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About Oregon union. (Corvallis, Benton County, Or.) 1897-1899 | View This Issue
Physical troubles of a like nature coming
from different causes are often a puzzle to
. those who suffer pain as to thr treatment
.and cure as in the case of lumbago from
cold or a strain in some way to the same
muscles. The treatment of such need not
; differ one with the other. Both are bad
' enotigh and should have prompt attention,
as nothing disables so much as a lame back.
The use of St. Jacobs Oil. will settle the
question! Its efficacy is so sure in either
- case there is no difference in the treatment
and no doubt of the cure.
Kangaroo tails for soup have been
sent to London from Australia. A
shipment of 2,500 weight was sold at
: the rate of $3 a dozen tails. In Aus
tralia they are considered a great
delicacy. '. -t L ' ' - '
REPUTATIONS MADE IN A DAY
Are precious scarce. Time tries the worth ol
a man or medicine. Hostetter's Stomach Bit
- ters ins forty-live years' growth, and like those
' hardy lichens that garnish the crevices of
Alaska's rocks, it flourishes perennially, and
- its reputation has as firm a base as the rocks
themselves. No medicine is more highly re
garded as a remedy for fever and ague, bilious
remittent, constipation, liver and kidney dis
orders, nervousness and rheumatism.
The longest straight railroad line in
America is on the Lake Shore railway,
beginning at a point three miles west
of Toledo, Ohio, and running 69 miles
without a curve.
If you . . use too much of
' Schilling's Best baking powder
it dan't spoil the cake. . V
But; why not make your
money go as far as it will by
; using just enough of Schilling1 s
Best baking powder one-third
; less than of the brand you are
used to ? " -". -
. A Schilling & Company
An old English "Manners Book"
says: "A lady should dip only the tips
of her fingers in the sauce bow', and
should not let food fall out of her
mouth, on the tablecloth."-. .
AN OPEN LETTER TO MOTHERS.
: We are asserting in the-courts our right to the
' exclusive use of the word " CASTORIA," and
" PI TCHER'S CASTORIA," as our Trade Hark.
I, Dr. Samuel Pitcher, of Hyannis, Massachusetts,
was the originator of " PITCHER'S CAS rORIA,"
the same that has borne and does now bear the
fac simile signature of CHAS. H. FLETCHER on
every wrapper. This is the original " PITCHER'S
CASTORIA " which has been used in the homes
of the mothers of America for over thirty years.
Look Carefully at the wrapper and see that it is
the kind you have always bought, and has the
signature of CHAS. H. FLETCHER on the
wrapper. No one has authority from me to use
' my name except The Centaur Company of which
: Chas. H. Fletcher is President. '
March 8, 1897. SAMUEL PITCHER, MJX
A New. Hartford, Conn., man one
day set over 1,000 tobacco plants, and
the next morning found that the cut
worms had destroyed every plant but
one over night. .
HOME PKODUC13 AND PUKE FOOl).
All Eastern Syrup, so-called, usually very
light colored and of heavy body, is made from
glucose. "Tea Garden lirios' is made irom
Sugar Cane and is strictly pure. It is lor sale
by first-class grocers, in cans ouly. ianuiac
tiired by the Pacific Coast Syrup Co. -All gen
uine "Tea Garden Drim" have the manufac
turer's name lithographed era every can. ,
The legislature of Uruguay has con
ferred citizenship and the sum of $10,
000 on Dr. Sanarelli as a recognition of
his discovery of the yellow- fever
microbe." . ..."
"King Solomon's Treasure," only Aphrodisfacal
Tonic known. (See Dictionary.) $5.ui) a box, 3
weeks' treatment. Mason Chemical Co., P. O. Box
747, Philadelphia, Pa.
An international congress' has been
.arranged at Paris for the discussion of
the means of preventing fires in thea
ters and other places of public resort.
We will forfeit $1,000 if any of our pub
lished testimonials are proven to be not
genuine. -The Piso (Jo, Warren, Pa.
Tit. Schilling's Best tea and baking powder.
Russia has the most rapidly increas
ing population of any country in the
world. The growth during the last 100
years has been a fraction less than 1,
000,000 annually. - ' .
A Dutchman of Weert has found a
way of spinning' thread from peat,
which is woven into clothing. The
fabrics thus made are comparatively
cheap and intended for ordinary use. -
. Nine hundred and fifty telegraph
sub-marine cables are now in opera
tion, most of them in Euiope; their
total length is over -89,000 miles.
It is no nnusual thing for a vessel
plying bewteen Japan and London to
carry 1,000,000 fans of all kinds as a
single item of its cargo.
And consider that in addressing Mrs.
I'inkham you are confiding your private
ills to a woman a woman whose ex
perience in treating woman's diseases
is greater than that of any living" phy
sician, male or female.
You can talk freely to a woman when
It i3 revolting; to relate your private
troubles to a man; besides, a man docs
not understand, simply because he is a
MES. PINKHAMS STANDING
Women suffering from any form of
female weakness are invited to-promptly
communicate with Mrs. Pinkham, at
Lynn, Mass. - All t letters are re
ceived, opened, read, and answered by
women only. A woman can freely
talk of her private illness to a woman.
Thus has been established the eternal
confidence between Mrs. Pinkham and
the women of America which has never
been broken. Out of the vast volumo
of experienfw which she has to draw
from, it is more than possible that slie
has gained the very knowledge that
will help your case. She asks nothing
in return, except your good, will, and
her advice has relieved thousands.
