The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current, June 09, 1918, Section One, Page 17, Image 17

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Mr. Spence Charges That Good-Roads Movement Hag Suffered Beyond
Estimation From Incompetency and Extravagance of Highway Commission.
FOLLOWING Is the text of Master'
C. E. Spence's address at the open
ins of the 45th annual session of
the Oregon State Orange:
"It Is is 16 years since the . State
Grange met In Salem, the capital city
of our state, and in looking; back to
that time we find that thle city and
our state have made treat progress,
such as could be accomplished only In
a new state and by a progressive, en
ergetic people. " '
"We are '.pleased to meet again In
this, the original home of the State
Grange, and trust that this session will
be as pleasant and profitable as was
that session 16 years ago.
"In looking over the proceedings of
that session I And that some of the
problems that were under consideration
have been solved, while many more re
main to be worked out in a practical
"Great progress has been made In our
methods and system of farming. With
tbe assistance of the agricultural col
lege and through the experience of in
telligent formers natural obstacles
have been overcome and we are better
able to take advantage of the oppor
tunities and advantages offered .in the
"On the other hand we find many
acres of good agricultural land unde
veloped, waiting for( some sturdy hand
to clear off the stumps, drain the land
or prepare It and supply the water for
"We find that the population of
towns and cities is Increasing at a
much greater ratio than that of the
country and that there Is a greater dif
ference in the rate at present than
there was 16 years ago.
"In order to carry out our declara
tion of purposes it Is necessary that
we make a purvey of the conditions
which cause this unnatural growth of
the cities and the undeveloped condi
tions In the country.
Farm Products Increase.
"It must be admitted that by the
Increased use of improved machinery
and more scientific methods of farming
the production of farm crops per man
Is greatly increased, but on the other
hand we find a condition of gradually
decreasing production of farm crops
per capita, of all the population, with
an Increase in the cost of production
and in the cost to the consumer.
"Even in this comparatively new
state we find farmers, both young and
middle aged, moving to the cities for
what ttiAV rlftim to be firreater social.
educational and economic advantages.
This situation is more apparent In some
Eastern states where good farms are
abandoned and are on the market for
laan than thA huilrilna'-i rnst
"With the coming of good roads and
the automobile the social and educa
tional part of our problem will be
largely solved if the roads are built
so as to connect the farming communi
ties with the marketing and shipping
. points, while on the other hand if the
' rmm fnr scenic hi&rhwavs and Dleas-
. ure boulevards continue to absorb our
. dltlons will only be agravated.
"In Eastern states as well as our own
; the determining factor which exerts
. the greatest Influence in keeping peo-
pie on the farm or in driving them to
the cities is that of economics, or dol
lars and cents.
"If 'there is no money in it," no
amount of persuasion will keep people
on the land. If other vocations have
better Incomes and shorter hours and
more entertainment, there is where
people will go, and Who can blame
-ham 7
- "The fault is not all the farmer's, for
he often gets less for a bumper crop
than he does for half a crop, and fre
quently his produce rots on his hands
for want of a market, while people not
many miles away are suffering for that
very product, or the price which they
are required to pay is so high that they
oannot afford to buy.
Producers' Share Is Lnr,
"Then a large part of the fault lies
In our system of distribution. A Gov
ernment report- shows that when' the
consumer pays II for farm produce on
the average. 65 cents goes for distri
bution and 35 cents to the producer. In
other words, it costs nearly twice as
much to handle farm produce as the
farmer gets for it.
"There is no more Important service
rendered society by any class of people
than that of producing the necessary
food and clothing required for the pro
tection and sustenance of mankind. If
those who are engaged In that impor
tant service are not as well or better
paid than any other class there Is some
thing wrong with the farm, with the
farmer or with the system under which
he is working.
It nas Deen sccwn auuve s n
rule It Is not the farm nor the farmer
as a class, but the marketing system
that is to blame for the economic con
dition of the farmer.
"If this be true, it Is the duty of the
Grange to do all In its power to find a
remedy for existing conditions, claim
ing as it does to be the oldest and most
Influential of all farm organizations,
or. failing in that, to at least assist any
other organization that proposes a
practical remedy.
Is Co operation the Remedy?
"National Master Oliver Wilson. In
speaking of co-operation in his address
at the last session of the National
Grange, said that 'this vital question
has been discussed in all its Its phases
since the organization of the Grange
and yet it remains an unsolved prob
lem.' "We believe the Grange in Oregon
has made a good beginning towards a
practical system Of co-operative buy
lng, but as yet co-operative selling of
the diversified crops of the Oregon
farmer 'remains an unsolved problem.'
