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- -u inm t . ; '
Tho Dvaxdzy Journal
5 Sections -T-52 Pc-ss
Th - Weather partly r cloudy;
warmer; little. If any. rain, v 7 ,
VOL. IV. 'NO. 14.
1 ' .
PORTLAND, OREGON, SUNDAY MORNING, JUNE '16, 1807.
;1 'J H-:M PRICE FIVE CENTS.
f Wf I 1 Wit ll i f I II "." ii
State vHasas Yet Made No CaseAgairisFChi
of Western Federati on of M i ners :
MY WOOD Wmi
.V.'. ...... .'. w
Narrative Has Only Shown a
l" Human Soul . in Awful
Travail, a - Palpitating
Tragedy, but No ponvinc;
ing Proof of Conspiracy.
Prosecution"' 'Played v Its
( ' Trump Card in. Assassin's
Vivid,- Poignant Story ; of
Fathomless Sin and Black
V. Hurder. , v '
"By Hugh, CKen, ' Special .Commis
sioner of the Oregon Journal and Xq
ver Peat.) f - l- '. . ' . c'
Boise, 44a' June IS. Orchard haa
eorae and Orchard' has tone, and new
w know , that w have not bean dream
ins. Orchard has come and Orchard
baa ffone, and ; now tor the two day
Inee fcla ofn we have keen buUdln
ln, grata b grain, atom by .atom, aa
coral inaecta bolld'in the eoutbera aeaa.
I the white walla or fact that are to fUl
I in the ateal frame of evidence which hie
'Incredible atory riveted beam to beam
'and beanv to breaataorK.
; Orchard baa coma and Orchard baa
i cone; and be went ae be came, that
i breathleaa mcrnlng a weekv ego, a
i email, abort.r thick-aet, inacrutaile man
1 in a gray' tweed eult, looking Itralght
1 before him .with ' fathomleaa, -fearieaa,
wlde-aet eyee, bellevteg aa be eald in
: the Everlaatlag Ood. and thinking else
i aa ' ho aaid, that life here might . be
I aold well and cheaply It It brought, In?
n demnltr throughout eternity: , . -v rf
- '- Vta lie Sefenge Predicted, f
I Me told hla tale te..Hawly bMCTly
and without geaturea; and It grained
Into bur eare aa a dream might, a dreant
3 cf prodlgloua, inhuman impoealbllitlea.
He told hie tale again to fttchardaon
I an la, it waa a dream no. more, but a
biting, vivid, poignant etory-of fathom-
leaa eln end black murOr; and if we
. knew that - we - were watching a human
; eoul writhe, living through the flree of
j Before Orchard eame the defenae bad
1 told ue that he never would ear on the
1 aland what be had aald to McParland.
. He waa mad, they aald, or half-mad. -or
, dleeaaed. They doubted whether be had
lever killed Rteunenberg. They dented
j that be had ever tried to kill Bradley
in nan jrrancieow ney w iunmr
and aald that he had never been to San
Franclaoo. They laughed at the etory
that he bad aver blows nn the Inde
pendence depot- They did not know
that be waa going to 'eharge : hlmaeif
with the murder of Lyte Gregory. They
eneered at the attempted aaaaaalnatlon
of Ooddard and Oabbert and Peabody
and Sherman Bell. They eald be .waa
a degenerate, e craven, etfWertnK 4ug
tlve. with no heart for-any flght and
ne faith in any Ood.. -
; ' What' the Sefemee Beallaed. , X
They predicted Immediate end Anal
annihilation ef McParland. -They aald
McParland had nrowa old and foollah.
a eMppered rentaloork gibbering of vain
thlnga, mouthing of hie paat. They
were prepared to aweep away the whole
caae of the atate in leaa than 14 houra.
Th ware nrenared to nrova tha the
Lihole thing waa a foollah and vain and
,7 Irked conaplracy. They were pre
I Mred for anything. They were pre
pared ror everytning. -
But they were- not prepared for Or
chard; the! man who aaid that he be
lieved in a Ufa after death and wanted
. a ku hmm with flAifl enH utl
H to tell the truth. ' He waa for tiem n
problem - in the fourth aimenaion, ana
they left him eulte oneolved. -
nd an did we. He admitted araon:
j! he admitted blgamyr he admitted mur
K eer; he admitted burglary; he admitted
aaeaaaination attempted ana aaaaeaina-
tlon foiled; .he admitted lying; ae aa-
(ConUnued oa Page Tbirieen.)