Surely any woman, rich or poor, is very
f ooliah if she does not take advantage
of this generous offer of assistance.
iMirtfcS WHfcKt ALL ELbE FAiLS. feij
Dast Cuufck Syrup. Tantes Gtxd. TJse gj
in time, frold by druggists, f. 3
The Important Features of
the Chiet Executives Ad- '
dress to Congress.
To the Senate and House of Representa
tives: It gives me pleasure to extend
greeting "to the 55th congress assembled
In regular session at the seat of govern
ment, .with many of whose senators and
representatives I have been associated
in the legislative service. The meeting oc
curs under felicitous conditions, justify
ing sincere congratulation and calling for
our grateful acknowledgment to a be
neficent providence which has so signally
blessed and prospered us as a nation.
Peace, and good will with all the nations
of the earth continue unbroken.
A matter of genuine satisfaction is the
growing feeling of fraternal ' regard and
unification of all sections of our country,
the Incompleteness of which has too long
delayed realization of the highest blessings
of the Union. The spirit 01 patriotism is
universal and Is ever increasing in fervor.
The public questions which now most en
gross us are lifted far above either par
tisanship, prejudice or former - sectional
differences. They affect every part of
our common country alike and permit of
no division on ancient lines. Questions of
foreign policy, of revenue, the soundness
of the currency, the inviolability of na
tional obligations, the improvement of the
public service, appeal to the individual con
science of every earnest citizen, to what
ever party he belongs, or in whatever sec
tion of the country he may reside.
The extra session of this congress which
closed during July last, enacted important
legislation, and, while its full effects have
not been realized, what it has already ac
complished assures us of its timeliness and
wisdom. To test its permanent value
further time will be required, and the peo
ple, satisfied with its operation and re
sults thus far, are in no mind to withhold
from it a fair trial.
THE CIKBESCY QIESTIOSI.
Necessity of Putting; Our Finances
I'pon a. Sound Basis.
Tariff legislation having been settled by
the extra session of congress, the question
next pressing for consideration is that of
the currency. The work of putting our
finances upon a sound basis, difficult as it
may seem, will appear when we recall
the financial operation of the government
since 1866. On the 30th day of June of
that year, we had outstanding demand
liabilities in the sum of 5728,858,4-17 41. On
the 1st day of July, 1879, these liabilities
had been reduced to $443,889,495 88. Of our
interest-bearing obligations, the figures
are even more striking. On July 1, 1866,
'the principal of the Interest-bearing debt
of the government was $2,332,331,208. On
the 1st day of July, 1893, this sum had
been reduced to $585,037,100, or an aggre
gate reduction of $1,747,294,108. The interest-bearing
debt of the United States on
tne 1st day of December, 1897, was $817,
365,620. The government, money now out
standing (December 1) consists of $346,
681,016 of United States notes; $107,793,280
of treasury notes issued by authority of
the act of 1890; $384,963,504 of silver certifl-'
cates and $61,280,761 of standard silver
With, the great resources of the govern
ment and with the time-honored example
of the past before us, we should not hesi
tate to enter, upon a currency revision
which will make our demand obligations
less onerous to the government and re
lieve our financial laws fiom ambiguity
The brief review of what was accom
plished from the close of the war until
1893 makes unreasonable and groundless
any distrust either of our financial Abil
ity or soundness; while the situation from
1893 to 1897 must admonish congress of the
Immediate necessity for so legislating as
to make the return of the conditions then
There are many plans proposed as a
remedy for the evil. Before we Can find
the true remedy we must appreciate the
real evil. It is not that our currency of
every kind is not good, for every dollar
of it is good; good because the govern
ment's pledge is out to keep it so, and
that pledge will not be broken. How
ever, the guaranty of our purpose to keep
the pledge will be best shown by advanc
ing toward ts fulfillment.
Evil of, the Present System.
The evil of the present system is found
In the great cost to the government of
maintaining the parity - of our different
forms ol money; that, is, keeping all of
them at par-with gold. We surely cannot
be longer heedless of the burden this Im
poses upon the people, given under fairly
prosperous conditions, while the past .four
years have demonstrated that it is not
only an expensive charge upon the gov
ernment, but a dangerous menace to the
It is manifest that we must devise some
plan to protect the government against
bond issues for repeated redemptions. We
must either curtail the opportunity for
speculation, made easy by the multiplied
redemptions of our demand obligations, or
increase the gold reserve for their re
demption. We have $900,000,000 of currency
which the government, by solemn enact
ment, has undertaken to keep at par with
gold. Nobody ' Is obliged to redeem in
gold but the government. The banks are
not required to redeem In gold. The gov
ernment is obliged to keep equal with
gold all Its outstanding currency and coin
obligations, while its receipts are not re
quired to be paid in gold. They are paid
in every kind of money but gold, and tne
only means by which the government can,
with certainty, ggt gold is by borrowing.
It can get it in no other way when it most
needs it. The -government vJithout any
fixed gold revenue Is pledged to maintain
gold redemption, which it has steadily and
faithfully done, and which, under the au
thority now given, it will continue to do.
