or. larger. in size should be used.
The blossom-end piece of the. pct-
tato snouid never, oe, split Jn cut
ting.. - ':. . !
Coating the cut surfaces of the
seed with land-plaster helps tb
prevent rotting; of seed piecei in
the ground and . better stands1 re-.
suit. Many diseased" or untreated
seed pieces never 'produce a plant.
or it dies early and leaves'' va
cant. v unproductive -'place in - the
field. Properly, treated,- disease
free seed r cut Marge - and 'land
plastered makes' 1 the 'best' and
most vigorous stand. -1 -
IT. Not Enough Plant, Food or
Sloisturo, ,. t t;M- j '
Many potato sons have becorme
run down tnrquKn,., continuous
ropping to cereal ;apd cultivated
crops and, without. lemes Such
'ands frequently . lac r nitrogen.
and sometimes other plant, ,f pods
ire lacking, whichj are- 5 necessary
'or , good, potato .. production.'
Where alfalfa or cloyer precede
the potato crop.; good yields .ara
usually secured; ' This . Is. especi
ally true where the "legume, has
been fertilized with a material
carrying sulphur. ; - . ...
,'On ' non-legume soils - where
moisture conditions are goodk sul
fate or ammonia at loo io:auu
pounds an acre has been found
beneficial in - both .eaistern and
western- ; Oregon. , Where s the
growing season is . short or -the
moisture is limited usually the
smaller amount should be used,1'
Occasionally in ; some western
Oregon hill soils, superphosphate
may rprove beneficial" ' It Is put
on at ISO to 250 pounds an acre.
.' Commercial fertilizer . should
usually be broadcasted and work"
ed into the - soil, - or if drilled
should not come in direct contact
with the seed piece. i :
Rotation of crop wfth legumes,
is the best - plan, and potatoes
should not be grown oft the same
land more often than once'' in
three to six years, -
'Planting potatoes otr land that
has produced diseased potatoes
usually results in ' much disease
and small yields. ' - 't " - :; . .
t Improvement Attempts
To improve the potatoes of the
! state, the extension service .has
i been for several years, conducting
'a " potato - certification "project.
This" has been helpful In imprqr-
ing potato culture, but not enough
seed has been certified to meet
local needs. Seed imported frcjm
another state has not, proved -of
verr rood oualitv thusfar.- Cer-
tmcation, alter an, is oniy secon
dary, - as seed . of quality good
enough to certify-produces better
yields and quality of crop. 'Yields
' and freedom from disease are the
real objectives and certification
is the mark of that achievement.
HOW TO IMPROVE SEED
! The Oreeon Agricultural col
lege experiment station proposea
the following procedure tn clean
ing' up Oregon seed in order that
more Oregon farmers ay secure
better yield and Quality and
achieve the distinction of certifi
cation.: - .-
Use for Seed . Only - Smooth,
Tubers -."' - -"
"Sort." the Seed. Misshaped,.
pointed, crooked, and little pota
toes are. often the result -of bsd
disease infection. The best' plan
ts- to use for seed only, tubers that
are smooth, symmetrical, of me
dium size and that are weU filled
QUt , at.botli, ends, esneclally the
.stene'endj -; . , ' . ' -
. J !By selecting to this type many
of the badly; diseased tubers will
be thrown but. While such po
tatoes may be used for food, they
should never be planted.
Single. Drops Bad. The plant
ing of single dropsy-small culls
sorted out of ' market potatoes
is a bad practice and may mean
a predominance of disease and
low yields. I
I Creful : selection of the 'seed
tubers reduces the percentage ' of
disease but cannot completely
II., Clip off the Stem End of the
Potato and Kxamlne for
' Stem-End Discoloration
. How It Ix0B.The stem-end
discoloration referred to appears
as a brown.' fibrous discoloration
spreading put ' from the base of
the 'stem ,ot the potato and about
one-eighth inch under ' the skin.