ROOSEVELT ON LYiCANDI DATE:
President Logical Choice of
TT4 rnv Am in PnoHIrtnfi
? w Standing Upon Platforms Built by Executive, V
' . . V - .
(PeblMnin .Praae hy ipeeial ' tease Whe.1
Washington, June ll-Tbe eigne ef
tbe times as . analysed , byr political
minds point unerringly to Theodore
Roosevelt as the only man who caa
atand squarely on the Roosevelt pUt
form which be has already oatltned for
ble party and hla -guoceeeor. -I
The belief ia becoming strengthened
that the president ha a presented poli
eiee ef each etrlklng importance aa te
inevitably make blm the logical choice
ia the next aatlona) con ran 11 on. - Al
though the subjects of an Income or a
progressive inheritance ta Will have
no plare .In the Republican platform
and while It la conceded that govern
mental wnerehlp of public coal and ell
lathis a: i iji et-loux l.-fU
Newspaper Criticism Will Be
, .Considered Crime, to Be
Punishable by Fine of Fif
7. teen Hundred Dollars and
Befusal of Lower . House to
" Appro veArrest of Men-Ac-
cused - v. of ..Plotting ' to
r- Wreck Government Given
; as Emperor's Excuse. ;- .
(Haaret Hewe by taagaat teaekd Wire.)
-: St. Peterabttrg.- Jane . It. I a.
An order baa been leaned by Oeneral
Dracbeffakle, prefect of t Peterabmrg.
directed to the municipal preee a-nd an
nouncing that any article appearing -inimical
to. the - government will be eon
aldcred" al misdemeanor; and putilahable
by a fiW of tl. and three months
Imprleonraent In Jail. . ;
-Thla U the moat draetlo order tamed
since the dara of the black reaction." If
ft la enforced it wlU entail the auppree.
alon of every flberal-ne wane per In -the
city The aoclallet Tvarlach has thrown
un the BDone-e and Will ot attempt to
appear, thla morning,' feeling ' that sup
pression ia ineviiaute. -
The sleeping populace waa arod
thla morning By the trundling of addl
tionaT tranaporte end by. evening the
mrA fif ih. rltv will be doubled. Bot-
dlere are camping In- the etreeta. Pee-
Bible couisione oetween sinaere ana i
soldiers are anticipated for today, but
the revolutionaries -are not . strong
enough xo cope wlib the trvope.
r -v ,-,-rertoea) in rnon,. . ' j
. When Emperor -Nicholas affiled bU
signature to the imperial 'Ukaae 1 abol
ishing the donma. he ordered that elec
tions to Its successor, which is to meet
November 14. be held under the new
flection law. which: provides sgalnst the
''submergence of- the educated .x classes
By toe uneaueaiea , ciassea. , ' '
' Thi act conatltutea a virtual- coup
d'etat, overriding the provialona of the
constltutlont of the realm proclaimed by
the emperor on the eve of the convocation
of the f lret douma. It was declared that
the electoral - een never ne cnangea
without the consent - of parliament It-
eeU. ' . ij - . .v
K, .xjMwm.mmmm .Aaeuaaea.
The threat of the tcsar to dlaaolve
the douma waa carried out tonight af
ter the recalcitrant members of - the
lower house had announced en adjourn
ment to Monday Instead of -replying to
the government'e. demand for the ex
clusion of the (t aocial democrata ac-
cuaed - of conspiracy agalnat the gov
ernment and the approval of the arrest
of ths It deputies accused - of being
leadere in the conspiracy. .
-When the rsar waa Informed, thla aft
ernoon, that the mem bare of the douma
bad not only - refused - to aoqeleece 'to
his demand for Immediate action on the
sensational - Indictment agalnat the It
deputies, bat had also. In order to delay
the issue, moved - an adjournment to
Monday, he became furiously angry and
rave orders that, troorja be sent at
once to surround and close the Taurlde
palace, where the douma has held Ita
sessions, and to-prevent any one enter
ing the ' building. , ,
, . - XMssolvee After VOdnlgb. '
He waa Induced, however, to recon
sider this action, ae it waa represented
that in the present temper of the people
a bloody clash might reeult. Therefore-the
edict of dlssoluttsti was not
promulgated until after midnight.