The law which requires the government.
after having redeemed its notes, to pay
them out again as current funds demands
a constant replenishment of , the gold re
serve. This is especially so in times ot
business panic and when the revenues are
insufficient to meet the expenses of the
government. A.t such times the govern
ment has no other way to supply its def
icit and maintain redemption but through
the Increase of Its bonded debt, as during
the administration of my predecessor,
when $262,315,400 of 4 per cent bonds
wre issued and sold and the proceeds
used to nay the expenses of the govern
ment In excess of the .revenues and sustain
the gold reserve. While It is true that
the greater part ot tne proceeds or inese
bonds were used to supply deficient reve
nues, a considerable portion was required
to maintain the gold reserve.
Replenishing; the Gold Reserve.
With our revenues equal to our expenses,
there would be no deficit requiring the is
suance of bonds. But if the gold reserve
falls below $100,000,000, how will It be re
plenished except by selling more bonds?
Is there any other way practicablender
existing law? The serious question then
is, Shall we continue the policy that has
been pursued in the past that is, when the
gold reserve reaches the point of danger,
issue" more bonds and supply the needed
gold or shall we provide other means
to prevent these recurring drains upon the
gold reserve? If no further legislation
is had and the policy of selling bonds is
to be continued, then congress should give
the secretary of the treasury authority to
sell bonds at long or short periods, bearing
a less rate of interest than is now author
ized by law. I earnestly recommend, as
soon as the receipts of the government
an quite sufficient to pay all the expenses
of the government, that when any of the
United States notes are presented for re
demption in gold and areredeeemed In gold,
such notes shall be kept and only paid out
in exchange for gold. This is an obvious
duty. If the holder of the United States note
prefers gold from thegovernment, he should
not rec ive back from the government '
. a United States note without paying gold
i in exchange for it. The reason for this is
made all the more apparent when the gov-
I ernmtnt issues an interest-bearing debt j
to provide gold for - the redemption of
United States notes a nonlnteresf-bearing
debt. Surely it should not pay them out
again except ch demand and forgold. If
they are put out iiu any. other way they
may return again to be followed by an
other bond Issue to redeem them" another
interest-bearing debt to redeem a ndn
- interest-bearing debt. . " . :
In my view, it Is of the utmost Import
ance that the government should be re
lieved from the business of providing for
all the gold required for exchange or' ex
port. . This responsibility Is alone toorne
by the government without any of the
usual and necessary banking powers to
help itself. The banks do not -feel!. the
strain of the gold redemption.. The.
whole strain rests upon the government,
and the size of the - gold reserve in the
treasury has come .to be, with 'or with
out reason, the signal of danger or of se
curity. This ought to be stopped. -
If we are to have an era of prosperity
In the country with sufficient receipts for
the expenses of the government, we may
feel no immediate embarrassment from
our present currency; but the danger still
exists, and will be ever present, menacing
us as long as the existing system con
tinues. And, besides, it is In times of
adequate revenues and business tran
quillity that the government should pre
pare for the. worst. We cannot avoid,
without, serious consequences, the wise
consideration and prompt solution of this
question. : ... ..,
Plan of , Secretary Gage.
The secretary of the treasury has out
lined a plan in great let ail lor the pur
pose of removing threatened recurrence
of a depleted gold reserve and saving us
from future embarrassment on that ac
count. To this plan I invite your care
ful consideration. J concur with the sec
retary of the treasury in his recommenda
tion that national banks be allowed to
issue notes to the face value of- the
bonds which they deposited for circula
tion, and that the tax on circulating
notes, secured by the deposit of such
bonds, be reduced to one-half of one per
cent per annum. I also join him in
recommending that authority be given for
the establishment of national banks with
a minimum capital of $25,000. This will
enable the smaller villages and agricul
tural regions of the country 'to be sup
plied with currency to meet their de
mands. I - recommend tljat the issje of
national bank notes be restricted to the
denomination of $10 and upwards. If the
suggestions I have herein made shall
have the approval of congress, then I
would recommend that national banks be
required to redeem their notes in gold.
CUBA AND SPAIN. .'-
Attitude of the ' Administration in
the Present Rebellion.
The most important problem with which
this country is now called upon to deal,
that pertaining to its foreign rel
tions, concerns its duty toward Spain and
the Cuban insurrection. Problems and
conditions more or less in common with
those now existing have confronted this
government at various times in the past.
The story of Cuba for many years has
been one of unrest; growing discontent
an effort toward the larger enjoyment of
liberty and self-control; of organized re
sistance to the mother country; or oppres
sion and warfare and of Ineffectual set
tlement to be followed by renewed re
volt. For vno enduring period since the
enfranchisement of the continental pos
sessions of Spain in the Western contir
nent has the condition of Cuba or the
policy of Spain toward Cuba not caused
concern -to the United States.
The . prospect from time to time that
the weakness of Spain's hold upon the
island and the political vicissitudes and
embarrassments of the home government
might lead to the transfer of Cuba to a
continental power called forth, between
1823 and 1860, various emphatic declara
tions of the United States to permit no
disturbance of Cuba's connection with
Spain unless in the direction of independ
ence or acquisition by the United States
through purchase, nor has there been any
change of this declared policy since upon
the part of this government.
