Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About The Oregon daily journal. (Portland, Or.) 1902-1972 | View Entire Issue (Sept. 10, 1922)
THE OREGON SUNDAY JOURNAL, PORTLAND, SUNDAY MORNING, SEPTEMBER 10, 1922.
By RAY ST ANN A RD BACKER
The Hand; Jnnrnai herewith rnmli the thirty -eenth installment of Ry Stannard Baker'a
tory, "The I'emr." wbtr-h m an uthoritatiTe narratire of bow- tb peace of Paris waa etmeloded.
Woodrow Wilson rare Mr. Baker sows to all his penonai. itt&mbliahed pApare, which are the
nlj reliable ami incnntroTtfrtible re porta of tlie 'facta, and wbieb heretofore haee never been
made public. The epochal feature will be pobliabed in The Journal serially thronehoot the year.
(Copyright, 1022, by Doobleday. Pass U Co.. Published by Special Arrangement with
' the VcClure Newspaper Syndicate)
"pHE-Japanese crisis was now at its Jsitterest. Having lost out In their
,J- first great contention at Paris the recognition of "racial equality"
In the covenant of the league they came to their second, the territorial
demands, with a kind of cold determination. They presented to the con
ference what was practically an ultimatum.
They not only demanded a settlement exactly on
the lines they had laid down, but they Insisted upon
immediate action, before the treaty was presented to
President Wilson knew that the entire weight of
the struggle, in this crisis, would rest upon him; that
the influence of both Lloyd George and Clemenceau,
who were indeed bound by the secret agreements of
J917, would be against him. He gave to no problem
that arose at Paris more concentrated effort, fpr the
very essence of his program of the peace was bound
up in it.
Japan, in agreements made during the war, pro
Ray - Stannard
vided hat when, aftef the war, she was free to dispose of the territory
she had taken from Germany, she would restore it to China upon certain
conditions, the principal ones being that Kiao-Chau should be a free
port; that Japan should have a concession there, and that the important
Shantung- railroad -should become a joint Chino-Japanese enterprise,
With a "police force" directed by the Japanese.
, In . Bhort, while the Japanese were , mandate for the Islands in the North
agreeing to- return Kiao-Chau to China, i Pacific, although he had made a re
they were actually demanding 60 the 1 serve in the case of the island of
Chinese assert more rights than the j Yap, which he himself considered
Germans ever had. The Chinese, with should be international."
painful awareness of w hat Japan had j Third Here he made a suggestion
already done in Kprea, at Port Arthur, . that touched the other allies to the
and in Manchuria, had no confidence , quick that all "spheres of Influence
whatever In Japanese promises, and j in China be abrogated." not only Jap
feared being left at the mercy of j anese, but British and French. He
Japan. I said "the interest of the world in
Early in 1917 Japan took still another China was the 'open door.' The
advantage of the war in Kurope to as- :
sure herself of her new possessions.
Before she would grant her naval as
sistance against the ravages o the
German and Austrian submarines tn
the Mediterranean, she extorted the im
portant secret agreements with Great
Britain and France (February, 1917)
.under which these great nations agreed
to support her claims in regard to tne
disposal of Germany's rights in Shan
tung." -Such was the almost impregnable
diplomatic position of Japan when the
" peace conference attacked the prob
lem. Five definite proposals for meet
ing it soon emerged :
1 That of Japan, which was de
signed to carry forward her weil
formutated policy. She wanted in
serted in the treaty with Germany
provisions for the absolute surrender
to her .of all the former German
"rights, privileges and concessions" in
Shantune. after which she was to be
.left free to 'carry out the provisidns i
of the treaty of 1915 (with China) and
the arrangements of 1918."
2 The proposal of China was that
all the old treaties be disregarded,
and Shantung, which' was her own
territoi-y. be restored directly to her
, wlthput bringing Japan into the case
3 The proposal of Secretary Lan
sing (April 15 and il7. council of for
eign ministers), which was strongly
supported in the four by President
Wilson, was in the nature of a com
promise between the Japanese and the
Chinese. It provided for the "blan
ket" cession of all- the German rights
in China to' the -allied and associated
powers, to be later disposed by them.
It- was, perhaps, the best way out,
but it; was rebuffed by the Japanese.
4 -The proposal of Lloyd George
that Shantung, along with the German
colonies (including the Pacific islands) ,
should be "ceded to the League of
Nations" and be controlled unfier the
6 The final proposal, which was
adopted, was suggested by President
Wilson. Shantung was to be ceded to
STJapan in the actual treaty, but Japan
waa to make a separate declaration
b. reaffirming her promise- to return
Shantung to China and defining more
-completely the conditions of that re
turn. By this compromise solution
the Japanese demands are met in the
treaty, but at the same time the other
powers maintained 'their cooperative
influence in the Chinese1 settlements."
ahd Japan was brought into the
League of Nations.
