Oregon spectator. (Oregon City, O.T. [i.e. Or.]) 1846-1855, June 25, 1846, Image 1

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    the messauk;
and Hon f KtfrtMnMhnt
It Ib a source of unaffected satisfaction to
moot the representative of thq elates and the
people in congress aasembld, as it will bo to
ruceivo the aid of their conibinod wisdom in
the administration of public affairs. In per
forming, for the first time, the duty Impound
on mo by tho constitution, of giving to you
information of the state of thu union, and re
commending to you huoIi measures an in my
judgment are necessary and expedient, ! am
happy that I can congratulate you on tho con
tinued prosperity of our country. Under thu
blessings of Divino Providence and the benign
influence of our free institution, it stands be-
fore the world u cctucl) of national nap
pine. With our uuexuiupled advaucenieut in nil
tho element of national greatness, the affoc
tion of the txtoplu i'k confirmed for the union
of the states, and for the doctrines of popular
liberty, which lie at the foundation of our
It becomes us, in humility, to make our de
vout ackiiwledgmcnts to the Supremo Ruler
of the Universe, for the inestimabl" civil and
religious blessings with which w are favored.
I- calling the attention of congress to our
rclut.ons with foreign power, I am gratified
to be able to state thai, thoughiwith Mine of
mem mere nave exisiiu since your last
Mission serious causes of irritation and mis
understanding, yet no actual hostilities have !
taken place. Adopting the maxim in the con-;
duct of our foreign affairs to " ask nothing
that is not right, and to submit to nothing
that is wrong," it has Ikecn my anxious de
sire to preserve iieace with all nutions; but,
at the suiul; time, to Ihj repurcd to resist og. i
rt'Hsuni, m in iiiaiiiimii an our jusi rigms.
In pursuance of the joint resolution of con
itpss, " far annexing Texas to the United
States,'1 my predecessor, on the 'M of March,
IhA!, elected to submit the limt and second
sections of that resolution to the republic of
Texas, as an Overture, on the part of the I'.
States, for her admission as a state into our
union. This election I approved, and ac
cordingly the charge d'ulfuircHof tin; United
States in Texas, under instructions of the
10th of March, 1845, presented these sec.
lions of thu resolution for this acceptance of j
that republic. The executive government, I
the congress, and the people of Texas in con
ention, have successively complied with all
(lie terms and conditions of the joint resolu
tion. A constitution for the government of
the stute of Texas, formed by u convention of
deputies, is herewith laid lcfore congress. It
is well known, also, that the icoplo of Texas
ut the polls huve accepted the terms of annex
ation, anil ratified the constitution.
I communicate to congress the correspon
dence between the secretary of state and our
charge d'affaires in Texas and also the cor.
respondenco of the latter with the author!
ties of Texas, together with the official tlocu
incuts transmitted by him to his own govern
ment. Tho terms of annexation which were offer,
ed by tho U. States having been accepted by
Texas, the public fuith of both parties is sol
emnly pledged to the compact of their union.
Nothing remains to consummate the event
but the passugeof an net by congress to ad.
mil the state of Texas into the union upon an
equal footing with the original statcs.JtJtrong
reasons exist why this should be done at an
early period of thu session. It will be obser
ved that by the constitution of Texas, tho ex
isting government is only continued tempo,
rarily till congress can act; and that tho 3d
Monday of tho present month is tho day ap
pointed for holding tho first general eleotion.
On that day a governor, a lieutenant-governor,
and both branches of the legislature, will
bo chosen by the people The president of
Texas is required immediately after the re
.ceipt of ofTioial information that the new state
has been admitted into our union by congress,
to convone the legislature, and upon its meet,
tag, the existing government will be super,
seded, and the state government organised.
vQuestions deeply interesting to Texas, in
common with the other states; the extension
of our revenue laws and judicial system over
her people and territory, as well as measure s
of a local character, will claim the early at
tentlon of congress, and therefore, upon ev
ery principle of republican government, she
ought to be represented in that body without
unnecessary delay. I cannot too earnestly
recommend prompt action on this important
Oregon Spectator
"WMtward tho HUr of Empire takes' frHrsy."