The revolution which began in 1868
lasted for 10 years, despite the strenuous
efforts of the successive peninsular gov
ernments to suppress it. Then, as now,
the government of the United States tes
tified its grave concern and offered its aid
to put an end to bloodshed in Cuba. The
overtures made by General Grant were
refused, and the war dragged on, entail
ing great loss of life and treasure, and
increased Injury to American interests.
besides throwing enhanced burdens qf
neutrality upon this government. In . 1878,
peace was brought about by the truce
of Zanjon, obtained by negotiations be
tween the Spanish commander, Martinez
de Campos, and the insurgent leaders.
Civilized Code of War Disregarded.
The present Insurrection broke out in
February, 1895." It is not my purpose, at
this time, to recall Its remarkable increase
or to. characterize its tenacious resistance
against the enormous forces massed
against It by Spain. The revolt and the
efforts to subdue it carried destruction to
every quarter of the island, developing
wide proportions and defying the efforts
of Spain for its suppression. The civilized
code of war has been disregarded, no
less so by the Spaniards than by the
Cubans. The existing conditions cannot
but fill this government and the Ameri
can people with the gravest apprehen
sion. There is no desire on the part of
our people to profit by the misfortunes
Of Spain. We have only the desire to
see the Cubans prosperous and contented,
enjoying that measure of self-control
which is the inalienable right of man,
protected in their right to reap the bene
fit of the exhaustless treasures of their
The, offer made by my predecessor, in
April, 1896, tendering the friendly offices
of this government, failed, and media
tion on our part was not accepted. In
brief, the answer read: There is no ef
fectual way to pacify Cuba, unless it be
gins with the actual submission of the
rebels to the mother country. Then only
can Spain act in the promised direction
of her own motion and after her own
. Concentration Is Extermination.
The cruel policy of concentration was
initiated February 16, 1896. The produc
tive districts controlled "by the Spanish
armies were depopulated and the agri
cultural inhabitants were herded in and
about the garrison towns, their lands laid
waste and their dwellings destroyed. This
policy the late cabinet of Spain justified
as a necessary measure of war and as a
means of cutting off supplies from the
It has utterly failed as a war measure.
It was not civilized warfare. It was ex
Against this abuse of the rights of war
I have felt constrained, on repeated oc
casions, to enter the firm and earnest pro
test of this government. There was much
of public condemnation of the treatment
of American citizens by alleged illegal ar
rests and long imprisonment awaiting
trial of pending protracted judicial pro
cedures. I felt it my first duty to make
instant demand for the release or speedy
trial of all American citizens under ar
rest. Before the change of the Spanish
cabinet, in October, 22 prisoners, citizens
of the United States, had been given
For the relief of our own citizens suf
fering because of the conflict, the aid of
congress was sought in a special mes
sage, and under the appropriation of April
4, 1897, effective aid has been given to
American citizens in Cuba, and many of
them, at their own request, have been
returned to the United States.
Instructions to Minister Woodford.
The instructions given to our new min
ister to Spain, before his departure for
his post, directed him to impress upon
that government the sincere wish of the
United States to lend Its aid toward end
ing the war in Cuba, by reaching a peace
ful and lasting result, just and honor
able alike to Spain and the Cuban people.
These instructions recited the character
and duration of the contest, the wide
spread losses it entails, the burdens and
restraint it imposes upon us, with con
stant disturbance of national interests
and the injury resulting from an indefinite
continuance of this state of things. It
was stated that at this juncture our gov
ernment was constrained to seriously in-
quire if the time was not ripe when Spain,
of her own volition, moved by her own in
terests and every sentiment of humanity,
should put a stop to this destructive war
and make proposals of settlement honor
able to herself and just to her Cuban
colony- it- was urged that, as a neigh
boring ..nation with large interests in
Cuba, we could- be required to' wait only
a reasonable time for the mother coun
try to establish Its authority and restore
-peace and order within the borders of the
island ;, that we could not contemplate an
Indefinite period for the accomplishment
of these results. .."..,-
No solution was proposed to which the
slightest idea - of humiliation to Spain
could attach. All that was asked or ex
pected was that some safe way might be
speedily provided and permanent peace
restored. It so chanced that the consid-'
eration of this offer,, addressed to the
Spanish administration, which had de
clined the tenders of my predecessor and
which for more-than two years had poured'
more treasure into Cuba in the fruitless,
effort to suppress, the revolt, fell to. oth
ers. Between the departure of General
Woodford, the new envoy, and his arrival
in Spain, the statesman who had shaped
the policy of his country fell by the hand
of an assassin, and aJHio-ugh the cabinet
Of the late premier still held office and re-
" ceived from our envoy the proposals he
Dore, mat caDinet gave place, within a
few days thereafter, to a new administra
tion under the leadership of -Sagasta.
.. Spain's Vrlendly Reply. '. -.
The reply to our note was received on
the 23d day of October. It is in the direc
tion of a better understanding. It appre
ciates the friendly proposals of this gov
ernment. It admits that our country is
deeply affected by the war in Cuba and
that our desires for peace are, just. It de
clares that the present Spanish govern
ment Is bound by every consideration to a
change of policy that should satisfy the
United States, and pacify Cuba within a
reasonable time. To this eijcl, Spain has
decided to put into effect the political re
f oi-ms heretofore advocated bysthe pres
ent premier, -without halting- for any con
sideration in the path which, in its judg
ment, leads to peace. .. - . -
The military operations, it is salcUwilI
continue, but will be humane and con
ducted with all regard for private rights,
being accompanied by political action
leading to the utonomy of Cuba, while
guarding Spanish sovereignty. This, it is
claimed, will result in Investing Cuba with
a distinct personality, the island to be
governed by an executive and by a local
council or chamber, reserving to Spain
the control of the foreign relations, the
army and navy and the judicial adminis
trations. To accomplish this,..the present govern
ment proposes to modify existing legis
lation "by decree, leaving -the Spanish
cortes, with the aid of ' Cuban senators
and deputies, to solve the economic prob
lems and properly distribute the existing
debt. i . i
. Give Spain a. Chance. .