Co-operative Struggle Falls.
"The Grange and other farm organi
sations have tried time after time, at
great sacrifice to Individual members,
to sell co-operatively, but It has always
been an uphill fight with many failures
and but few isolated cases of success.
Inexperience and sometimes dishon
esty contributed to the failures, but
more often the true causes were the
united opposition of the business and
financial world and the fact that the
consumer was not taken Into consider
"The farmers of Denmark have made
notable success in co-operative buying
and selling. In fact they practically
control that business in that country
and have agents for their co-operative
- society in other countries. They are
substantially the controlling factor in
politics, in fact it was only through
politics that they were able to get con
trol of the marketing situation.
"The Australian provinces have ac
complished the same results by using
the machinery of the state to establish
markets, warehouses, cold storage and
packing plants.
"The following resolution was passed
Without a dissenting vote at the 1917
Session of the National Grange:
" "Whereas, too large a portion of
the agricultural products of the coun
try go to waste at the present time for
want of proper means of conservation
and distribution:
" 'Resolved, That the National Orange
In 51st annual session assembled In
dorse the proposition of the creation of
municipal food warehouses, where prac
ticable, to contain a cold storage plant,
creamery, dehydrating plants, canning
' factories and potato evaporators, so
that the consumer in the city may re
celve the necessities of life at a more
reasonable cost and the producer be
assured a market for his products.'
"The resolution was Introduced by
Brother Chapman, master of tne Massa
chusetts State Grange.
"The marketing problem, next to that
of the war, overshadows all others. It
is my opinion that a. proper solution
of it will do more to promote the gen
eral welfare, establish Justice and in
sure domestic tranquillity, and create a
united, contented and home owning.
home loving, patriotic people than any
thing else that can be done at this time.
"Nothing can do more to unite the
people in support of the Government
and insure domestic tranquillity than
an equitable marketing system that
will abolish the unnecessary middle
man and profiteer.
"This is our opportunity. Will the
li range lead or will It fonowr
"Co-operative buying through a stats
purchasing agent seems now to be
firmly established and it Is believed
that with proper encouragement from
the State Grange for another year the
business will be able to take care of
Itself and pay its way.
"It is gratifying to note the co-op.
eratlon of the Granges with other or
ganlzatlons in the war work, such as
Red Cross, liberty bond and thrift
stamp drives, and I would suggest that
the Grange take a more active part aa
an organization In order to get the
credit due as a patriotic body.
Agricultural Lime.
"Many people have been disappointed
In not getting lime for this year's crops
from the State Lime Board, but the
board has been sadly handicapped for
want of sufficient funds with which to
secure a suitable deposit of lime, were
compelled to purchase secondhand
equipment, and now have no 'funds
available for the operation of the plant.
Trus State Grange should adopt
resolution requesting that the unex
pended part of the $45,000 appropriated
by the last Legislature to advertise the
state to tourists be transferred to the
lime board, as it is now generally ad
mitted that the corn crop will be more
potent in the winning of the war than
the tourist crop.
Rural Credits.
"In the matter of state rural credits
is another instance where the tourist
receives greater consideration In the
state of Oregon than the farmer.
"When the Land Board received bids
below par for rural credit bonds they
decided that the honor and credit of
the state would be impaired If stats
bonds were sold below par.
"But when bids were received as low
as 92 cents on the dollar for road
bonds, evidently the honor nor credit
of the state were not Involved, for road
bonds were sold at about that price.
Good Roads.
"During the road bond campaign the
farmer was told that It was all In his
Interest and it would get him out of
the mud, but when It came to the ap
pointment of a Highway Commission
there was no farmer in the state who
could be trusted with the expenditure
of the highway funds. A timber baron.
a banker and a politician were given
the job. Again the tourists interests
scored over the farmer.
"Practically every condition predicted
by those opposed to the bonds are as
sured at this date.
"War conditions have caused a
scarcity of labor and paving costs are
higher than predicted. The patented
paving has been favored almost ex
clusively and the price is high enough
to Include royalty and profit. .
"A second-hand paving plant was
purchased at a good price last Fall but
as yet has not been used by the High
way Commission.
"The good roads movement has suf
fered beyond estimation from the In
competency and extravagance of the
"On the other hand, many counties
are doing creditable work and at the
same time keeping the cost within rea
sonable bounds. Clackamas and Lane
counties deserving special mention.
Hydro Electric Power.
"There are increasing demands for
the use of hydro electric power to take
the place of coal and oil, so much
needed In the war, but much of this
cry is made by corporations that al
ready own much undeveloped water
power, and desire a monopoly of the
hydro electric power of the country.