. With the ' exception of two. official
newspspers, . the press condemned the
action of the government in Instating
upon the suspension of the social demo
crate aa a pretext for the dlaaolutlon of
the donma, . saying- that it was well
known the demand -would not be ao
ceded to. -..'; .. ,
(Contlnned on Page Ten.)' ..
Next 1 Convention as Taft
sTVTiirli PnrWrl TliMwy.-V
t : . . i ; , . . i . n ) f s
Incorporation or licensing of interstate
corporations and characterisation of
power ' will be ignored In the declara
tion ef party doc trine,, these, undoubt
edly, ,wlll be the issues upon which
the nominating struggle will be fought
Van Voe JbafleaL , '
Some of the moat etrlklng - ef the
policies which tbe preeldent bae da-
dared must be perpetuated if he can
sccompllsh It are: Fastening upon em
ployere full liability for Injury to the
employee and child Jabor; further reg
ulatloa of interstate carriers te Include
their operation within a state as well
as between etstss; legislation to ' p re
rent abuae ef government by Injunction.
Tnere never waa tbe poaalblllty of
Secretary Taft. the , admtnlatratlon e
presidential favorite, executing , the
tt ..-t'a yeUoiea ka gubaUaoe aa waU
BTORCE KEVEALS SECRET MAHRIAGE -:
M EWS WANCE OF THE GORDONS
E. 8. OORIJON AND. HI3 FORJIKR
WIFE. .i Hi U
TO AVERT STRIKE
Chicago Board'of Trade Afc
v peals to President to lre-
- vent Operators'-Tieupl
; " - " r.'t
';"'. . i '
(Pabllebers Press ey Seecia) ' Oeaad Wire.)
Chicago, June -The. Chicago board
of trade appealed to Prealdent Roosevelt
and Robert C Clowry, president of tbe
Western Union, this, evening to avert
the threatened etrlke of , telegraphers.
Bualneas interests '.of 'the' entlre coun
try foresee paralysis of Interstate com
merce in a gigantic operators strike and
wlah to prevent such a disaster. The
communication to the president - reads
aa follows;- -,
-The board of trade of the city of
Chicago respectfully requests the presi
dent of the United States to-take euuh
etepe aa in hla Judgment may eeem ad-
(ConUnued on Page Seven.) 4
as in spirit." It le believed that the Uet
four policies enumerated, and eome of
them advocated only quite recently, will
8 rove a stumbling block of formidable
Imenalona, Some of the folke in tbe con
fidential rounclla of the admlniatratlen
Intimate that he -cannot accept them
without stultifying himself.
' It is Secretary Taft's anunolatloa as
a doctrine of vested rights and the
illegality, of employes banding together
to deprive their employere of their labor,
or the labor of ethera. that blaxee the
way for other government by Injunc
tion" decisions, according to labor lead
are. . -
JCnoa Oat ef Xaraaoay. '
Senator Knox, who has been ' spoken
ef es the administration's second choice,
following his indorsement by the Penn
sylvania Republicans, could never aub
serlha to the belief that the conatltunon
f1Ve the seneral government the right
o regulate Interstate carriers within a
state, or to control all corpora tlon a with
in a stste by denying their products
transmission by Interstate -' 'carriers.
Durtpg the-consideration of the rail
road rata, bill he took issue with tbe
f resident .upon limiting the power of
he courts. The een at or was known aa
a "broad court review man" - and his
etand lost him prestige because be ap
peared te have the admiration X the
Wealthy Coos Bay Lumber
man Ends Quarrels With
Nemesis Denies r Mar-
" riage, Then Admits It
. She Secures Divorce.
. Mrs. K. S. Gordon, wife of both BL 8.
Gordon, a wealthy Coos bay lumberman.
and a dummy, the former It years old,
the letter's age and name nnknown,
buyer of. 11.000 planoa and 1200 silk
dresses, guest of fashionable , hotels,
arrested once for forgery, accused of
counterfeiting, ud two , days ago ar
rested again 'for. annoying her alleged
husband, ia Mrs. JC a. Gordon he longer,
yesterday afternoon ;he 'waa granted
a divorce at Oregon, -City from her hus
band and allowed' to aeeume ber maiden
name, -Bertha H. Lerch. '- The decree
also- gave hertt.OOu worth ef Gordon'
property. -r4 ' , . . -, ,.