In the absence of a declaration of the
measures that this government proposes
to take in carrying out its proffer of good
offices, it suggests that Spain be left free
to conduct military operations and grant
political reforms, wnile the United States,
for its part, shall enforce its neutral obli
gations, and cut off the assistance which, -it
is asserted, the insurgents receive from
this country. The supposition of an in
definite prrolongation of the war is de
nied. It is asserted that the Western
provinces ' are already well-nigh re
claimed; that the p'.anting of cane and
tobacco therein has been resumed, and
that by force of arms and new and ample
reforms very early and complete pacifi
cation is hoped for. .
The immediate amelioration of existing
conditions under the new administration
of Cuban affairs is predicted, and there
withal the disturbance and al, occasion
for any change of attitude on the part of
the United States. .
- Discussion of the question of interna
tional duties and responsibilities of the
United States as Spain understands them,
is presented with an apparent disposition
to charge us with failure in this regard.
j This charge is without any basis in fact,
It could not have been made if Spain had
been cognizant of the constant effort, this
government has made, at the cost of mil
lions and by the employment of the ad
ministrative machinery at the national
command, to perform its full duty accord
ing to the law of nations. That it has
successfully prevented the departure of a
single military expedition or armed vessel
from our shores in violation of our laws
would seem to be a sufficient answer.
But on this aspect of the Spanish note it
is not necessary to speak further now.
Firm in the conviction of a wholly per
formed obligation, due response to '.this
charge has beep made in diplomatic is
sues. Throughout all. these horrors and
dangers" o our own peace, this govern
ment has never in any way abrogateel Its
sovereign prerogative of reserving to it
self "the determination of its policy and
course, according to jts own highsense of
right and in consonance with the dearest
interests and convictions of our own peo
ple, should the prolongation of the strife
so demand. - .
Of the untried measures there remain
"Recognition of the Insurgents as bellig
erents; recognition of the independence of
CujDa; neutral Intervention to end the war
by imposing a rational compromise be
tween the contestants, and intervention
in favor of one or the other party.''
Not a Question of Annexation."
. I speak not of forcible annexation, for
that cannot be thought of.. That, by our
code of morality, would be criminal" ag
gression. Recognition of the' belligerency
of the Cuban insurgents has often been
canvassed as a possible if not inevitable
step, both in regard to the previous. 10
years' struggle and during the present
war. I am not unminatui tnat tne two
houses of congress, in the spring of 1896,
.X j.t' ' .,i,u
isted requiring or justifying the recogni
tion of a state of belligerency in Cuba,
and during the extra session the senate
voted a joint resolution of like import,
-which, however, was not brought to a
vote in the house. In the presence of
these significant expressions of the senti
ment of the legislative branch. It behooves
the executive soberly to consider the con
ditions under which so important" a
measure must needs rest for justification.'
It is to be seriously considered whether
the Cuban insurrection possesses, beyond
dispute, the attributes of statehood which
alone can demand the recognition of bel
ligerency in its favor. Possession short
of the essential qualifications of sover
eignty by the insurgents, and the conduct
of the war by them according to the rec
ognized code of war, are no less Important
factors toward the determination of the
problem of belligerency than are the' in- I
fluences and consequences of the struggle j
upon the internal policy of the recogniz- i
ing nation. The utterances of President
Grant in his memorable message of 1875
are signally relevant to the present situa
tion in Cuba, and it may be wholesome
now to recall them. At that time a
serious conflict had for seven years wasted
the neighboring island. During all those
years an utter disregard of the laws of
civilized warfare and of the just demands
of humanity, which called forth expres
sions of condemnation from the nations
of Christendom, continued unabated.
Desolation and ruin pervaded that pro
ductive region, enormously affecting the
commerce of all commercial nations, but
that of the United States more than any
other, by reason of proximity and larger
trade and Intercourse.
. Not a Time for Recognition.
