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About Lincoln County leader. (Toledo, Lincoln County, Or.) 1893-1987 | View This Issue
FARM gg ORCHARD
Sorts end Instructions from Agricultural Colleges mnd Experiment Stations
el Oregon and Washington, Specially Suitable to PacUk Coast Conditions
Spray Calendar for Stone FrulU.
Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallls. A convenient and reliable guide
to spraying atone fruits for Insects and diseases Incident to Oregon trees has
- been prepared by Professor H. F. Wilson, entomologist, and Professor H. S.
Jackson, plant pathologist, as follows: . .
What to spray Condition of
for tree or relative What to use Remark.
Peach Leaf time.
CurL Aa the buds are Lime-sulfur 1- If leaf curl, moss and lichens
Peaches,Prunea, awelllnf In the 11 plus Black are the only troubles use Bor-
Plums Scale, aprtng. leaf-40, 1-800. deauz 6-6-60. If curl haa been
Insects, Peach serious In previous years, and
Twig- Miner, Insect pests are present use
Aphis, Moss, Bordeaux In February and llme-
Llchena, Red sulfur plus Black Leaf-40 ' as
Bplders. buds are swelling-.
;allfornlaPeach About first Self-boiled lime- Repeat last week In May. If
Blight and week In May. sulfur 8-8-60. disease Is especially serious
Fruit Spot Al- make an application in the mid-
so attacks apri- die of May also,
cots and al- -monda.
Peach Tree First of June. Asphaltum. Ordinary paving asphaltum
Borer. should be used and can be ap
plied with a paint brush. Ap
ply from base of tree to 12 or
14 Inches up the trunk.
Caterpillars and As soon as they Arsenate of Not necessary to make this ap-
Bud Moth. All appear after lead non-acid plication if insects do not ap-
fruits. Slugs the leaves are 1-60 powdered, pear,
on Cherry. out or 2-60 paste.
Bud weevils (on When they be- Tree tanglefoot These insects cannot fly, -there-
principally1" " t0 subsUnce."UCky 8tJcky ub8tonce
ed on bands about trunks
should keep them out of the
trees. Tree tanglefoot Is prob
ably the most efficient material
to use. Bugs In trees when
bands are put on can be shaken
! from tree by Jarring.
Brown Rot First appllca- Self-boiled lime- If spraying prunes, Bordeaux,
(peach, prune, tion one month aulfur 1-8-60. 4-4-60 or lime sulfur. 1-40. can
plum, apricot, after petals fall. be used with safety,
cherry). Second, one
3rd, one month
California peach Last week In Bordeaux, 1-4- This is the most important ap
blight and fruit October. 60. plication for California Peach
spot. - Blight . Fall spraying should
become regular orchard practice
in all sections where this dis
ease occurs. After the disease
is once under control fall spray
ing should be sufficient and
the spring applications for this
disease may be dispensed with.
High-Grade Apples of Few Varieties.
Oregon Agricultural College, Corval
11s. Western fruit growers ship too
many varieties East, and put In grades
that are too low, according to Eastern
dealers. Instead of growing 65 vari
eties in quantities sufficient for ship
ment in carload lots, they should con
fine themselves to about 16 varieties,
choosing from this number the kinds
best suited to their districts, say the
Eastern dealers. And the only two
grades that should be shipped are
fancy and extra fancy.
The varieties most favorable named
by jobbers and retailers are as fol
lows, according to Dr. Hector Mac
pherson, who made a careful investi
gation of Eastern apple markets, as
the Oregon representative of the
American Commission: Wlnesap,
Staymen Wlnesap," Newtown Pippin,
Delicious, Spltzenberg, Rome Beauty,
Ortley, White Winter Pearmaln, Black
Ben Davis, Gano, Arkansas Black,
Jonathan, Grimes Golden, Winter Ba
nana, and Mcintosh Red. On the ques
tion of grades, Dr. Macpherson thinks
the rigid exclusion of all but the two
highest grades may be a little ex
treme. "If the frultmen were strongly
enough organized to operate their own
systems of cold storage, canneries,
dryers, and vinegar and cider plants,
the risk of handling the lower grades
would be reduced to a minimum," says
Dr. MacPherson, of the Oregon agri
cultural college. "An efficient system
of market reports would Indicate the
best disposal of the low grade fruit
"I sampled dozens of boxes of West
ern fruit that was on sale In Chicago
stands, and have many pages of my
note-book filled with the names of
growers and shipping associations.