WILSON'S PROPOSALS '
The actual struggle in the council
fOf four began on April -1 at the very
time, it will be remembered, that the
Italian crisis was also acute. Baron
Makino and Viscount Chinda went to
President Wilson's house in the Place
des Etats Unis on the morning of that j
day: and held a long conference. We
know exactly tne lines or tne aiscus
sion, for' we have the president's re-
"port' made that afternoon to Lloyd
George and Clemenceau (secret min-
:utec "4). The Japanese stood abso
lutely upon their original demands re-
. garding Shantung and the Pacific
islands. President Wilson, on his
part, proposed a number of modifica
r First As he reported to the four,
"he had made the suggestion that Mf.
r Lansing had already made at the coun- I
,-cil of foreign ministers that all claims )
In'the Pacific should be reded to the
allies and associated powers as trus
tees, leaving them to make fair and
Second r-"He had reminded the Jap
anese delegates that it had been un
derstood that Japan was to have a
Teach Cinldren To Use
. ; Ccficura Soap
' - Bacauao It ia best for their tender
kin. Help It sow and then with
toochea oCmicura Ointment applied
to first signs of redness or roogh
Tiirt T Cottcara Talcum to also excel,
last for children.
armWKiB. AMitm: Catuiala
Deya.Ur, Maleaa .!. " SoMeiij
UraeaMB Baa Me. TaleawalM.
Japanese, as the president remarkeu,
replied that they were ready to do
this," but there was no response from
either Lloyd George or Clemenceau.
While they were willing enough to
help Japan out of China, they were
unwilling to purchase her abandon
ment of her position by renunciations
of their own spheres of influence.
The next day the Japanese them
selves came to the council and Baron
Makino again set forth the Japanese
claims, described the agreement of
1915 and 1918 with China, asserted
that the declaration of war by China
had' not abrogated them and that
China had "actually received the ad
vance of 20.000,000 yen according "to
the terms of the above agreements."
Baron MaJcino then handed around
a draft of the clauses which the Japa
: nese delegation wished to have in
serted in the peace treaty with Ger
many, and which ultimately became,
with little change, articles 156, 157
and 158 of that treaty.
Up to this time Lloyd George and
Clemenceau had taken practically no
part in the discussion. The president
turned to them now and said thai they
had heard from the Japanese and that j
"he (President Wilson) had laid what
was in his own mind before all pres
ent." He now wanted to know the
"impression formed by Mr. Lloyd
George and M. Clemenceau."
Up to this time nothing had been
said In the cduncils regarding the se
cret agreement of February, 1917.
Lloyd George now produced it and the
following conversation took place : i
"Mr. Lloyd George said that so far
as Great Britain was concerned they
were in the same position toward
Japan as toward Italy. They had a
definite engagement with Japan, as re
corded in the note of the British am
bassador at Tokio, dated February 16.
JAPANESE OPPOSE MANDATE
But here Lloyd George, by again ad
vancing his suggestion that Shantung
be assigned as a mandate under the
League of Nations, attempted to use
his familiar' device of postponement.
To this the Japanese at once objected
in most vigorous terms.
Viscount Chinda asked if it was
merely proposed to postpone this ques
tion to put it In abeyance? The Jap
anese had a duty to per
form to China in this matter, and they
could not carry out their obligation to
China unless Kiao-Chau was handed
over to them. They were under an ex
press instruction from their govern
ment that unlessthey were placed in a
position to carry out their obligation
to China they Were not allowed to sign
the treaty. Consequently they had no
power to agree to a postponement.
President Wilson now began to probe
the Japanese as to what they actually
meant by their promises of restoration
to China. He said the notes (of 1915
and 1918) which-Chinda cited were "not
very explicit." He wanted to know, for
example, what was meant by the term
"Joint administration" of the railroads
in Shantung, the. "training school." the
"police force" and the "concessions
about exploitation," and here a most
interesting colloquy took place regard
ing the economic riches of Shantung,
with the Japanese plainly endeavoring
to minimise the value of those riches.
' President Wilson then made a
declaration of the American attitude
toward the whole problem, which was
that America desirol a more detailed
definition as to how Jpan was going
to help China, as well as to afford an
opportunity for investment in rail
ways, etc. He had hoped that by pool
ing their interest the several nations
that had gained a foothold in China (a
foothold that was to the detriment of
China's position in the world) might
forego the special position they had
acquired and that China might be put
on the same footing as other nations.
as sooner or later she must certainly
be. He believed this to be to the inter
est of every one concerned. There was
a lot of combustible' material in China
and if flames were pit to it the fire
could not, be quenched, for China had
a population of 400.000,000 people. It
was .symptoms of that which filled him
w ith- anxiety. : .-
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES, BIT
Baron Mikano, referring to Presi
dent Wilson's remarks in regard to
the lareer ideas of international rela-
I tionship. said that the best opinion of
Japan was at that point of view, for
China, the best opinion in Japan want
ed equal opportunities or the "open
door." He had convinced himself of
this and was very glad of it, for he
fait it would be to the advantage of
both countries. He recalled, however.
that international affairs in China had
not always been conducted . on very
On the following day, although the
Japanese bbjecteJ, the Chinese ap
peared before the four, and the preel
dent set forth th difficulties of the
"The Chinese delegation would see,'
President Wilson continued. . "the em
barrassing position which had been
reached. Mr. . Lloyd . George and M.
Clemenceau war pound ia support the
' t claims or Japan. Ajongakls or laemltMm acK . to mma.
Chinese Jiad their exchange of
notes with Japan. He reminded Mr.