Turning to the practical aspects of a
wUE.uuu .0..B represent the United States. They have
its inconveniences and possible danger, , been dmfrent ln their eflort to secure tne
further pertinent considerations appear. concurrence and co-operation of Euro
In the code of nations, there is no sucn n countries in the International set-
thing as a naked recognition of belliger- flement of the question, but up to this
ency unaccompanied qy tne assumption I tlme- have not Deen abte to
of national neutrality. Such recognition j afrreement contemplated by their mission,
without neutrality will not confer upon xhe gratifying action of our great sis
either party to a domestic conflict a status 1 ter repubiio of France in joining this
not therefore actually possessed, or af- j COUntry in the attempt to bring about the
feet the relation of either party to other , agreement between the principal corn
states. The act of recognition usually -mercial nations of Europe, whereby a
taKes tne iorm or a solemn proclamation :
of neutrality which recites the de facto
condition of belligerency as its motive. It
announces a domestic law of neutrality
In the declaring state. It assumes the in
ternational obligation of a neutral in the
presence of a public state of war. It
warns all citizens ad others within' the
jurisdiction oi tne claimant tnat they vio
late those rigorous obligations at their
own peril and cannot expect 'to be shield
ed from the consequence. The right of
visit and search and seizure of vessels
and cargoes and contraband of war un
der admiralty law must under interna
tional law be admitted as a legitimate
consequence of a proclamation of belliger-
ency. While according equal belligerent
rights, defined by public law, to each par
ty in. our ports, disfavor would be impos
sible to both, which, while nominally
equal,' would-weigh heavily ' in behalf of
Spairt herself.- . Possessing a navy and
claiming. the'ports, of Cuba,, her maritime
rights could be asserted, not only for
.the .military investment -of . the island,
but up to the margin of our own terri
torial waters, and a' condition of things
would exist for which the Cubans could not
hope to create a parallel; while aid from
within our domain would be even more"
impossible than now, with the .additional
obligation of international neutrality
which we would perforce assume.
Will- Intervene- When Necessary;.
Sure of the right, keeping free from.' all
offense ourselves, actuated only, by up
right and patriotic. considerations, moved
neither by passion nor selfishness,- the
government will continue its watchful
care over the rights and . property of
American citizens and will abate none of
Its efforts to bring about by peaceful
agencies a peace which shall be honorable
and enduring. If it shall hereafter be a
duty Imposed by our obligations to our
selves, to civilization and humanity to
intervene wun force, it shall be without
fault on our part, and only because the
necessity for such action will be so clear
as to command the support and approval
of the civilized world.
ANNEXATION OF" HAWAII.
Ursres the Senate to Accomplish the
By a special message dated th J6th day
of June last, I laid before the senate o
the United States a treaty, signed that d.ay
' by the plenipotentiaries of the United
States and of the republic of Hawaii, hav
ing for its purpose the . incorporation o
the Hawaiian islands as an Integral part
of the United States 'and Under its sov
ereignty. The senate having removed
the injunction ;;of secrecy, although the
treaty is still pending before that body,
the subjectr.may.be properly referred to
in this message, as the necessary action
of' congress Is required to determine by
legislation many details of the eventual
union, should the fact- of annexation- be
accomplished, as I believe it should be.
While consistently disavowing -from a
very early period any aggressive policy
of absorption in regard to the Hawaiian
group, a long series of discussion through
three-ouarters of a centurv , has - pro
claimed the vital Interest of the United
States In the independent --life of the
Islands and their intimate commercial de-
pendency upon i his country. At the same
"time It has been repeatedly, asserted that
in no event could the entity of Hawaiian
statehood. Cease by the passage of the is
lands under the domination or Influence of
another - power, than the United States
Under ' these circumstances the logic of
events required that annexation before
offered but declined, should, in the. ripe
ness of time, come about as -the natural
result of strengthening the ties that bind
js to those islands and be released by the
free will of the Hawaiian state,
That treaty was unanimously ratified
.without amendment by the senate and
president of the republic of Hawaii on the
10th of September' last, and only awaits
'the favorable action of the American sen
ate to effect the complete absorption of the
islands into the domains of the United
States. " What the conditions of such a
union shall be, the political relation thereof
to the United States, the character of the
local administration, the quality' ancT de
gree of the elective franchise of the in
habitants, the extension of the federal
laws to the territory or the enactment of
special laws to fit the peculiar condition
thereof, the regulation and needs of labor
therein, the treaty has wisely relegated to
congress. . ' ! . . i
If the treaty is confirmed, as every con
sideration of dignity and honor -requires.
i the wisdom of congress will see to it that,
avoiding abrupt assimilation of elements
perhaps hardly yet fitted to share in the
highest franchises of citizenship, and hav
ing due regard to the geographical con
ditions, the just provisions for self-rule
in local matters with the largest political
liberties as an integral part of our nation
will te accorded to the Hawaiians.
. No less Is due to a people who after
nearly five years of demonstrated capacity
to fulfill the obligations of self-governing
statehood, come -of their free will to
merge their destinies in our body politic,
CENTRAL AMERICAN STATES.
Representation .of Oar Government
In - the Greater Republic.
As to the representative of this govern
ment to Nicaragua.? Salvador and Costa
Rica, I have concluded that Mr. William
L. Merry, confirmed as minister of the
United States to the states of Nicaragua,
Salvador and Costa Rica, shall proceed
to San Jose, Costa Rica, and there tempo
rarily establish the headquarters of the
United States to those three states. 1
took this action for what I regarded as the
paramount interests of this country. It
was developed, upon an investigation by
the secretary of state, that the government
of Nicaragua, while not unwilling to re
ceive Mr, Merry in his diplomatic capac
ity, was unable to do so on account of the
compact -concluded June 20, 1895, whereby
that republic and those of Salvador and
Honduras, forming what is known- as. the
Greater Republic of Central America, had
surrendered." to the representative diet
thereof their right " to receive and send
diplomatic agents. . The diet was not will
ing to accept him because he was not ac
credited' to that body. ' I could not ac
credit him to that body because the appro
priation law of congress did not permit.