Tol. I.
Ortfom City, (Oregon Ter.) Thnnday, Jim 26, ISM. ' Me. 11.
As soon as the act to admit Texas as a
state shall bo passed, the union of tho two re
publics will be consummated by their own
voluntary consent.
This accession to our territory has been a
bloodless achievement. No arm of force has
been raised to produce the result. The sword
has had no part in tho victory. We havo not
sought to extend our territorial possessions by
conquest, or our republican institutions over
a reluctant people. It was the deliberate
homage of each people to the great princi
pie of our federative union.
If we consider the extent of territory in.
volvcd in the annexation its prospective in
fluence on America the means by which it
has been accomplished, springing purely from
the choice of the people themselves, to share
the blessings of our union the history of the
world may be challenged to furnish a paral
lei. Tho jurisdiction of tho U. States, which at
tiie formation of thu federal constitution was
bounded by the St. Mary's on the Atlantic,
has passed the capes of Florida, and been
peacefully extended to the Del Norte. In
contemplating the grandeur of this event, it
is not to be forgotten that tho result was ache
ved in despite of the diplomatic interference
of Kuropcun monarchies, liven France
tho country which had been our ancient
ally the country which has a common in
terest-with us in maintaining the freedom of
the seas the country which, by the cession
of Iiouisiana, first opened to us access to the
Gulf of Mexico thu country with which we
have Iwen every year drawing more and more
closely the bonds of successful commerce
most unexpectedly, and to our unfeigned re.
gret, took part in an effort to prevent annex,
ation, and to impose on Texas, as a condition
of the recognition of her independence by
Mexico, that she would never join herself to
the United States. We may rejoi'jc that the
tranquil and pervading influence of the A me.
rienn principle of self-government was suffi
cient to defeat thu purposes of British and
French interference, and that the almost
unanimous voice of the people of Texas has
given to that interference a peaceful and ef
fective rebuke. From this example Euro.
iean governments may learn how vain diplo
matic arts and intrigues must ever prove,
upon this continent, against that system of
sclt-govemment which seems natural to our
soil, and which will ever resist foreign? inter
ference. Townrds Texas, I do not doubt that a lib.
erul and generous spirit will actuate congress
in all that concerns her interests and pros,
perity, and that she will never have cause to
regret that she has united her "lono star" to
our glorious constellation.
I regret to inform you that our relations
with Mexico, since your last session, have
not been of the amicable character which it
is our desire to cultivate with all foreign na
tions. On tho 6th day of March last, the
Mexican envoy extraordinary and minister
plenipotentiary to the United States made a
formal protest, in the name of his govern,
ment, against the joint resolution pawed by
congress, "for tho annexation of Texas' to the
United States," which he chose to regard as
a violation of tho rights of Mexico ; and, in
consequence of it, he demanded his passports,
Ho was informed that the government of the
United State did not consider this joint reso
lution as a violation of any of the rights of
Mexico, or that it afforded any'just cause of
ottence to his government ; that the republio
of Texas was an independent power, owing
no allegiance to Mexico, and constituting no
part other territory of rightful sovereignty
and jurisdiction. He was also assured that
it was the sincere desire of this covsmroerft
to maintain with that of, Mexico relations of
ptaca and good unwrstancung. That func
tionary, however, notwithstanding these re.
presentations and assurances, abruptly ter
mtnatecMils mission, and shortly afterwards
left the country. Our envoy extraordinary
andminister plenipotentiary to Moxioo was
refusml all nnTeial intArpnnruuUl. iki nnu
w " ' --..w.v rvtfrftl Kv-
eminent, and, afterremaining several months,
ny wie permission 01 nis own government, he
returned to the United Stales. Thus, by the
acts of Mexico, all diplomatic intercourse be
tween the two countries was suspended.