Koo that when urging his casa. before
the Council of Tea at the Qua d'Grsay
he bad maintained that the war can
celed the agreement with the German
government.' It did not.: however, can
cel the agreement between' China and
the Japanese government, which had
been made before the war; What he
had himself urged tfpon the Japanese
was that, aa in the case of the Pacific
Islands, the leased ' territory, of Kiao
Chau should be settled by putting it
info the hands of the five powers as
trustees. He did not suggest that
treaties should be, broken, but that it
might be possible in conference, to
bring about . an agreement by modify
ing the treaty."
After Mr. Koo Lad stated his case,
Mr. Lloyd George- "said that- the real
question was whether the (Chinese)
treaty with Japan was "better for Chi
na than the transference to Japan of
Germany's rights." i
. This was a most clever question and
the Chinese retired, a moment in order
to confer and when they returned said
that "both alternatives were unac
ceptable." They were suspicious of
Japanese intent in either case and
wished Shantung which was their
own territory returned directly to
them. Here was an impasse which
the president met with the appeal 'he
so often made at ?aria, 'for a new in
ternational point of view and for coop
eration. In response Mr. Koo made an earnest
statement. He "said that he could not
lay too much emphasis on the fact that
the Chinese people were now at the
parting of the ways. The policy of the
Chinese government was cooperation
with Europe and the United States as
well as with Japan. If,-however, they
did not get justice. China might be
driven into the arms' of Japan. There
was a small section. In China which
believed in Asia for the Asiatics and
wanted the closest cooperation with
President Wilson responded by again
showing the "quandary in which the
powers" found themselves, the entan
glement of old treaties, "we could not
undo past obligations." and that the
"undoing of the trouble" depended on
all the nations uniting to secure Justice.
"Mr. Koo said he believed prevention
to be better than cure. He thought
that it would be better to undo unfor
tunate engagements now, if they en
dangered the permanence or the fu
"Mr. Lloyd George said the object
of the war was not that. The war had
been fought as much for the Bast as
for the West. China also had been pro
tected by the victory that had been
won. If Germany had won the war
and had desired Shantung or Peking,
she could have . had them. The very
doctrine of the mailed fist had been
propounded in relation to China. The
engagements that had been entered
into with Japan had been contracted
at a time when the sifpport of that
country was urgently needed. It was a
solemn treaty, and Great Britain could
not turn around j to Japan now and
say, 'All right, thank you very much.
When we wanted, your help, you gave
it, but now we think that the treaty
was a bad one and -should not be car
ried out.; Withjn the treaties he would
go to. the utmost . limits to protect the
position of i Phlnai s-On the League of
.Nations he would always be prepared
to stand up for China against oppres
sion, if there was oppression.
"M. Clemenceati said that Mr. Koo
could take every word that Mr. Lloyd
George had said as his also."
In this crisis President Wilson was
confronted by the greatest difficulties,
for he was just then also at the height
of the Italian struggle. On April 23
he had issued his bold message to the
wctrld regarding the disposition of
Flume, as elsewhere described, and on
the next day the Italian delegation de
parted from Paris with the expecta
tion that their withdrawal would either
force the hands of the conference or
break It up. While this crisis was at
its height the Belgian delegation,
which had long been restive over the
non-settlement of Belgian claims for!
reparation, became insistent. They
had no place in the supreme council
and they were worried lest the French
and British neither of whom could
begin to get enough money out of Ger
many to pay for its losses would take
the lion's share and leave Belgium un
restored. It looked, indeed, as though
the conference were breaking down.
The Japanese chose this critical mo
ment (April 24) to send a most per
emptory letter, signed by Marquis
Saionji, head of their delegation, de
manding a "definite settlement of this
question with the least pos
What could be .done?
The president knew that if he stood
stiffly for immediate justice to China,
he, would have to force Great Britain
and France to break their pledged
word with Japan.. Even . if he suc
ceeded in doing this, he still would
have to face the probability, practi
cally the certainty, that Japan would
withdraw from the conference. v
He felt convinced that .the Japanese
meant what they said ; that they had
orders from their government.
On April 25. only Wilson, Lloyd
George and Clemenceau being present
the problem came up again. Clemen
ceau presented three documents, the
demand of Saiiioji, already referred
to, for an immediate settlement, a re
port of a committee of experts (E. T.
Williams for America, Jean Gout for
France and Ronald Macleay for Great
Britain), giving the opinion that while
it "would be more advantageous to
China" if Japan inherited the right of
Germany in Shantung than to be ac
corded the basis of the China-Japanese
agreements of 1915 and 1918, ""either
course presents serious disadvantages
for China ; and finally a new demand
by China in which she made four pro
1. That the German rights be re
nounced to the five powers for restora
tion to China. This was the original
2. Japan to leave Shantung within
3. China to agree tm pay all the
costs of Japanese military operations
in capturing Tsing-tao.
4. China to agree to open the whole
of Kiao-Chau hay as a commercial port
with a special quarter for foreign resi
dence. President Wilson said that ! "this
question , was almost as " difficult as
the Italian question," and asked "if
the British and French were bound to
transfer Kiao-Chau and Shantung- to
Mr. Lloyd George said that sooner
or later they were.
Ml Clemenceau agreed.
1 But Mr. Lloyd George now said that
Mr. Balfour had ' made a proposal
along lines already suggested by Wil
son, that while "we were hound to
transfer the German rights to
Japan we should like to talk over
tha terms oo which laf" would hand
would meet the Japanese sentiments
of pride." , I
Here again the president reverted, to
his old suggestion that all the powers
renounce their rights in China- - He
aaid the Japanese "were willing to dis
cuss this with the other powers." j If
all went out. Japan would go too. He
said "his object was to take the chains
off China." But here Uoyd George
objected ; he said "the British govern
ment could not agree."