This' may be the result of several
causes,- including 'Chilling and
disease. Since potatoes - with a
good clean white color are a bet
ter type' to produce, those having
the stem-end discoloration should
be discarded. -: 0 ' :
Chilled Seed. - Badly chilled
seed in the experiment : station
trial Iti i 1920 showed very low
vitality and poor yields,' Pota
toes thoroughly chilled in the soil
before digging or afterward in
storage usually show a' discolor
ation' about one-eighth inch un
der the skin and extending in i
thin black layer or line from the
stem end to the blossom end of
the tuber. The general presence
of the black line rather than a
lighter-colored one principally
near the stem end, when accom
panied by lack of crispness and
by a sweetish taste in the tuber.
are indicative of chilling" Injury
Such . potatoes' while not diseased
are. not good seed. '
Wilt. Manv tnfeers . affected
with wilt show stem-end dlscolor-
atipn although many . discolor!
lubars may not have wilt. Wilt
enters the tuber through the
stem. It often causes the fibrous,
thread-Uke structures that spread
out from the end of, the stem and
are about one-eighth of an .inch
under the skin to turn brown in
color. This discoloration may: ex
tend in only a little way; or in
some cases it may extend well to
ward the blossom end. of the po
tato, kin the latter cases if the
potato , is cut crosswise, the dis
coloration appears - as a thin
brown ring about an eighth of an
inch under the skin of the pota
to. Inmany instances the dis
coloration may be slight and ex
tend Into the tuber but a short
distance- The stem Itself gener
ally is dead to the place-where
the fibers spread out.
In examining the tubers, 1 one
should have about three to four
thin sharp " knives. Thin ' slices
should be cut across the potato
to cut Just under the end of the
dead stem. ? If any brown - dis
coloration appears spreading out
distinctly from the stem, the po
tato should not be used for seed.
The knife should' be disinfected
by dipping In a solution made up
at the rate of one pint of formal
dehyde to ten gallons of water.
This is to avoid danger of, carry
ing disease to the next tuber.
All tubers showing clean and
white. Just below the base of the
stem, i and - showing no brown' fi
bers, should be saved tor ; seed.
They are likely to be. more free
from wilt than undipped and un
selected seed. Washing dirty po
tatoes beforei ( clipping prevents
"smudging" the cut .end and
makes ' the clipping operation
faster, easier, and more accurate.
III. Treat- all Seed m a Corrosive
:J Corrosive sublimate, sometimes
called mercuric chloride, is a very
poisonous chemical In white crys
talline or powder: form. sIt .may
be , bought at most drug 'stores.
About "one ounce is required for
each three to five bushels of po
tatoes to be. treated. The solution
must be prepared and handled in
stone ; or wooden containers. A
stock! solution of corrosive subli
mate is prepared by dissolving It
In hot water in a crock, wooden
bucket, or barrel. - .A, gallon of
hot water is. used for each four
ounces of - corrosive sublimate.
The druggist will gladly weigh
out the( jborrosive sublimate in
one, two,, or four-ounce packages,
as desired. When thoroughly dis
solved, one gallon of this solution
is put into the wooden treating
trough or barrel, for each 29 gal
lons of water used; - This makes
the standard strength of solution
4 ounces to 30 gallons. '
The clean; clipped potatoes are
now treated loose in this solution
for one and one-half to two hours,
unless the sprouts "have started.
In which -case, ' the treatment
should not. extend over one hour.
The 'solution may then be 'drawn
off from the bottom of the trough
or barrel ' or if the potatoes are
being treated " fa wooden .- crates.
they may be lifted out and drain
ed. Since treating in the solution
weakens it, after each treatment
one , pint of the stock solution
should be - added - to. the vat ; or
barrel, for: each ' four bushels of
potatoes treated two hours. . If
treated less than two ' hours,' - a
proportionately smaller amount
should be ' Used. The solution in
the vat or barrel is kept up to its
original level by adding! solution
of standard strength 4 ounces to
S 0 gallons of - water, as needed.
The use of the solution may be
continued while it remains clear
and this maybe for seven or eight
treatments. ; ' '
Dirty potatoes should be wash
ed before treating. If -' this Is
done 12 to 24 hours before, It
will soften up many of the large,
black, scrufy spots of rhlzoctonla,
making the treatment more ef
fective.. ,.-.. ' -
This treatment . kills most of
the scab and rhlzoctonla. No po
tatoes . should, be planted without
treating the seed.