Mr. Baker, the present minister at Man-
' agua, has bjfcen directed to present h
letters of. recall.
j , Mr. Godfrey Hunter has likewise been
accredited to the governments of Gaute
mala and Honduras, the same as his pred-
j ecessor. Guatemala is not a member of
the Greater Republic of Central America,
i but Honduras is. Should this latter gov
ernment decline to receive him, he Has
been Instructed to report this fact to his
. government and await its further instruc
tions. - , -
. The Nicaragua Canal.'
A subject of large Importance to our
country and increasing appreciation on the
part of the people is the completion of the
great highway of trade between the At
lantic and Pacific known as the Nicara
gua canal. Its value to American com
merce is universally admitted. The com
mission appointed under date of July 24
last "to continue the surveys and exam-
inations authorized by- the act approved
March 2, 1885, in regard to the proper
route, feasibility and cost of construe-
of making complete plans for the entire
work of construction of such canal," is
now employed In the undertaking. In the
future I shall take occasion to transmit
to congress the report of this commission,
making at the same time such further
suggestions as may then- seem advisable.
THE BIMETALLIC COMMISSION. -
Failure of the Mission of the' Special
Under the provisions of the act of con
gress approved March S, 1897, for the pro
motion of an international agreement re
specting bimetalism, I appointed, on
April 14. 1897, Hon. Edward O. WolCott,
of Colorado; Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson, of
Illinois, and Hon. Charles , J. Payne,
tf Maaoanhiicnfta aa cnanlal aniiAva 4-n
flxed ana relative value between eold and
silver shall be secured, furnishes assur
ance that we are not alone among the
larger nations of the world in realizing
the international character of the prob
lem and in the desire of -reaching spme
wise and practical solution of it.
I xiie xiilisii government nas puousnea a
resume of the steps taken jointly by the
French ambassador in London and the
special envoys of the United States, with
whom our ambassador in London actively
co-operated in the presentation of this
subject to her majesty's government. This
. will be laid before congress. Our special
I envoys have not made their final report.
as further negotiations between the rep- '
resentatives of this government and the
governments of other countries are pend
ing and in contemplation. They believe
that the doubts which have been raised
in certain quarters respecting the possi-
. bility of maintaining the stability of the
j parity between the metals and kindred
questions may yet be solved by further
Meanwhile, it gives me satisfaction to
state that the special envoys have al
ready demonstrated their ability and fit
ness to deal with the subject, and it is to
be earnestly hoped that their labors may
result in an international agreement
which will bring about recognition of
both gold and silver as money upon such
terms and with such safeguards as will
secure the use of both metals upon a
basis which shall work no injuries to
i any class of citizens.
NEEDS OF ALASKA.
Existing Conditions Demand a
Change in the Laws.
The territory of Alaska requires the
prompt and early attention of congress.
The .conditions now existing demand a
material change in the laws relating to
the territory. The great influx of popula
tion during the past summer and fall and
the prospect of a still larger immigra
tion in the spring will not permit us to
longer neglect the extension of civil au
thority within the territory or postpone
the establishment of a more thorough
government. : A general system of public
surveys has. not yet been extended to
Alaska, and all entries thus far made in
that district are upon special surveys.
The act of congress extending to Alaska
the mining laws of the United States con
tained the reservation that it should not
be construed to put In force the general
land laws of the country.'
' By an act approved 'March 3, 1891, au
thority was. given .for entry of lands for
townsite purposes, and also for the pur
chase of not exceeding 160 acres then' or
thereafter occupied for purposes of
trade and manufacture.- The - pur
pose of congress, ' as ythus far
expressed, has been -that only
such rights should apply to, the territory
as should be specifically named. -It will
be seen how much remains to be done for
that vast, remote, and yet promising por
tion of our country.
Special authority was given to the pres
ident by the act approved July 24, 1897, to
divide that territory into two land dis
tricts, and to designate the boundaries
thereof, and to appoint registers and re
ceivers of said land offices, and the presi
dent was also authorized to appoint a
surveyor-general for the entire district.
Pursuant to this authority, a surveyor
general and receiver have been appoint
ed, with offices, at Sitka. If in the ensu
ing year the .conditions justify it, the addi
tional land district authorized by law
will be established with an office at some
point in the Yukon valley. No appropria
tion, however, was made for this pur
pose, and that is now necessary to be
' The Military Post. ' .'' -
I concur with the secretary of war in
his suggestions as to the necessity, for a
military force in the territory of Alaska
for the protection of persons and prop
erty. Already a sma'l force consisting
of 25 men and two officers, under com
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Randall, of
the Eighth infantry, has been sent to
St. Michaels to establish a military post.
As it is to the interest of the government
to encourage the development of the coun
try and its duty to follow. up its citizens
there with the benefits of legal machin
ery, I earnestly urge upon congress the
establishment of a system of government
of such flexibility as will enable it to ad
just itself in the future to the needs at
tendant upon a greater population.
Relief for Starving Klondikers.
The startling though possibly, exag
gerated reports from the Yukon river
country of the probable shortage of food
for the large number of people who are
wintering there without the means of leav
ing the country, are confirmed In such
measure as to justify bringing the matter
to the attention of congress. Access to
that country this winter can be had only
by the passes from Dyea and vicinity,
which is a most difficult and perhaps im
possible task. However, should these re
ports of the suffering of our fellow-citizens
be further verified, every effort at
any cost should be made to carry them
New Regulations for Five Civilized
, . Tribes Are Imperative.