THE THREE CBUCIAL SATS
The three days. April 28. 29 and ! 30
were the crucial days of the struggle.
Mr. Balfour had conferred with Ba
ron Makino and presented a memoran
dum to the Three, showing, as Presi
dent Wilson remarked, a "decided ap
proach in. the Japanese attitude," !
"President Wilson (said) he had tjold
the United States delegation that his
line was this: 'If Japan will return
Kiao-Chau and Shantung to China and
relinquish all sovereign rights and will
reduce .her claims to mere economic
concessions.' foregoing all military
rights. I would regard it as returning
these ' possessions to China on better
terms than Germany had held them."
Up to- the very last hour of the final
decision, on April 29, the President
was strongly hopeful of finding some
more liberal solution.
The actual and final declaration! of
agreement by the Japanese, which,
while it was nof to be a part of the
treaty itself, was a supplementary Un
derstanding, was made on the morning
of April 30, and the secret record j of
the Three is here so important thai it
is fully quoted : - ' j
"In reply to questions by President
Wilson, the Japanese delegates de
clared that :
The policy of Japan is to hand back
the Shantung peninsula in full sover
eignty to China, retaining only he
.economic privileges granted to Ger
many and the right to establish! a
settlement under the usual conditions
The owners of the railway will use
special police only to' Insure security
for traffic. They will be used for i no
The police force will be composed of
Chinese, and such Japanese instructors
aa the directors of, the railway may
select will be appointed by the Chinese
Such waa the arrangement made.
The Shantung settlement was thus in
two parts, the first set forth in ar
ticles 156, 157 and 158 of the treaty,
in which all the former German rights
at Kiao-Chau and in Shantung prov
ince are transferred. Just as the Japa
nese delegates had demanded. to
Japan. This conforms broadly with
the various treaties and gives a proud
nation, what It considered its full
rights. On the other hand, the Japa
nese delegates, on behalf of their gov
ernment, make the voluntary agree
ment noted as to the methods of the
return of Shantung to China and; to
the rights Japan was to continue- to
hold in that province.
If the president had risked every
thing in standing for the Immediate
and complete realization of the Chi
nese demands,- and Japan had left the
conference or refused to sign the
treaty, it would not have put Japan
either politically or economically put
of China. Neither our people nor the
British would go to war with Japan
solely to keep her out of Shantung.
The only hope of China in the future
and Wilson looked not only to the re
moval of all other spheres of foreign
influence In China is through a firm
world organization, a League of Na
tions In which these problems can! be
brought up for peaceful settlement.!
The president drew up a statement
of the settlement, which he himself
signed and gave me a copy (it was
also sent to Secretary Tumulty j at
Washington) and I at ,once communi
cated the subject of it, by his Instruc
tions, to the American press corre
spondents. That evening I went i up
again to Befe him and find this record
in my notes (diary, p. 6) :
"I saw the president at 6 :30 as
usual, and he went over the wlole
ground (of the Japanese settlement)
with me at length. He said he had
been unable to sleep the light before
for thinking of it. Anything he might
do was wrong. He said the settlement
was the best that could be had out of
a dirty past. The only hope
was to keep the world together, get a
League of Nations with Japan in it
and then try to secure justice for the
Chinese, not only as regarding Japan,
but England, France, Russia, all of
whom had concessions ' in China., If
Japan went home there was danger
of a Japanese-Russian-German 'alli
ance and a return to the old 'balance
of power' system in the world on a
greater scale than ever before. He
knew his decision would be unpopu
lar In America, that the Chinese would
be bitterly disappointed, that the Jap
anese would be triumphant, that; he
would be accused of violating his own
principles ; but. nevertheless, he must
work for world order and reorganiza
tion against anarchy and a return to
the old militarism." i
At the president's request I went to
see the Chinese delegates that night
(April 30) at their headquarters in'the
Hotel Lutetia in order to explain it In
all lts aspects. I found them bitterly
disa paean ted. They had expected.! as
so many other hopeful groups at Paris
had expected, the full and immediate
realization of 'their demands at the
hands of the conference, and had not
succeeded-'-because other tremendous
forces in the worlds affairs, other
considerations ana necessities had
.Well, the settlement made a great
sensation. The Chinese were 'at first
for makings statement and withdraw
ing from the conference. In May they
went to see Mr. Balfour ; they asked
tor tne minutes of the four report,
ing the discussion of their problems.
and while they secoured the record of
the meetings with they attended
they were refused the other secret min
utes. On May 3 and later they issued
a number of public statements of pro
test and criticism which must appeal
to the sense of justice and the sym
pathy of every thoughtful reader for
this great, weak, unformed nation
and. finally, after the four had : re
fused , to allow them to sign the treaty
or reservations (June 28). they decided
not to sign it at all and issued a state
ment In which they "submit their Case
to the impartial judgment of the
i The settlement w-as, of course, a
f compromise. Of the two chief i de
mands with which Japan came; to
Paris, she surrendered entirely on the
first, her desire for recognition! of
racial equality in the covenant, land
she accepted the league and the man
datory system and thereby in future
agreed to cooperate with other na
tions. On the other hand, she woh In
her great demand that the former
German rights in China be transferred
in the treaty, without reservation, to
her, though she made the explanatory
and limiting declarations of April 30
in regard to them.