The first -iatimathm that the Oordon
Infellpltiea had eeme to- aa abrupt and
wae received ever the telephone last
evening . when Miss Ierch aald to The
Jo ureal, over the wire: ,',-.'!-
Vif'Wake vp! qet next! : I got- divorced
at Oregon pity this afternoon." . j , .
' ' JlcJiride areata Bootee, -.'
Tka-Judlclal words which severed the
nuptial hoot of the Gordons and thus
cleared up a part of the mystery sur
roundings ths couple, were pronounced
by - Judge -McBrldc. The divorce eult
Itself came ee an afterthought ttf a eult
which Gordon had filed to quiet title
to property in which hla wife claimed
an equity. ..
The court began hearing testimony la
the case Friday, but continued the ces
sion until yesterday, when Gordon took
the stand. He claimed that the woman
had repeatedly disrupted varioua real
estate eales by eppearfng about the time
they were to be consummated and as
sarting her. right to UUe In the prop
erty. - .- ,
While giving hie testimony the mat
ter of hla marriage to the woman waa
raised. Gordon at, first asserted that
she wee not Mrs. Gordon. Half aa hour
later ha changed hla mind and. teetlf led
that they . had . been married I in - Van
couver eome seven or eight yeare ago
ne aian i rwmemoer just now long ago.
Then the question of ths dummy, whom
Mrs. -Gordon Influenced Into posing ss
k. 8. uoraon ana married at Vancouver
over a year, ago, was brought up, but
before ths mystery surrounding this
man who tmpereonated Mr. Gordon No.
1 could be ewept away, the lid waa
cioaea aown pignt. - .. ,
Oordon'e conflicting snswere to aue.
tlone regarding hie marriage eo dis
comfited the attorneys that a recesa
wae taken. A hurried conference of the
lawyers waa held, and It was then de-
ciaea mat the alleged Mrs. Gordon
should bring eult for divorce and that
the husband .should remain passive and
not appear against her. '
The divorce eult was filed yesterday
afternoon and Judge McBrlde granted
me divorce. , Mies Lercn, arter making
a tour of the Oregon City resorts with
(Continued on Page Thirteen.)
TO CONDUCT FUNERAJJ
OF CONCRETE CORPSE
d tPsbllabera' Press by ppseial Leased Wire.) 4,
e : Boston.' Maas ' June II. Un- ; e
4 able te find an undertaker will-
d Ing to bury the remains of Her- d
- man , Unger.. the Pittsburg sui- ' 4
e clde,-Ungefe brother Odd Pel- e
d ' Iowa here have written to his - d
e 4heme lodge asking them to take td
d eharge ef their embarrassing be- ' q
e , Diffleulty arises from the feet ' e
d that in pursuance of Ungera dy- !d
e Ing request, the Odd Fellows of e
O . Boston bed his body -cremated
and mixed ' the aahee . with' ee- ' 4)
dement, making a eoncrete brick
weighing over 190 pounds. 4)
. ' For several daya thi" huge d
d - brick wae lytng in the yard of 4
,'the water proofing company. e
0 , Not' only have undertakers re- e
e fused to' handle It, but Hebrew , d
e cemeteriea have declined to re- 4
0 eelve . It becauee Unger wea ' d
e eulddcv The Odd Fellows have
d a burial oematery, however, gad 4
d unletfe the undertakers make 4
e". terms, or the Odd Fellows take ,4
d charge, Ungefa remalna are like-e
e ly to bake In the aua at the
d, brickyard for aa Indefinite pe- e
Mod. . , , : ' ' .
. ..' . ," ' r ' . .-'-' .
-V :.... ,. ti i -J - i
'' ' ' ,
1 ' i 1 - ... ,
i ; . . i , - . ' .A r -
' ' '. - J, . ' . '
I ' -r- . -I ; ... : : ? . j.
' ' i , . v .
. ' . v-v . " ' "S .
' 1. ' -
.v.- tupvrtti rurernr .'ffnmrfurttt.t Mns vi d nnnhntf t r""-l
- , 1 .
. . .
John Kirby Now-Aids Hag-
nate Who Helped Him in'
7 Time of Need.' I
(PabUshera Preas ey Special Lsaaad Wire.)