For a number of years it has been ap
parent that the condition of the five civil
ized tribes in the Indian' territory under
treaty- provisions with the United States,
with theright of self-government and
the exclusion of all white persons from
within their borders', have undergone so
complete a changeias to render the contin
uance of the system thus Inaugurated
practically Impossible. The total number
of the five civilized tribes, as "shown by
the last census, is 4o,484, and this number
has not materially increased, while the
white population is estimated at from
200,000 to 250,000, which, by permission of
the Indian government, has settled in the
territory. The present area of the Indian
territory is 25,564,546 acres, much of which,
is very fertile land. The United States
citizens residing in the territory, most of
whom have gone there by invitation or
with the consent of the tribal authorities,!
have made permanent homes for them-1
selves. Numerous towns have been builf,
in which from 1000 to 5000 white DeODle
now reside. '
THE CIVIL SERVICE.
Room for " Further Improvement.
. .. Which Will Be Made.
The important branch of our govern
ment known as the civil service, the prac
tical improvement of which has long b;en
a subject of earnest discussion, has of
late -years received increased legislative
and executive approval. During the past
few months, the service has been placed
on a stiilrfirmer basis of business meth
ods and personal merit. While the right
of our veteran soldiers, to reinstatement
in deserving cases has been asserted, dis
missals for merely political reasons have
been carefully guarded against, the exam
inations for admittance to the service
enlarged and at the same time rendered
less , technical and more practical, and a '
distinct "advance has been made by giving
" .utivF.c uiBuj.oadi uijuu itii cases
where incompetency is charged or a de-
mand is made for removal of offic'als in
any of the departments - ' . i
This order has been made'to give the ac
cused nis rignt to be heard without
any way impairing the power of remoVal, j
wnicn snouiu always De exercised In. cases
of Inefficiency or incompetency-, and which
is one of the safeguards of the ?ivil ser
vice reform system, preventing'-stagnation
and- dad wood 'and keeping ' every
employe keenly alive to the fact :that se
curity of tenure . depends -not-on favor,
but on his " own tested and carefully
watched record of service. Much, of
course, still remains to ; fee accomplished
before the system can be made reasonably
perfect for our needs. There are places
now in the classified service which ought '
to be exempted and others unclassified i
may properly be included. I shall not hes- !
itate to exempt cases which I think have ;
been Improperly included in the classified
service or include those which, in my judg
ment, will best promote the public ser
vice. The system has the approval of the
people and it will be my endeavor to up
hold and extend it. -
I am forced by the length of this mes
sage to omit many Important references
to affairs of the government with which
congress will have to deal at the present
session. They are fully discussed in the
departmental reports, to all of which I
invite your earnest attention.
The estimates of the expenses of the
government by the several departments
government uy me eeveiai ueifa.j4;iiit;iii.a
should have your careful scrutiny. While
;, ,., . .
congress may find it an easy task to re-
congress may find it an easy task to re
duce the expenses of the government, it
should not : encourage their increase.
These expenses will, in my Judgment, ad
mit of a decrease in many branches of
thegovernment without injury to the pub
lic service. It is a commanding duty to
keep the appropriations within, the re
ceipts of the governmtnit and thus prevent
a deficit. WILLIAM McKINLEY.
Executive Mansion, Dec 6,
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ERIE MEDICAL COMPANY, of Buffalo. N. Y.
This is due to the fact that the company con
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So much deception has been practiced in ad
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At a recent meeting of the Institu
tion of Civil Engineers in London, the'
opinon was expressed that the coming
material for ship-building is nickel
steel, but that before it can be ezten
eivley used, further deposits of nickel
must be discovered.
The psaltery of Spain is supposed to,
have been introduced into that country
by the Moors. It is still in common
use among the peasantB. '
Among the numerous superstitions
of the Cossacks there is none stronger
than the belief : that' they will enter
heaven in a better state if they are per
sonally clean at the time they are killed.
The kanoon is the favorite instru
ment among the ladies in t'urkey. Its
shape resembles that of narp laid flat. c.
It has 72 strings, in sets of three, and
is played with small plectrum.
DEAFNESS CANNOT BE CURED
By local applications as they cannot reach the
diseased portion of the ear. There is only one
way to cure deafness, and that is by constitu
tional remedies. Deafness is caused' by an in- ,
flamed condition of the mucous lining of toe
Eustachian Tube. When this tube is Inflamed '
you have a rumbling sound r imperfect hear
ing, and when it is entirely closed, deafness is
the result, and unless the inflammation can be
taken out and this tube restored to its normal
condition, hearing will be destroyed forever;
nine cases out of ten are caused by Catarrh,
which is nothing but an inflamed condition of
the mucous surfaces. . .
We will give One Hundred Dollars for any
case of deafness, (caused by catarrh) that cannot
be cured by Hall's Catarrh Cure, send forcir-
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Hall's Family Pills are the best.
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No lotion or
It is nature's remedy, my Electric Body Bat
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to bed, and the mild, exhilarating, continnous
current sent through the congested veins dur
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cures in a few weeks. Mv pamphlet, "Three
Classes of Men," has an illustrated treatise on
this complaint, and every such sufferer should
read it. Sent free on application. Address.
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Z CHILDREN T E E T HI NC,M 1
P Mrs. Winslow's Sooranvo 8ybuf ifaould alwayt be f
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No. SO, '.7.
WUKK'wrltlng to advertisers, plea)
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Vif V THE
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