(To Be Continued Nex Sunday
Canned Meats Floofl
Berlin, Sept. 5. L N. S.) Germany
is being flooded by offers of American
firms of tinned meat at half the price
of the fresh German meat. In con
sequence of the enormous rise of prices
Berlin now consumes half as much
meat as in the previous two months.
Hundreds of butcher shops had to
rlnaa and. about &0Q butchers auil
f or rag altogether.
Christian Science- Lecture
A lecture m "Christian Science, hat la- It
and How It : Worka," deb re red at The ArH
toriam aa Saturday by Panl Stark' Beeler. C
8. B.. member o the board of toetureahip of
the mother oreh. the First Cliarch of Christ
Scientist. Boston, alaaa.
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE rings a heal
ing message. It condemns nothing
but evil. It exalts nothing but good. It
Is not the dogma of a denomination. It
is the Word of Truth in which science
and religion are seen as one. and in
this one is found true medicine, even
the healing power of God. It matters
not where one may be on life's road.
Christian Science, crings to the listen
ing ear & message of helpfulness and
love. To the sick it shows the certain
way to health, to the one entangled in
the meshes of sin it adds moral courage
to right resolve, and' points the road to
freedom and deliverance. To those
weighed down by burden and distress
it opens the highway of peace and
happiness througb a fuller understand
ing of the goodness and of the love of
God. To all who seek for better things
it is the dawn of a new light, that
supplants mystery with -reason, ignor
ance with intelligence, doubt with con
fidence, and unkindiiness with love.
In early Womanhood Mrs! Eddy be
came convinced that Christ . Jesus
healed by some certain law and that
the same law could .be applied now as
well as then. Her high hope was il
lustrated by this remark made by her
when invalidisne seemed almost too
much for her to bear, "I know God can
and will cure me, if only I could under
stand His way." To "understand His
way" became the objective of her life.
Abandoned by, friend, forsaken by rela
tives, burdened by sorrow, sickness and
poverty, this frail New England gentle
woman pressed forward for 20 years In
untiring search for that law of healing
which is as eternal as the love of God
and as unchanging.
Shortly after Lincoln had accom
plished his God-appointed task there
came to the waiting thought of this
pure woman, at a moment of extreme
physical need, a clear perception of the
law and method by which Christ Jesus
and the early Christians had healed
the sick, and she was Instantly healed
from the results of what had been
pronounced, a fatal Injury. But it re
quired nine years of further study and
application of this law before the
Christian Science textbook. Science and
Health with Key to the Scriptures,
was completed and given to the world.
This book corroborates and explains
the teachings of the Bible. It pierces
with the rays of spiritual truth every
human problem and omits nothing that
needs to be known in order to accom
plish the full deliverance of men from
the bondage to evil and mortality.
Written in Lynn, Mass., in a lonely
attic chamber, under a single sky-light
window, the rays of its healing mes
sage have lightened the hearts of mul
titudes. And its work is only begun.
In the world today we observe many
good ideas that are commanding in
creased consideration. These ideas
pertain to the welfare and betterment J
of men, individually and collectively.
We note the idea of industrial justice
as betwta-n employers and employes
being given fuller consideration than
ever before. Industrial leaders are
realizing that the time is near when
the masses of mankind must be freed
from the overburden of physical toil
and the consuming fear of poverty.
Through the clouds of confused opin
ions we see the ideas of international
arbitration and co-operation among the
nations of the earth becoming more
fully established tn thought. We see
such events as the Associated Adver
tising clubs of America taking for
their organization s motto, "Truth.
The Rotary club, an international or
ganization of business men. makes
'Service above Self" the keynote of Its
Now, my friends, where do these
right ideas come from? All that we
know anything about is what is called
matter and mind, so it is from one or
the other that these ideas come. Matter
can be divided into some 90 chemical
elements, about 20 of which make up
the human body, though its chief
constituents are water, sa.lt, carbon and
oiL The brain, often regarded as the
source of thought, ia said to be from
70 per cent to 90 per cent water, about
the same percentage of water that is
in a tomato or a very soggy potato. I
presume. So we must decide whether
these ideas of industrial justice, hon
esty, kindness, and so on originate in
matter or in mind. Who would say
that an idea of international arbitra
tion came from a pint of water
mixed with a tablespoon of salt with
some oil poured in. no matter how
much that combination was extended
and dressed up to make an imposing
These ideas, let us note, are not af
fected by time or space. They are the
same in essence today as they were
2,000 years ago, and the same in South
Africa as in the United States. They
are always here, and everywhere, and
no one has to do anything but think in
order to have them. et no human
being is their source or cause. It is
evident that these ideas spring from a
common Fource with which each one of
us has a fundamental mental relation
ship. Christian Science explains that
this fountain source of all right ideas
is mind, intelligence, always here and
everywhere, but never in matter. This
always-present mind is God, and is the
source of all good thoughts. Man is
the agency through which this mind
expresses Itself. Let us remember
then, that God is mind, our intelligence,
our life, and that in reality man is the
individual expression of God. The only
reason for man to exist ia, to express
EVIL FROM CAITIfAI, MIND
But, someone may say. there is
much about man that is not the expres
sion of real intelligence, or God. There
is much selfishness, hate, sin and dis
ease. Tes, that surely seems to be bo.