Auatln, Tex, June IS. With the- fil
ing of a bid In th aum of IMOO.OOO by
John Kirby today, the receivership ?la
the 'Waters-Pierce OH 'company's case
waa vacated and the' company, will be
enabled to continue Its . business la
Texas until its appeals are disposed vt.
It ia aot thought probable that the ap
peal a can. bo decided before two. years'
time. ,'....-. - . -
' Behind the. signing of the ' bond by
Kirby le. a story ef how he repaid tbe
frlendahln Clay Pierce aho wed him n ve
yeara ago. According to Kirby. .Pierce
et that time wae on hla bond lor site,
000. - This saved him .from ruin, iln
ths bond Kirby made aa affidavit I to
being worth more than 11,000.000 - In
property In Texaa. Had it not been for
the fact that Pierce went on hie bond
Kirby would have been ruined by finan
cial pressure. Thus he repaid Pierce's
friendship. . . .
. m 1 .'
' Salem' High School Defeated. '
' ' (Special Dtopatch ta Tbe Jeoreal) ' ' "
' Salem. Ore.. June 18. The West Side
hlirh achool baaebaJI team of Portland
today defeated the Salem high achool
team In eleven Innings; score fi to
UNEARTHED BY. I
'' (Jeersal Ipeelsl Service.)
Washington. D. C. June IS. A post
office scandal that threatens te assume
even greater' proportion than ' that
which Involved Rath bone and his cen-
federatea In Cuba several yeara ago,
waa revealed today when It waa learned
that a a arret lnveettaratlon of the office
of the eecond assistant postmaster gen
eral hea been under way for two months
in which disclosures navs aireaay oewn
mode to . a how losses or millions
of dollars to. the government la mail
contracts. . '
The investigation began shortly efter
W. 8- Shallaoberaer waa aucceeded by
Congressman McCreary to the position
Of aeeond assistant postmaster general
and' haa been prosecuted auenriy ana
thoroughly by expert poetoffloe inspect
ors la every part ef the country.
- rose Klamaaaejeaneas. . ' - . -
Tke tsondltlone revealed, by ' the in-
veetlgatlon ahow that gross mismanage
ment obtained, In the handling and plac
ing of mall con tract a under Shallen
bergefs administration.' ' In the east
ern states it was diacovored thai, in-a
comparatively email section - the gov
ernment wee losing tl.eot, 009 a year to
I he railway companies for handling gov
ernment matla. . , .
On th Pacilte eoaet the discrepancies
show even a greater mlsmanagsraent of
railway mU eXUira, CoaUacU.that
. ' , .
Dr. KeUogg: Says Terrible
Fate Is in Store for Coun,-:
I ' try in Three'Centuries. 1
; v .-. i - ,
i - --. ' ' ' ' ,
- (Baarst Ksws by tsegsst- leased Wire.) v
- Minneapolis, June -IS. Tbe Amerleaa
people are becoming a nation of Idiots.
There' can be, no legitimate questloa
about the' faot, for Indisputable" 'evi
dence., figure and statistics' were pre
sented - by the . national conference of
eharitlee and oorrectlons by Dr.- J. H.
Kellogg of .Michigan., , . . . . ...
Weak-kneed, blear-eyed, whobby and
various otner tnings is tne rate wnien
TH-. KelloKS holds out. And the con
summation of this dire fate is not far
distant. Three hundred years from now
ths people of the etate of Illinois will
be -driveling Idiots without' even a re
deeming quality. The etate of Illinois
was taken aa an example, and when the
state of Illinois goes crasy -the rest of
the nation la expected to follow In line.
Dr. Kellogg, with earneet enthuslaam.
painted the picture of a nation of alant
heads, - a . condition - of mind In which
van .the wise ones of Chlcaa-o and con
tiguous suburbs wftuld participate, -
"In Juat SO yeare," said Dr. rtellogg.
with his finger on the etatistlcal key,
"Inaanlty has Increased 100 per cent.
Not only la the race going to the dem-
(Continued on Pegs Seven.)