It Is Important that the state and
Federal Governments retain control of
all water power not already owned by
private interests and that ownership
and development of water power by
municipalities and states be encour
aged as an effective means of prevent
ing monopoly and trust prices.
The War,
'No matter what were the direct
causes or excuses for this war, no mat
ter what issues were at stake in the
beginning, it has developed Into a con
test for industrial and political free
dom on the one side and military slav
ery on the other side. If one side wins
Industrial freedom will advance more
rapidly that it has for generations. If
tne otner side wins civilization will
be turned back centuries.
In the beginning our revolutionary
fathers did not aim at independence,
neither did the people of the North
aim at the abolition of negro slavery
at the beginning of the Civil War. but
as President Wilson said: 'This has be
come a war for freedom. It has become
VERSARY. Northup Photo.
Rev. J. II. Black.
Rev. J. H. Black, pastor of St.
Francis' Catholic Church, will be
honored next Thursday by some
of his co-workers in the priest
hood and by members of his par
ish, who will attend a gathering
that will celebrate the 25th anni
versary of Father Black's - or-,
dinatlon. As pastor of the large
East Side parish he has had a
remarkably successful leadership
and the church has grown steadily-
. '
r. i
inn ,.,-.,..,, Mil
a war for freedom for us too and with
nothing but economic freedom will we
be content.'
Financing: the War.
'The last session of this State Grange
passed strong resolutions in favor of
paying a large share of the war ex
penses with taxes levied on incomes
and excess war profits.
'A law was passed levying an aver
age of 32 per cent on excess war
profits, but now President Wilson fa
vors a measure that will collect 40 per
cent of the war expenses from excess
profits and the payment of. 60 per cent
from the sale of bonds.
"Senator McNary, of Oregon, was
one of the few Senators who voted for
as high as 80 per cent tax on war
"We should support our president
and Senator McXary In this matter and
urge all other members from Oregon
to give their support to this measure.
"This Is a war of sacrifice on the
part of all the people and that man
makes no sacrifice who gives only a
part of the profits he receives because
of the war. All war profits should be
taken by the Government and this
Grange should reaffirm Ha action of
last year, that all income and profits
over $100,000 should be taken. Or if
no profiteering were permitted, the
people could pay all the war taxes and
be money ahead.
Importance of Grange Work.
"Oregon has been spoken of by those
who oppose her political activities i
the fool of the family.' But Oregon has
been the leader and not the fool, and
her habit of leading is demonstrated in
her war work.
"She is first with volunteers, first in
the liberty loan and first in Red Cross
subscription. Like the father of our
country. 'He was first in peace, first in
war and nrst in the hearts of his
"Much credit la due the Grange for
the position occupied by the state In
the Nation today and at this important
time the Grange should not consider
for a moment the proposition of laying
aside its worK till alter the war.
"The farmers of the state cannot af
ford to allow this organization to cease
its activities. 'This period in the his
torjr of our Nation will stand out as
one of the most important of its ex
"President Wilson has said: We must
learn, we freemen, - to meet as our
fathers did,' somehow, somewhere, for
consultation. There must be discussion
and debate, in which all freely particl
"Where is there more suitable place
than In the Grange for consultation
and discussion?
"This is a time for calm deliberation
and judicious action and not a time for
hysterical speech or mob leadership
President Wilson has well said that he
who goes into a mob Is not fit to live
In a democracy.
"Any person or publication that sua-
gests mob rule by word or picture Is
i a worse enemy- to the country than tbe
n$ ...
fe v ft i--i l
moBt outspoken pro-Hun In the coun
try. "It is by this calm deliberation and
consultation that the members of the
Grange are prepared to assume the
leadership in a crisis like the present.
'Every dollar expended and every
hour given for the work of the Grange
s a good investment for the futlre of
our state and our country and, like
bread cast upon the waters, will return
after many days.
After the War.
"When this war is over thousands of
our men will come back to us, many
of them handicapped in various ways
and practically all of them without
financial resources. Provision should
be made for their employment In use
ful industries and land should be avail
able for those who wish to engage In
agriculture. But it would be the height
of folly to give them a lot of stump or
sage brush land and expect them to
clear it off and make a living while
they are doing it.
"Under modern conditions capital and
some machinery are necessary, live
stock is essential. The men who have
fought our battle at the front deserve
something better than to be turned
loose on a piece of brush land.
"The men who are able to work will
need employment. Extensive road build
ing should be delayed till the war Is
over, then those men should be em
ployed In building roads and In pre
paring land for agriculture.