IV. Cut the Potatoes to Save the
Bloesom-End Piece -How
to . Cut. -Several years
work at the experiment station
shows that the blossom-end piece
of the potato is the best seed
piece. The common practice of
splitting the' blossom end in cut
ting seed potatoes greatly impairs
the vigor of the plants and re
duces the yield. Potatoes should
be- cut to save the" blossom-end
piece. (A forthcoming bulletin
on potatoes will show this in de
tail.) , Reasons for Blossom-End Cut.
There are four reasons:
1. The terminal sprout is usu
ally the most rigorous. : ;
2. The blossom-end pieces pro
duce more sprouts and therefore
more plants to' the hill,
3i The blossom end is. farthest
from the stem end where the wilt
enters and it has less disease to
limit the crop. v ; - ; ;
4. The yield is ' greater.' ;
- The blossom-end pieces' trill be
most free from disease and should
be kept E separate, although after
the selection, clipping, and treat
meat, the other pieces of the po
tato will also be good seed if cut
large enough to have plenty' of
eyes. .-1, ' ".-: kk; i . ; . . j
Slzeyof Piece. All potato-seed'
pieces should be cut to have not
fewer than ";two - eyes; more are
better. The pieces should weigh
not under -one and one-halt to
two sOjtnces. On : rich soils with
plenty tf- moisture, larger pieces
may be advantageously used! .In
frosty sections, plants from large,
seed pieces recover from frost In
Jury more quickly. .
Why suffer with Stomach . Trouble when Chlropractio
RemoTe the Cauae
V. Coat Cut Seed With Lnd
. Plaster. -
: Freshly cut seed while still wet
should be shoveled over.wijh land
plaster, as this coats or hardens
the cut surface. 'It prevents much
rotting of the seed In the soil, and
appears . to " stiinulato. .: growth.
Station results- Bho thatjn cold;
soils where sprouting Is psr bet
ter stands and yields are secured
where land-plaster has been used.-l
A 100-pound bag of land-plaster
will coat about 35 to 40 bushels
of potatoes cut for seed. Theut
and coated seed should be planted
soon or spread Out in a thin layer
Jto prevent ; spoiling, .
VI. ' Plant the rotators on Clean
'kkv .:. Land., ,
The selected, treated, plastered
blossom-end cuts should be plant
ed, only. On new land or on land
that has had no potatoes, volun
teer or otherwise, .for many yearfc
The same kind of clean land may
be used for ; the other pieces, but
the two lots of cut seed should,
be kept separate. , k -k j
. Disease Remains 4n Soil Some
diseases remain'' in the land for
several years. Even when the
cleah seed -is planted in a field
soon; after a diseased crop has
been grown,; it will become f uU
of ; the. 'diseases Potatoes v free
enough -from disease to certify
should not be grown on the land
more often than Once in three or
four, years!" Where .common po
tatoes have' been' grown, a longer
rotation . is necessary because- of
the disease, in the soil. I ; s j ,
Permanent potato? production
calls for a regular rotation. The
laBd: for potatoes '- should be
planned ahead and a. legume crop
should precede the. potato crop.
VH.. Plant to Get a Stand '
Seed Bed; -Potatoes should he
planted in a. good. deep, mellow
seed bed. Hard or cloddy soli is
not good " for potatoes. , "
k Planting. -Use a machine that
will plant the Ipdeces regularly
and where you wantThem. ; See
that it plants one piece in every
hill and. omy one piece in any
hill. - Otherwise plant by handk
Time of Planting. Planting
Bhould be done after' frost danger
is over. ' In western Oregon Apr I
or June Is usually -best. "May is
not considered good unless irri
gation is possible. 1 , ; '
' In eastern Oregon at low' elevations.-
March or"' April '-'planting
Is good for early varieties.' May
and June planting is preferred in
higher or irrigated : dlsticts. ' ' '
VIH. Keep Fields Clean of Weeds
Cultivation. Potatoes are .usu
ally' harrowed before and after
coming up and until they are
three or four inches high. Shal
low thorough- cultivation Is then
needed often enough to control
weeds. . Level culture Is best ex
cept ' where the ' soil Is cold and
moist .or where .it is irrigated.