How then are we to account for the
ungodly conditions with which we are
confronted? This is the explanation.
Good thoughts are the expression of
God. Evil thoughts, fear, sin, disease,
discord, evil mind, the negative and
opposite of God. immortal mind.
HOW TO DESTKOT EVIL,
Now. let us begin' the consideration
of the method by which we apply the
destruction of evil. We cannot lift
ourselves from the earth by our own
bootstraps. To raise ourselves from
the ground we need to get hold of
something higher than we are. So to
get free from evil and mortality we
must lay hold of something higher, a
higher sense of life and existence, and
that sense is. the spiritual or God-appointed
sense cf being.
First, remember always that every
claim of evil must be reduced to a
mental argument, a suggestion of the
carnal, or mortal mind. "The basic
error is mortal mind," writes Mrs.
Eddy on page 405 of Science and
Health. If we, wish to be rid of a
tree that is sending out poisonous odors
we would not try to combat the odor.
We would search out the root and
strike there. If we wish to be rid of
evil we do not bother too much with
its particular arguments, we go to
the root of it all and strike there. If
then we reduce the evil that confronts
us to a mental ' argument with the
carnal mind as its cause, what next?
How do we get rid of this erroneous
cause? How do we get rid of a shadow?
A shadow is but the absence of light.
To get rid of it we let in the light.
Then there is no shadow. Christian
Science shows that evil is not the fact
of existence, only a shadow . thought,
.the opsosita of the tacC So in place
; or a miBiaKen evil sense, we tut u to
God. who is light, or intelligence, and
realize that He if the- only mind, the
only jj-uth. the only life, and the only
love : tbax there is no other ml no, ana
that the- supposed uvil mind la not mind.
substance, or reaury ana cannot in
fluence, affect, or control God or His
harmonious creation, including man.
Now. secondly, please note this. The
only way we destroy a lie is by ceasing
to believe in It. Likewise we destroy
evil, as we cease to believe in it. We
only cease to believe in it as we realize
the substantiality . of good and the
presence and the power of God. We
only realise the presence and power of
God as we strive moment by moment,
day by jday, yes, thought by thought,
to think the -thoughts of God. Rays
of light displace darkness, drops of
water put out fire, thoughts of God,
good, nullify evil. There is no other
. Christian Science shows evil to be
nothing but a negative state of
The World's Irges Factory Clearance
Sale of Pianos Right Here in Portland
Sends Piano Home,
or More Monthly
$395 to $975
232 New Uprights, Grands
25 PEE CEJfT LO WEB PKICES
4 style 29. antique mahog $1150 $862
1 stvle 27. brown mahog 1300 : 975
2 style 20. brown mahog 800 69a
6 style 219, antique mahog. .c. . 575 4S5
i Btyle 222, mahog and wal 675 495
4 style 219. brown mahogany. .$575 $435
4 style 219, antique mahog 525 895
6 style 218, players, walnut ... 675 485
4 style 218T; players, mahog.. 900
4 style 219, antique mahog $525 $S5
4 style 219, brown mahog 525 395
1 style 20. antique mahog 800 595
4 style 219, walnut and oak. . . . 525 395
4 style 219, antique mahogany 550 435
2 style 218, players, mahogany. 800 595
4 style 22, golden oak $800 $595
4 style 219, brown mahogany.. 595 485
4 style 219, mah. and walnut. . 525 395
2 style 219, antique mahog. 1150 863
6 style 218, walnut and oak... 675 405
$675 Quality $495
2 style 21, antique mahog ...
A Btyle 219. brown mahpg
4 style 219T. brown mahog. . ,
2 style 219, Circassian wal....
a style 218, mahog. and wal. .
3 style 219. brown mahog
4style21fiT, mahog. and oak.. $650 $4S7
4 style 216, mahog. and oak.. 625 4S
2 style 222. mahog. and oak... 675 495
4 style 219T. brown mahog 575 435
Z style 218, mahog. waL, oak.. 800 595
2 style 22, golden oak 800 $395
2 style 27, antique mahog... 1300 975
1 style 29, antique mahog.. . .1150 &!
4 style 218T. mahog. and wal. 900 75
6 style 222, antique mahog. . . . 675 495
3 style 218, mah., wal. oak... 800 595
4 style 219T. antique mahog... $575 1435
4 style 219. brown mahogany..
1 style 29, antique mahog
4 style 219T, mahog. and wal,
4 style 219, antique mahog. ...
2 style 218, brown mahogany..
4style219T. antique mahog... $575 $435
4 style 219. brown manog
6 style 218, mahog. and wal.... 675
4 style 218T. mahog. and wat. 900
4 style 22, golden oak $ 900 $75
4 style 29, antique manog. .
1 style 21. fancy walnut. . ..
4 style 216, brown mahog
4 style 219, mahog. and oak.
2 style 218, mahog. ana oax.
TEEMS: 4 TEARS TIME
$15 or $:
Cash, $S or More Moathly
You can afford to pay $5 to $15 cash, $3, $6. $ or $10 monthly. You - can, therefore, afford to r buy now. Your .
bonds, old piano, organ, phonograph or city- lot taken " as first payment: Your boy or girl working can. save .