Since that time Mexico has, until recent
ly, occupied an attitude of hostility towards
he United States has been narahalUMBrul
4ganizing armies, issuing proclamations, and
vowing ine intention to mane war on tbe,U.
States, eitheri by an open declaration, or by
invading ToXas. Both the congress and the
convention of tho people of Texas invited this
government to send an army into that tern
tory, to protect and defend them against tho
menaced attack. The moment the terms of
annexation, offered by the U. States, were
accepted by Texas, the latter became so far
a part of our own country as to make it our
duty to afford such protection and defence. I
therefore deemed it proper, as a precaution,
ary measure, to order a strong squadron to
the coasts of Mexico, and to concentrate an
efficient military force on the western fron
tier of Texas. Our army was ordered to take
position in the country between' the Nueces
and the Del Norte, and to repel any invasion
of the Tcxian territory, which might bo at
tempted by the Mexican forces. Our squad,
ron in the gulf was ordered to co-operate with
the array. But though our array and navy
were placed in a position to defend our own,
and the rights of Texas, they were ordered
to commit no acts of hostility against Mexico,
unless she declared war, or was herself the
aggressor by striking the first blow. The
result has been, that Mexico has made no ag
gressive movement, and our militarv and na
val commanders have executed their orders
with such discretion, that the peace of the
two republics has not been disturbed.
Without the previous authority of congress,
the executive possessed-no power to adopt or
cniorce adequate remeaieemr tne injuries we
had jmftefed,or to do more than be prepared
to repel tho threatened invasion on the part
f Mexico. After our army and navy had re.
mained on the frontier and coasts of Mexico
many weeks, without any hostile movement
on her part, though her menace were con
tinucd, I deemed it important to put an end,
if possible, to this state of things. With this
view, I caused steps to be taken, in the month
of September last, to ascertain distinctlyand
in an authentic form, what the designs of the
Mexican government were ; whether it was
their intention to declare war, or invade Tex.
as, or whether they were disposed to adjust
and settle, in an amicable manner, the pend
ing differences between the two countries.
On the 9th of November an official answer
was received, that the Mexican government
consented to renew the diplomatic- relations
which had been suspended in March last, and
for that purpose were willing to accredit a
minister from the United States. With a sis.
cere desire to preserve peace, and restore re
lations of good understanding between the
two Republics, I waived all ceremony as to
themanner of renewing diplomatic inter
course between them; and assamingthe ini.
tiative, on the 10th of November a distia.
guished citizen of Louisiana was appointed
envoy extraordinary and minister plenipo.
tentiary to Mexico, clothed with full -powers
to adjust, and definitely settle,- all pending
differences between the two countries, inolw
ding those e boundary between Mexico and
the state bfflkxas. The minister, appointed
has set owt'on his mission, end is prebably by
this time near the Mexican oapka). He has
been iastructed to hring the nigetiatien with
whioh he is eaarged to a conclusion at the
earliest practicable period ; which, it is e,
peoted, will be in time to enable 'as to oonvt
muaioate the result te congress during the
present session. ,tfhtil that result U known,
I forbear to reeoimnend tocosejiusisMch ul
terior measures of redress for tlo tissjsj stud
jnries.we hare so Idnjtf home, as kweukl
ftftve-.eeen proper to make had no sped negou
tkttionlWiiistHatedt , ' j . iufi ''
'''- .' r f
importaeasof mating suHaUe iBsdileasio
and redswissM 0f the, rates of diky.impesed
by orprcm tariff laws. Theeejeeef
tapafaff attfar on imeorts shefald .ha. to
raise revemui te pay' the necessary expenses
otVgovernment. Congress may, tSBJaeiteied
ly, in the exercise of a sound sWetiea'dfe
criminate in arranging the rates ef dnueeon
different articles.; hat tha iliam iaawHii
should be within the: revenue standard, and
ft- - at aI I
uo niBue wiui uh Tiewia raise mensT for
the support of government;; t ai
. It -becomes Important to'eaderstaad dis
tinctly what is meant by a revenue standard
the maximum of which should net he exceed,
ed in the rates of duty' imposed. Itrjsoon-
ceded, and experience proves taat darttes may
be laid so hieh m to diminisb, or atssit af.
