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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
In thift driwrtment a HtfT wblch has done
practical work lit small suburban sirdea
pUitn to produce the bet effort with the
lat expenditure of either time or money,
will jrlve sigcx;entioTiA and advice Intended
tlirectly and exclusively for the people who
have the average small rardens, wtlh only
the limited time that the American busi
ness nmn can devote to the care of them.
SQUASHES FOR HOME GARDENS.
Another of the Easily Cirown Products
That Is Ideal for the Amateur.
A GREAT advantage of the squash is
that a few hills will produce enough
for the average family. Therefore, they
can he planted in some spot that would
remain unused otherwise. Or they can
he grown among the corn.
The Summer varieties are mostly bush,
forms. The running squashes are late
and long-keeping kinds. Between this
time and June is the period for sowing
squashes in the open in the latitude of
New York. The soil should be as rich
as possible, that their growth may be
hurried, as thty should blossom before
mid-Summer to be at their best. Com
post Is better than much manure, which
makes the plants run to vine.
Give each hill of the bush variety a
clear space of four feet and a clear space
of seven ftsvt to each hill of the running
kinds. Put ten to 12 seeds into each
hill, planting about an Inch deep.
As squashes are great sufferers from
striped cucumber beetles in tneir early
stages, it is best not to thin the plants
till the danger from these pests is over.
AVhen the squashes have attained sound
growth and it is clear which ones are
the best, thin down to three plants in
Do not allow the running varieties- to
root at the joints, for the. steins will be
almost sure to try to make new root,
which will prevent them from making
fruit. If the plants run too much to vine
after flowering, pinch them back so that
the surplus strength, shall go into fruit.
If one frutt sets much earlier than the
rest, it is generally best to take it off,
as that will make the rest of the crop
A VINE FOR Ql'ICK COVERING.
Try a Pumpkin Vine If You Want a
Greenery In a Hurry.
THH.RI-: is hardly a plant or vine in the
world, except in the tropics, that
grows so fast and makes so dense and
luxuriant a cover as the common pump
kin vine, or the gourds. The latter bear
ornamental gourds, while the pumpkin
vine proper not orsjy produces a beautiful
cover for veranda, barn, old tree or any
thing else, but is also at the same time
working to provide agreeable material
I'se the seeds of the smallest of the
pie pumpkins. Plant them in very fine
earth, powdered thoroughly, and leave a
little depression so that the" water will
pottle instead of. running away. The
vine loves water.
Feed the ground with plenty of rich
manure, and if you want the vine to get
a specially swift "move on." pour liquid
manure around it from time to time,
taking care not to touch the stem.
A pumpkin vine so treated has been
known to cover an arbor within a few
weeks with foliage so thick that hardly
a ray of sun could penetrate. Rich
golden blossom? add to Its beauty, and
the leaves of thrifty plants will often
grow to he as great as palm leaf fans.
Few plants are so tenacious of life.
Broken branches, bruised and otherwise
Injured stems,' often bear perfect fruit.
The pumpkin bugs frequently leave a
vine that is thus trained over a veranda
ur arbor -ouite unmolested, even- when
i hoy destroy those that grow along the
ground in the- vegetable garden.
T 1MB AND WORK SAVERS.
le Houie-Mntle Uevieea to Prevent
OTH ends of every row of vegetable
should be marked with & stake, so
that you will know where to weed and
cultivate without hitting the line where
the young vegetables are coming up.
Weeding before the young food plants.
are more than a one-leaf or two-leaf
stage high will save many of them from
iMituK smothered and will ivo all of them
GENERAL DIRECTIONS BYN EXPERIENCED MAN, APPLICABLE TO FLOWERS' Mb VEGETABLES
A GOOD EXAMPLE IN GROUPING
Although a bit of shrubbery on
both sides of the path in the fore
ground looks so ornate. It is com
posed very simply. The flowering
growth i mountain laurel. The -foliage
on the other side of the path is
simply Virginia creeper. Although
this picture was taken in a large
and elaborate garden, the foreground
effect can be duplicated in any small
place. Any flowering shrub can be
used instead of laurel and honey
suckle, or any other vine, instead of
such a good start that the weeds will
have a hard time catching ud. But you
will find it a sad job to weed without
cutting off the young vegetables unless
the rows have been plainly marked.
Bach of these stakes should have one
aide smoothed off so that you can write
on it in pencil the name of the plant,
when it should be thinned and how much,
when it should be ripe, .etc.