And it is a fact that many of these
apples never should have been shipped
East They should have been sold at
home for what they will bring, or util
ized In a cannery, dryer or vinegar
"But the whole matter hinges upon
effective organization. The most far
sighted wholesale- men in the East
said to me: 'Unless you Western apple
men can get together somewhat after
the manner of the citrus organizations,
you will run amuck over and over
again. A reliable organization should
standardize and control the apple crop
of the whole Northwest No other
force can place the fruit where It Is
the most needed and In the right form
to command the highest price.'
"Is such an organization possible T
The question Is answered by a map
of fruit distributing association, which
was displayed at the National Apple
Show In Spokane, Indicating the sale
of 2779 cars of fruit, whereby more
than one and a quarter million dollars
were put In the pockets of Northwest
growers. It looks as though organiza
tion were already an accomplished
Now Is the time to get rid of all
surplus stock, such as an over-supply
of cockerels, culls, and late-hatched
pullets that won't begin to lay till
spring. Place this surplus, which is
not to be used for breeding purposes,
In a fattening pen and feed the follow
ing ration, selling when prices are go
ing up and do not wait too long:
FATTENING RATION Equal parts
ground oats, middlings, and cornmeal
with 20 per cent beef scrap, moisten
ed with sour milk fed all that will be
eaten up clean three times dally. It Is
a good plan to pour boiling water over
the corn meal to cook. It before mixing
tne mash. Begin to feed this ration
two weeks before marketing. -
Feed all laying hens a balanced ra
tion, consisting of a variety of grains.
requiring them to exercise a good part
of these days by scratching for the
grain portion of their rations. Feed
a little more corn at the evening meal
during these coldest nights, but keep
close watch on the fowls' appetites to
see that they do not become fat and
lazy. Give abundance of green stuff,
such as mangolds, carrots, kale, and
Keep all fowls comfortably housed
where there are no drafts or damp
ness, nut plenty of fresh air and sun
shine. See that the buildings are ab
solutely free from lice or mites. A
good plan is to .whitewash the houses,
placing in the whitewash a few drops
or carooiic acid as a disinfectant, and
painting the under sides of the roosts.
Provide the fowls with a good clean
straw five or six Inches deep, and If
tne noor isn't a dirt one, place a good
dust bath In the sunlight where the
birds will have free access to it Keep
an noppers supplied with grit granU'
lated bone, crushed oyster shell, bran
and protena. Keep the sexes separate
until the mating season, which Is not
far orf. This will result in stronger
breeding power and more fertile eggs
at the proper time. Now is the time
to get all new breeding stock for the
coming season. Feed these male birds
well and see that they exercise In or
der that they keep healthy and vigor
Two railroad men in the Terminal
yards were discussing. James J. Hill
on me occasion oi the empire build
er's recent visit here.
"He's a great man, this Jim Hill,"
"That he is," replied the other.
"Have you ever seen hlmT"
"Seen hlmT Yes, often."
"What does he look llkr
"Well," thoughtfully, "he has the
oamo wuihkbts as jesus in the pic
tures you see, but he's a leetle bit
Italy has Joined several other Euro
pean nations In prohibiting the manu
facture, Importation and sale of ab-
LITTLE THINGS COUNT
English Farmer Profits by Keep
- ing Detailed Records.
Ram Is Kept Separate Until Ewes Are
Gathered for Inspection, Thereby
Avoiding All Over-Exertion In
. Running Around.
(By E. H. JATNES.) -
Nothing is more discouraging than
a lot of lambs of various ages, uneven
In size, running with a flock of ewes
that would, had they been given the
opportunity, have lambed at the same
period. For the past month or two
the ram should have been In a lot by
himself and eating all the nice juicy
grass he desired.
The value of such a grass plot can
hardly be over-estimated. It gives
the ram a tender bit of picking, caus
ing him to take sufficient exercise to
keep him In the best of trim.
Supplement this with an abundance
of fresh water, a little salt and a trifle
of oats, and we have a combination
guaranteed to give results In the line
of a big, strong, vigorous sire.
A practice that Is common with
English breeders and which our
farmers must eventually follow Is the
bard coupling of ram and ewes.
The American farmer turns his ram
with the ewes and trusts to luck 1 1
bring him a good Crop. He does not
know whether the ram Is safely set
tling the ewes or not
Too often the ram abuses himself.
to the detriment of the latter part of
the crop. Then, too, the exertion from
running around, as a ram in a bunch
of ewes usually does, undermines his
Compare this with your English
farmer . The ram is kept to himself
all the time except when he Is led
out to the ewes. He gets his allowance
of grain and his bite of grass, no mat
ter how hard pressed the farmer is
for feed, for be knows too well that a
handful of grain given to the ram is
as good as one given to each of the
When evening comes, the farmer
leads his ram out to where the ewes
are gathered for the Inspection of the
ram.' The lead is loosened from his
halter and he quietly proceeds to In
spect the flock. One Is found In heat,
she Is served and the shepherd quietly
removes her while the ram continues
his Inspection.., . .