Blight ridging, may sometimes be
necessary to keep " tubers , from
bulging out and sunburning. Cul
tivate only when vines .are dry.
Weeds are : most k easily ' killed
while they " are small. Cultiva
tion' when the ground is dry - and
free from weeds is nnnedessary.
IX. Rogue Ont all Weak, Sick, or
Diseased Plantsk 1 t
Unproductive; Plants. -Weak Or
Ask For Yocr Copy of Our
Booklet "Your Next
f v -. - j
Yocr Health Begin Yfcca Yen
.- for an appointment
Drs. SCOTT 2: SCO FIELD
' 'T. 8. O. , CMroprsotrt :
Ray Ziaboratory 414 to 41 U. S. Natl Ei.
Ilours 10 to 12 amr and 2 to 0 pm .
diseased' potato planfs are unpr
ductlve and in most cases cane
be cuited. 'Frequent field inspe
tjons j7ouId be made by the gro
er, and when any plant loc'
woahy ar unhealthyv-it should -difSiSf53teed-pIeca'an4
retrvsrved rom th rinid nt nn
beiiiet , tbte J troublfei spreads t
feats! Jplahts k j j ;
- Tnese weak and diseased plai.
are not good producers and tfcr:
removal makes no material redu
tion- in yield and 'does -prevc:
spread of disease. This rogai:
out of diseased plants should I
carefully done, and will mostli:
ly result In clean, hlgh yieMI
seed. - :.' ":
Mark t Vigorous Hills. Wt :
going through the fields oft
outstanding vigorous plants el
be seen large growers, that t :
healthy and not next to any k
eased .plants. Such healthy plar
should be marked with a El; "
for separate digging. If thess, e :
good producers, they shojild I
saved, for next year's seed x let.
X. Barvesi-ajui Store Caref u'.'
Hill Select--if . iol hil! . -been
marked durfng, the growi.
season it is a good, plan to gel:
a few 76 or more hills that z
pear j vigorous, healthy, , and r
large producers, five pounds f
more to the hill, and save th
for seed-plot planting thek-c:
year. Take no .hills from next 1
a diseased plant Of a place, f:
which a. diseased plant has . t
removed.- 1.., , ' .
Hill selection, helps to Pick r
the cream of.iljo. seed, for .us; '
the seed plot the ,next jesr, '. "
first, year's . selections U5.ua:
make the most pronounced r
suits.-;;:;-:' ;.-. ? .--; - . - ..
Pig all potatoes to avoid -cv
ting or. injuring the tubers. T:
is -best done after fall rains wL
the land Is cool and soft ai t:
potatoes, are in better conditi:
for storage. v r ,1 r '.
Sort out all damaged, ml
shaped and small potatoes a:
keep only the sound, symmetric
tubers for seed. s ;
- The seed stock should be ec
and dry .when put Into -store
and should be , kept!.' that wa
Adequate protection' against clii:
ing-jorcAeetlng is yital, but -mor
4ed?.stock In Oregon is injure
byttiein&xtored in! moist, poor!
ventilated' bins or pits than 1
ChlllblgulJ'.V'' :i -fiM
ii (Sound, smooth, dry, sizable r .
tatoes 1a-storage are of except':
al quality when from selects
clipped, -treated, ' plastered see
cut right, and grown in rich, ri:
ease-free fields carefully rogue '
Such seed will' bring good prlc
and Is capable of producing goc
yields, f. Such 'seed will, in mo:
cases bfing the owner the dis
tinction of certified quality.
1 Accorded Two Bill:
House bills 330, providing tor
an increase in the salary of the
Deschutes county treasurer,, and
174, relating to the embalmer's
bond' of the state, which wef j
indefinitely postponed by the sen
ate yesterday, will be reconsider,
ed. bv vote of the senatn todar.
iThey were rereCerred to commit
It AAA "
Salem Brick ci Tilo Go.
Salem, Orrjjon. rhono 017