SOOIJ DE IDIOTS
Secret' Investigation of the Office of Second Assistant
PostmasterResults in Alarming DisclosuresLarge "
Sums Lost to Government in Road Contracts.
were given to bidders wheee bide were
higher than - ether In . numeroue la
stances. ' - ': - -
Wtf theee awards were made whe
the government could have received aa
good service for less money will have te
be explained te the eetlefiaotloa of ths
-Yeer ;after year. In' Sballenberger'e
regime eontreete were made that
mulcted the government pat ef millions
et dollars. They were given to the
nn eaxttea at the exnlratloa, of the
contracts deeplte tbe fact - that lower
blda were orrere ny otner -pereone
when new contracts were made by the
department. . .
Although ' the - Investigation .has aot
been completed end the full report nf
tne inspectors ns pt neen mas a,
enough to known it I a orttUe i'
astound them. ."1 4 '" v
be taken Iri re' ' t
not been decl
until the r"-' i
tuat tUoa U 1
LID WILL BE
District Attorney Manning's
Order to Close All the Sa
; loons on Sundays Will Ba
Strictly Enforced by Po
. lice Department '
Fashionable : Clubs : Having
: Bars Have Also Been No-.
; tified That No Liquor Hay,
Be Served to Members
i :isomft to KesTject uecisioiL.
Portland . saloon men will make a
test of the Sunday dosing law today,
according to indications. While as a,
general thine the saloons .will remain
dosed ' it la expected ' a few - of ' these
will disregard District Attorney . Joha '
Manning's Injunction and open their
doers 'as usual. .'' '.'-
in aplte of the 'evident intention ta
flght the dictum of the district attor
aey, however. It la generally believed,
that' Portland wlU be a, thirsty city
today. , WhUe certain placee may ape
ae usual for the purpose of testing the
4BUinuri(T VI nrw iitvi 7
tae- police-bane been geven- rle-ia -rn
etrucucae to eee toai . au ptacea are
eloeed. '" ' ' ' --- .
. pdSea WfJB af ore Order, - ,
Iff thlr order le enforced, and Chief
Grltsmachsr says It will be. then the
saloonkeepers will be arrested ae fast
aa they dlsobsy tbe order, end their
? laces will be ordered ehut by the pa
rolmen. This course will a fiord the
material for a teat of the law. but at '
the same time net allay- much thirst.
There Is much dleagreement ever th
Question of whether or not tbe -Arlington,
Commercial. Concordia. - University
and ether almilar clubs eome under thai
provisions of tho state law.. Notice wast
served on all those clubs bavins' bar
privileges, requesting them to close
The queatlon wee raised whether or not
any such, clubs - were included la the
law ' and varkme attorneye gave dif
ferent opinions. As a reeult thee pieces
may follow the old custom, thongh the
Commercial club haa notified Chief of .
Police ontsmacner mat it wiu eoeerva
the ..Manning order. --.m - -
"Thirst consumed residents of Porte
land sra Dlannlnar te take no ehancee)
end crowded excursions will leave th
city In -every direction bound for those
piS'-es wnere n aaannins 11a n"
reach. 1 Special arrangementa have been
made at Vancouver. Aetorta and ether
placee te handle-large crowd and many .
are planning to leave tbe Rose City
early and return late. . - - . --
There has been no ehange In the stt-
astlon and both sides are reeling quiet-.
y.- Mr. Manning says he Is going to
make the lid tight while the liquor
men predict- that the . courts will be
aaked to Interpret the law. Whatever
the declaton.' the liquor men Bay, ' the
will abide by th dectaloa ef the court.
J (Baarst Sews by Leases teased Wire.)
North Vernon. Xnd-. June IS. Char le
Daweon bantered Fred Oeha to see who
could remain on the railroad track a tbe
longest before a freight train, which
wss approaching. . .
. Iton won. ' -' ' '
The time of hla funeral hag not yet
Oehs was. so badly Injured that he
will not be able to attend. He wae
barely able today to tell the detalle ef
their foolhardlneaa and Its tragic re
ter-Oenera! Cortelyooj will make a re
port te- the preeldent and the reno t
will then be laid before the attorney
general for-further Investigation. .
- When Shallenberger ' resigned last
spring after 10 years' continuous serv
ice, much speculation was Imtuia-ed I
aa to his real reason for y-'tirn e ,
He wae eppointed in the V.miy -mlnletratlon
and aince that time 1 1
had the handling of contracts Inv -Ing
millions sf dollars belo, v t
government. It 4e a.ie-d k t 1
contraote were ma'e t t
trary to the rules e t .
1 Friends -y 1 t 1
ably award 1(0
cause t f