When all has been served the 'ram
Is removed and a record is made of
the ewes bred, the date and anything
else that may be needful.
The pure bred owner takes the ear
tag number of his ewe and her date
of breeding is put down on his flock
A Prize Winner.
record. The grade sheep owner
marks his ewes in some conspicuous
manner. t '
For instance, the first week he uses
red paint placed on the hip, the sec
ond week on the back, the third on the
shoulder, etc. Different colors of paints
being used, If possible to know by the
mark on her back just when she will
When lambing time- approaches
there is no question about when a
ewe should lamb. He has the records.
A glance and he has the whole story
before him. A sharp contrast to the
AUTUMN CARE OF THE COLTS
Young Anlmala Should Be Given Some
Grain and Hay Juat Before Pas
tures Begin to Dry Up.
Young colts should not be left out
In the pasture until they begin to get
low in flesh. It Is much mors profit
able to begin feeding them a little
grain and hay along before pastures
begin to dry up to have them In readi
ness to go on dry feed later without
any serious trouble.
This Is too often neglected; and,
when young colts are brought In thin
In flesh, and thsy cannot be taken
through the winter In the condition
that they could have been, this neg
lect Is Inexcusable.
In weaning the colt from tha mare,
it should have tha very best of care,
as the change of conditions Is liable
to cause some trouble. While on the
good summer pasture the mare gave
milk that was easily digested and In
taking colts from milk to dry food,
It is necessary that they should re
ceive the very best of attention. They
should be properly fed In order to
former who has to "tell by guess'
about when a ewe Is to lamb, and who
consequently looses a high per cent
of his crop.
Is It too much trouble to do this?
Is it too much trouble to get your corn
planted or to harvest your oats when
Tour lambing season Is your har
vest It awaits you, but the time of
harvesting (giving birth to lambs) Is
uncertain, unless you know by your
records when to expect It.
Brother farmer, it Is these little
things that count They mark the
difference between the progressive
farmer and the- shiftless or indifferent,
between the business farmer and the
work horse kind, between the money
maker and the loser, between success
and failure. We are all of as either
one or the other.
HOW ONION SMUT IS SPREAD
Disease Is Conveyed From Field to
Field on Farm Implements One
Remedy Used by Growers.
During the last Ave years this dis
ease has spread rapidly, the smut prob
ably being conveyed from field to field
upon farm Implements and with ma
nure containing smutted onion refuse,
as discarded onions are usually de
posited upon manure piles. In some
sections the losses resulting from this
fungus have been so great that the
growers, in some cases, no longer find
the crop profitable.
The severity of the disease In dif
ferent localities Is variable. It ap
pears at first In isolated spots here
and there in a field, and from these
spreads In all directions' ' until the
whole piece becomes affected, and the
cultivation of onions upon It has to
be discontinued. Short rotations do
not materially diminish the amount of
smut; In a particular field badly
smutted the order of planting had
been clover for two years, corn one
year. A five-year rotation will not,
from the experience of growers, elim
inate the disease.
It appears reasonably certain that
the disease ie not generally spread by
the seed. It may, however, occasion
ally be introduced with seed from an
infected locality: It is also certain
that the smut Is spread with plows,
weeders, harrows, rakes and hoes, by
spores clinging with infected earth to
When soil Is known to be affected
one pound of 40 per cent formalde
hyde to 25-33 gallons of water should
be applied with a drip attachment on
a seed drill at the rate of 600 to 700
gallons of solution per acre. This
has been used with success by sev
eral large growers. In one instance
the treated part of a field yielded over
600 bushels per acre, while the un
treated plot yielded only about 100
bushels of inferior onions to the acre.
Small Fruit Matters.
During the fall and winter Is a good
time to begin preparation for the set
ting of the strawberry bed next
spring, or those bush fruits that
should be found in every garden.
Late fall plowing is advantageous. It
tends' to the destruction of insect life.
Fall plowed land is, as a rule, In a
workable condition In the spring
ahead of unplowed land.
The action of the elements will
make the soil more friable. Because
of these two points gained, the mois
ture, contents-and conserving power
of the soil will be increased.
prevent any bowel troubles. This rule,
will hold good In taking young calves
through this period and In fact will ap
ply to all kinds of live stock, but
more especially to the young of the
farm which are expected to turn in a
profit for the farmer the next year.