$6 monthly and secure a musical education. ( . i.i , ' . t ; "
SAVE $119 TO $400 BY BEING YOUR OWN SALESMAN The Schwan Piano Co. makes
it easy for you to buy and own a new iroprored quality piano by' its organised method of distribution. It considers aa
unnecessary, for Instance, great numbers f city or traveling salesmen and you benefit by these fully 20 -to .25i -savings.
We are not Interested In your name and address if our 25. (lower than market)? prices on new. and still
lower prices on special factory rebuilt and used pianoa do a ot.ell you. - -
ORDER YOUR PIANO BY MAIL -Read, study and compare our quality, prices and easy
terms, as advertised, and you will understand why we have.thousands of .mail-order buyers. We prepay freight and
make delivery to your home within 200 miles, besides the piano will be shipped subject to your approval and subject
to exchange within one year, we allowing full amount paid- This virtually rives you a oneyear trial of the piano
you may order. Kvery piano or player piano purchased carries with it the Schwan Piano. Co.a guarantee of .safsfac
tion, also the usual guarantee from the manufacturer. . ,j
101-103 Tenth .
JUL tMafk JU-
thought. It is like ignorance.' We can
ail see that there ia no uch thing in
reality aa ignorance. Ignorance Is but
a negative state" of thought, the ab
sence ot something, and it disappears
instantly when intelligence appears. So
every phase of evil is hut a phase of
spiritual Ignorance, aa absence of the
understanding of good, the affirmative,
spiritual truth of being, - and it dis
appears before, the light of spiritual
intelligence as the darkness, flees be
fore the dawn. ,'
APPLICATION OF CHRISTIAX
So when evil whispers, Tm catching
cold. My feet are wet and I'm afraid
I wfli soon have a cold in my head,"
the Christian Scientist says In sub
stance, "God, good,! 1 my life, the
source, and support of my being. Sick
ness is not of God and has ad relation
ship to Him or to His1 expression man.
Mortal mind and its evil manifes ta
ctions have no real existence and can
not for an instant deprive man or his
God-appointed condition or destiny.' My
true selfhood as determined by God Is
harmonious, healthy and free. . X there
If we could have our wish, every man and woman who is thinking
of buying a pian or player or a- Steger "reproducing phono
graph" would spend a day at the town of Steger in Illinois, see
ing how these instruments are made. The more you know about
high grade materials and production methods, the more clearly
you would see where the instruments from the Steger factories
get their great values and beautiful tone quality, as also the
great endurance, which puts them in a quality class apart from'
its price range.
$295 to $862
$535 Schroeder Bros mah. . . . .
SrhriuH,, Tlrna walnut SQQK
t25 Thompson, mahogany. .. 2 ft S
Thompson, waln.ut W29f
25 Thompson, mahogany. .... .2f
50 Thompson, mahogany 2ftK
70 Singer, oak R395
vosa nrmieoir, wuinui. nnn
525 Sehroeder. mahogany JH.5
f0 Singer, upright grand 1395
545 Hchroeder, -plain mahog. . ..Sftr.
9ota Ncnroeaer, walnut ;i5
575 Oaylord, walnut. ........ .;.ftftftS
$700 Wood A Sob, mahogany, ..tr
5 Thompson, walnut. ...3.15
$585 Schroeder, dull mahogany.
$575 Thompson, mahoranv nK
575 Thompson, mahogany. ." I SsSk
S75 Thompson, oak. ,.....83ftf!
175 Wood ft Bon,mahog... 8395
Wood ft Son, oak
659 Oaylord, mahogany
9700 Thompson, colonial..
C.il f I l
S. "'J - ' . ;. .V SlZiS
$650 Thompson oak ..48
$70 Reed ft Soa. oak ,....K4fi8
M Thompson, dark oak ....... 48
J676 Wood Son. mahoaany 4HH
T00 Reed A Hon, oak ...... n. .-4ffi
3625 Haines Bro mahogany 4ff
$790 Wood & Soas, mahogany. . .8495
$700 Thompson, mahogany. .... .8495
M25 Haines Bros., mahogany.'. i 8495
70 Reed ft Soa, oak 8495
Steger. oak .I..M9K
7A0 Reed A Son, dull oak S2S
79 Reed M Son, plain oak S2S
75 Reed Sun. dull oak ff?i25
Reed & Son. plain walnut.. 85R2
0 Steger, plain mahogany. .. .895
inn Reed A Sna. plain oak f2
son Steger, plain walnut 5ftK
RflO Reed Son, walnut JtKftA
ftSOA Reed t Son. plain mahog. . .Kraft t
SS0 Stea-er. Cir. walnut
81M9 Steger, walnut.. -8675'
t 375 Artemis, mahogany 8495
675 Schroeder, mahogany X49.'
S 675 Schroeder, walnut ...M495
3 900 Hallet Darts, mahog. ...8575
$ 900 Thompson, mahogany M5ftrt
C1050 Singer, oak. ...8595
9 950 Thompson, mahogany 9Kff
$1050 Singer, dull oak ....8595
S1150 Reed Son, mahogany. . .T5
S 950 Thompson, plain walnut. . -tTF
950 Thompson, dull oak.. JKA75
$ 950 Thompson, plain mahog. . .8t75
S 50 Thompson, dull mahog 875
$1050 singer, dull walnut 75
$ 950 Thompson, dull walnut. . .84175
! Jteea c mi, plain manog..7KF
91300 Steger. plain mahogany. . .9)795
$1300 Steger, plain mahoganv. . .9(862
tC I I Ufa I In. I YVL'1 Z Cash
fllOV yUdI.pOU $17 Moathly
New Rduced Collimhia Phono
inerxveuuceu uuumoia mono
$32.$ Model, oak .or mahogany..
liO.OO Model,'. oak or mahogany. .845
33 jaoaea, osk or 1 manogany . .