together, the importation of any given arti.
cle, and thereby lessen or destroy. theme-
nue wmen, at lower rates, would be assises
from its importation. Such duties eaceeed the
revenue rates, and are not imposed to raise
money for the support of government. If
oongress levy a duty, for revenue, of one per
cent, on a given article, it will prodsjoe a giv
en amount of money to the treasury, and will
incidentally and necessarily aflbrd pretetnioii
or advantage to the amount of one per cent,
to the home manufacturer of a similar or, like
article over the importer. If the dnty he
raised to ten cent, it will produce a greater
amount of money, and aflbrd greater "pro
tection. If it be still raised fo,twenty, twen-ty-five,
or thirty per cent., sad, if, as H is
raised, the revenue derived from it ie foand
to be increased, the protection or.advantage
will also be increased ; but if ft be raised te
thirty-one per cent., and h is fimnd that ihe
revenue produced at that rate ie lees than at
thirtyjper cent., it ceases to be a revenne du
ty. The precise point in the asceodiagepsie
of duties at which it is ascertained from ex
perience that the revenue is greatest, ie the
maximum rate of duty whioh oaa he laid fie?
the sea Jide purpose of oolleesisHf Btaaeyler
the support of government. To raise the dv
ties higher than that point, and thereby di
minish the amount collected, is to levy them
for protection merely, and not for revenue.
As long, then, as congress may gradually
increase the rate of duty on a given article,
and the revenue is increased by such increase
of duty, they are within the revenue tSandard.
When they go beyond that point, and, as they
increase the duties, the revenue is dunhush
ed or destroyed, the act ceases to have for its
object the raising of money to support gov
eminent, but is. for protection merely. , '
It does not follow that congress should levy
the highest duty on all artioles of import
which they will bear within the revenue
standard; for such rates would probably pro:
duce a much larger amount than the eeenom
ical administration of the government would
require. Nor does it follow that the duties
on all articles should be at the same, er a
horizontal rate. Some artioles will bear a
much higher revenue duty than. others. Be
low the maximum of revenue standard, oon
gress may, and ought to disorinuato in the
articles as to produce in the aggregate she
amount which, when added to the proceeds
of .sales of pubHo lands, may be needed e
pay the economical expensMof the gavtfrn
ment. i --.. -mr tw--
In levying, a tariffof duties; omgress ex
eroise the taxing power, and for purposes of
revenue' may select the object f -tf iasinri
They may exempt certain artionWsdtogetfe:
er, and permit their iroDorUtkjjt.free of duty;
On others they may impose lew duties. In
these olasses should be embraced sues artiolee
of necessity as are in general use, and espe
cially suchias are nnnsnpsd by the laborer
and the poor as well ae by the wealthy eiti
nen. Care should be taken that all the, great
interests of the country, indsuiini mureme
tures, agriculture, eoenWpe, nAvaad
the mechanic arts, ahould, at frjtjajeyjw
practicable, derive equal advantage ftesa tne
incidental prsteeHbn whleh1 a " just sjlli w ef
. .- w ... ... -
wv w iHwja-uiNaiHsaa ,ano
mi unjkmwi w.arMfesiea1
ee, on am etasses; m. taw pa
eWlity to beer it Teineltt
an artnel beaKidteejs.syhesejMlt
" rWr'TTTTTr?fJr
eoHTmrno to mux tik.
uiriin any
BXaTsflOVn fU
,iJ'1 J(' efauvr'
fr inW 4MsttlHtf UegVl.
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