Rot of Tomatcea.
This disease often attacks planu
that are not sprayed. It Is first no
ticeable as small, black or brown spots
on the leaves or stems of the plants,
occurring first on the lower and older
leaves; but with favorable weather It
spreads rapidly until the plant Is de
foliated, and the spots on the stems
have coalesced Into Irregular, blackish
patches. It a piece of bark with these
spots be examined under a high power
microscope, Innumerable small, cres
cent-shaped bodies may be seen.
These are the fruiting spores of the
fungus. Spray with Bordeaux mixture,
Keep the Garden Working.
Allow no ground in the garden to Us
Idle. As soon as one crop has been
ploked, clear up the ground and plant
UNKNOWN TO SCIENCE
STRANGE ANIMALS BELIEVED TO
EXI3T IN AFRICA.
Particulars Have Not Been Mads Pub
lic, But Professors of-Natural His
tory Are Inclined to Credit
Ex Africa semper allquld novL The
proverb of the ancient world still holds
good In the bustling days and amid the
unflagging activities of the twentieth
century. The latest report from what
used to be known as the Dark Conti
nent appears In a contemporary, tha
London correspondent of which re
cords a report of the discovery of "yet
another strange and unknown beast"
In East Central Africa.
Particulars are said to have reached
the Natural History museum at Lon
don of the existence of an animal
"about the size of a bear, tawny color,
with very shaggy long hair." This In
teresting creature is also described as
"short and thick-set In the body, with
high withers and a short neck and
stumpy nose," and "its existence Is
vouched for by more than one offi
cial." Inquiry at the museum by a repre
sentative of the Pall Mall Gazette
fails, however, to confirm these attrac
tive details. In the eyes of the author
ities at South Kensington "particu
lars" of such discoveries have to be of
a definite and material kind In the
shape of some portion of the animal,
bones, for example, or a piece of
Nothing of that sort la at trMant
forthcoming. "Rumors have, however.
reacned tne museum," said an official
of the mammal department, "of the
existence of a hitherto unknown ani
mal, possibly such as Is described, but ,
we have no 'particulars,' and can,
therefore, substantiate no account of
details. When the okapl was discov
ered 'particulars' were forthcoming In
the form of belts made from Its skin
and worn by the natives."
"Ton do not, then, credit the ac
"We don't say such an animal does
not exist All that can be said Is that
no 'particulars' are to hand no to now.
There was a rumor some time ago of
tne discovery of a water elephant
which, apparently, was of the nature
of a very substantial tapir, but noth
ing seems to have come of It If n
could have a proper systematic survey
or central Africa it would nrobablv ra-
suit In the discovery of any number
or new creatures. ' .
"The Kongo region, whence thia m-
mor in all probability arises, is almost
unknown from a zoological point of
view. There are. for Instance, mv
number of new monkeys there, con
cerning which we find nothing In the
books of ten years ago. A few men nro
engaged In natural history research on
tne ooraers of the Kongo region, and
the East Africa districts have been
swept by the big earns einpdlHnnp nr
Roosevelt and others. But without
doubt there are many unknown ani
mals yet to be discovered in the Kon-
Practical Nursery Rug.
For a good all-round rug in a room
where children run about, an army
blanket Is Just the thing. It clings to
the floor and dust does not go through.
It sweeps easily and washes without
any shrinking or wrinkling. -
When asbestos table mats are soiled
and unfit for table use, try laying
them for a few minutes on a glowing
fire In the furnace, handling them,
carefully, with a garden fork; they
will come out with the dirt burned off
Lemon juice will clean aluminum.
If your aluminum pans and nettles be
come blackened, just put a little of
the juice on a cloth and rub the uten
The school concert had begun.. Four
little girls were dressed to represent
the word "Star," and each had one
letter of that word pinned onto her
snowy-white dress. Each letter began
the verse of a touching little song.
"Now," said the teacher, "form your
selves In position, and wait until the
curtain goes up."
The little girls did as they were told.,
and while the piano played the accom
paniment the curtain went up.
Instead of applause to greet the
llttle girls, howls from the audience
The word they spelled was "Rats."
Trotol Is the name of a new explo
sive said to be the safest high ex
plosive known. Its formula was
worked out by Lieut Harold C. Wood
ward, an officer In the New Tork Na
tional Guard. Six ounces of trotol, it.
Is said, will do the work of II ounces.
Pores In Man's Hand.
There are 26,000 pores la the hnl
of a man.