"Provision should be made for homes
or farms for any who are without, on
terms that are reasonable and Just.
Speculation and profit should be elimi
nated and our rural credits laws should
be amended to meet the conditions.
"Tbe stability of all nations depend
upon the home owners and especially
upon the proportion of those engaged
in agriculture who are shareholders In
the commonwealth.
"Steps should be taken and prepara
tions made to meet this emergency
"The first patriotio duty of th
Grange is to aid the Government to the
extent of our ability by raising the
crops most needed to supply food and
clothing to our soldiers and our allies.
"Red Cross and liberty bonds must
be taken care of. but all will fall un
less food is provided.
"Second, we should do all in our
power to assist the Government In the
elimination of speculation and profit
eering In the necessities of life and in
the tools necessary for their produo
"Third, we should be willing to take
any political action necessary to get
the desired results.
"President Wilson has said that:
" The reason that America was set
up was that she might be different from
all the nations of the world is this:
that the strong could not put the weak
to the wall, that the strong could not
prevent the weak from entering the
race. America stands Tor opportunity.
America stands for a free field and no
fivnr. America stands for a Govern
pient responsive to the interests ot all.'
r -
cialist is Dr. De Keyser, and in
his offices you will find the
most modern scientific equip
ment obtainable, combined -with
professional skill and accuracy
of detail in examination and fit
ting of lenses.
The accompanying illustrations convey,
in a very modest way, an impression of
the mechanical perfection of Dr. De Key
sets instruments, and the thoroughness
with which he has equipped his offices for
utmost service to his patients.
1. Dr. De Keyser occupies the entire front of the
second story.
2. A charming place, in deep blue and cream, with
. wicker furniture. Ladies are invited to rest and
read the magazines, or to use the desk for writing.
- S. Dr.' De Keyser making an examination for external
. diseased conditions.
' - 4. Magnifies the Interior of the eye so that any
disease may be detected.
6. Latest improved model; It is used to determine the
visual sensitiveness of different areas on the retina.
6. Measures the exact curves of the cornea for
7. Only one on the Coast north of California. Dis
covers variations from normal vision up to one
thousandth of an inch. Without it Punktal lenses
can not be fitted correctly.
8. Measures the strength of the exterior muscles that
keep the eye in proper balance. By its use for
certain gymnastic exercises the muscles can be
strengthened so that often glasses may be laid
9. Grinding Kryptoks and other lenses.
10. The assembling of glasses and their automatic
edging. All this work is done under the direct
. supervision of Dr. De Keyser.
Clip thi$ coupon and mail to us. marking tvith
X the booklet desired. They are FREE.
l"The Road to Health Through YouTl
I t Eyes" ( )
"The Eye and the Lens" ( )
I N""e
Street Address j
City and State
Phone Main 9587.
"We of the Orange owe it to our
selves, to our families and to our pos
terity to make this country what it
was set up to be.
Gooa of the Order.
"As stated before. Orange work
should not be allowed to decline. We
should exert every energy to make the
organisation strong in order to meet
the emergencies that are to come. We
should support the Grange for the good
It can do now and tor the good It must
do in the future.
"The co-operative work should be
brought to every subordinate grange. A
dollar saved is as good aa a dollar
earned and the work of the past year
has demonstrated that many times the
amount of our dues can be saved In co
operative buying alone. Patronise
your own business.
"Subordinate ana Pomona oranges
should make a special study of eco
nomic Questions so that they can act
Intelligently upon Important matters
that will come to them for solution In
the near future.
"These are stirring times and the
Grange should be on guard ready to
lead out In tne estaDiisnment oi pro
gressive policies that will make this
the best country on earth."
Mosler Man Aids Red Cross.
HOSIER, Or., June 8. (Special.) Ar
thur Kuhn. who lives three and one-
half miles east of Mosler, reports that
A Kw Home Core Tnat Anyone Can TJoe
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We have a Nw Method that cures Asthma,
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No matter whether your caee Is of lons
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We esoeolally want to send It to those
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This free offer Is too Important to nea-lect
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Send free trial of your method to:
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he Is raising a Red Cross garden. He
expects to realize $200 from the produce
raised on tha one and one-half acres of
land employed for this purpose. The
garden is totally without weeds, be
cause of Mr. Kuhn's persistent labors of
from 16 to 17 hours dally In the effort
to do his "bit."
Burglars Enter Barber Shop.
The Oregonlan bar shop, 112 Sixth
street, was entered by burglars Friday
night and a quantity of cigars, a pair
of Army shoes and a suitcase were
stolen. Entrance was gained through
a door In a restaurant adjoining the
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