-. .CTirat, wai., 1 1 lit. Li. aua'uaa.,tn
ModeU, wal.. mah. and oak 8100
$15$ Models waJL, mah. and oak.8125
Model, wI, mah. and oak.8140
2 Model, wal.. mah. and AalcxIKO
$275 Model, wal.. mah. and oak. 8175
Terms, $5 Cash, $8 or more monthly.
The "Steger." the -..
Most Talaable J ,., !
Piano la the jT
Schwan Piano Co.
fore refuse to be dominated or con
trolled by any argument ot cold or
sickness which has no authority from
God in and by whom I live, and move,
and have my being." . L
MORAL COURAGE REQUISITE
You will see, I think, that this meth-
od of mental practice simply displaces -
in thought the negative-ungodly testl-
moay of mortal sense, no matter how
time-honored, with the reasoned truth
ef affirmative and harmonious spiritual
sense. It is. to be sure, a radical
break with the" old order, of thinking
and it requires courage," -moral' cour--
age. andelots of it- But the best thing"
about the method is that it works, a
fact to .which the entire Chrisian
Science movement is a, living testi-"
mony.. '. Z!-t:-?t s
Lewis Stone, the! popular j leading
man whose excellent performance in
"A Fool There. Was" ia creating favor
able comment everywhere, mow is
busily engaged at the Louis B. Mayer
studio, where ho heads the all-star cast
of John M. Stahl's new attraction, 'The
Dangerous Age.", . : t
IIo roe, Then
or More Monthly
$75 to $695
42 Factory Rebuilt
and Used Piano
Bord A Co. upright. S 75
f2J5" lialoa Piano Co square. . . 93
Mosart, upright...... SlOO
69 Emersoa, upright S145
4l Hallet & DaTls SMfir,
1Z iiailrt & Davis.
-4yS W(.jiet . ,.-.
!,! ? DVS-
Sterling, , mahog
, mahogany. .
$475 Marshall Wendell..
; ?" '"f
8 Hallet A Davis.
875 Valley Gem, oak. . . . .
111, Sf!' r2.aV.fany .v - ?265
51?! I I r' TUhef.hA,
1;, ""ogany -gggS
t450 Sm?th i Rars.V ' 'S5
$475 Estey, mahogany.
42 Steinhftr U Breher.
EE ThAMMaA. - 1
4)576 Thomoson. mahoeanv.
Thnmn.7; tv06' 4-25
!?f E..r?i?HmJ.-"NT" " SS
. n! 5.nUS?f,?ak ' ' ' S5
?? mB' walnut , 295
750 Kranirh A Barn.
S55 Emerson, mahogany....
Sf5 8ehroeder, mahogany,,.
$525 Schroeder, oak..........
$550 Concord, mahogany. .8295
$ho Steger, mission. ......... t. .8395
: $700 Thompson, oak ..-.I. .8395
$900 Stelnway ft 8oni.....,.....8395
$ Steger, oak ............8495
! USED PLAYER PIANOS
$ $00 Thompson ...i...;,....8395
$ 900 Thompson, oak. .. . . . 8495
C 960 Thompson, mahoganyl .. . .8495
$ 800 Schroeder, mission ...8495
$ 950 Thompson; fumed oak, ....8495
41060 Singer, oak... . ..... .... ; . . .8495
HOiO Singer, oak....... .8595
1115$ Reed ft Son, mahogany. ...8695
$ 275 Pianola Player, walnut. .. .8 35
Terms 4 Tears Time
$1$ or $15 Cash, $5, $6 or More Month
New and ' Used Phonographs
"'" laeladlng 5 or 10 Records "- w .
$32.60 Grafonola. golden oak.....
$60.00 Soaora, golden oak..........
$04.00 Colamhia, mahogany.......
$960 Stradlrara, mahogany......
$95.00 Steger, golden oak. ......-'.
$125 Grafonola, mahogany........
$126 Colombia, walnut.. ........
$165 BranswIck,mahogany.....,..f5 ,
$125 Grafonola, golden oak... ...-18S5
$105 Emerson, goioen oaic... ......
0175 Colombia, golden oak. ...... SSfc.-t.
$105 Stradivara, mahogany... ....fiUO
! Birnaif, bij...
$14. Gratono. manogany.
$ Colambla, mahogany ,"....,J
$,.5 Grafonola, mahogany...... j
?5 Grafonola. walnut......
$175 Columbia, walnut. ..8125
175 Sonora, mahogany. ....... 8130
nrnsswica, manogauy., ., . . 1 ; 5
S3 riger, manogny......i,..jni.5
jsranswica, manogany XI N.
Vietrola, mahogany. ...... .! 9S
$300 Edisoa, quite. new. ...... .'..8235
$?& Sonora Grand, mahogany.. 8265
Terms $5 Cash, $3 or More Moathly.