Always have a long, narrow board near
the patch narrow enough so that It can
be laid between the rows without touch
ing the crops. This will be found Inval
uable when picking or weeding on wet
days or after heavy rains, not only be
cause It will save your shoes and clothe.,
but also because it will save you from
trampling down the wet earth and per
haps a whole row.
Buy a skein of the tying stuff called
raffia. You can get a lot for 15 cents.
Hang It somewhere where you can get
it In a minute, ft is worth all the rope
and string that ever were for tying
things up in a hurry and making them
Whenever you cut a straight branch or
And a straight slender stick anywhere
put' it aside for a stake. By June your
plants will need support on all sides.
Everything will seem to call for it at
once. A mad search Is then generally
made by amateurs, with the result that
most of the plants either do without and
go to ruin or get staked to such miser
able makeshifts that th. whole garden
AQUATIC GARDENS, OX SMALL
Anyone Can Make Thenl Water
Gardening Is Easy.
THS general idea is that aquatio gar
dens are most difficult to make and
maintain. As a matter of fact, an aquatic
garden can be made at extremely small
cost, and it will practically keep itself.
With the exception of the work necessary
to keep- up the water level, there is little
other labor connected with. It no weed
ing, no cultivation and practically no bat
tling with insects.
For the ordinary suburban garden the
best beginning in this line Is with a tub
sunk Into the- earth. .This is preferable
to making an excavation, as the latter
will need to be cemented to prevent the
water from soaking away. A large tub
will offer a perfectly satisfactory substi
tute. Sink it in the earth so that its top will
be Just a little below the surrounding soil.
Bore a hole in the bottom and fit Into this
a plug made of a piece of broomstick long
enough so that its top will be as high as
the top of' the tub. This is for con
venience In handling it without needing
to reach arm-deep into the water.
Around the hole pile fat stones . or
brick, to act as a sieve, so that tits' earth
will not wash through the opening when
the water is drained away.
Having prepared the hole -and put In
the plug, cover the bottom of the tub
with very rich, black, loamy earth. Avoid
soil that l8 too clayey, as clay packs solid
under water. Mix Into the soil some well
rotted manure, broken up finely. Put in
enough of this soil to make a bed at least
six Inches deep In the middle of the tub.
Toward tb.e sides the soil should rise so
that there will .be, only about IS inches
of depth left at the margin. '
It you can get -very white, clean, sharp
sand, it will add much to the clearness of
this little pool If the soil is covered with
about an inch of it.
The most satisfactory plants for such a
pool are water lilies. Four, or even five,
plants may be put in if such varieties as
nymphaea Laydekeri or the pigmy
nymphaea atragona are selected.
tvntar lilv bulbs are rather exnensive.
.cost from H to 2.60 foe bulbs of fine
THE SUNDAY OREGONIAN,- PORTLAND,
A J! 2
sorts of the varieties mentioned. They
are hardy, however, and will thrive prac
tically anywhere if they get a sunny loca
The hardy lotus 1b another beautiful
plant, but It grows so large that one
specimen is all tlfat should go Into so
small a place as a tub.
At the margins may be- grown sucn
plants as the umbrella plant, roots of
which cost 25 to. BO cents: giant arrow
head, which throws up fronds of leaves
four to five feet high: water hyacinth, with
spikes of lilac flowers.; wild rice, which
grows five to 10 feet high. Arrowhead and
hyacinth roots cost about 20 cents each.
Wild rice can be obtained for 10 cents a
root or leas.
On the soil around' the tub plant blue
flag, irises, cardinal flowers or Joe-pye
Frequent changing of the water will
keep it sweet and prevent the breeding of
mosquitoes. A better way still is to put
in some of the bright green aquatic weeds,
such as can be gathered in any pond, and
after they have begun to grow well put
in some silver or gold fish, small carp,
frogs or turtles, all of which wild devour
mosquito larva and thrive. i--If
the. latter method Js used the ..water
will not need' to be changed often, if at
all. The only necessity then will be to
supply water to replace the loss from
FLOWER GARDENING FOR MA1"S
Preparing for Month of Blos-
RCST and mildew will begin to appear
here and there now. Be ready with
the Bordeaux mixture and In severe cases
dig In a little dry Bordeaux around the
crown of the plant, not the root. Give
roses a light spray of kerosene emulsion,
whale oil soap or common yellow soap.
even If you see no Insects. If insects
have appeared, give full strength applica-
ltion and watch constantly during the next
fas i wwt -it$ tA: it A
punno ; j, h , K Vbs&vi S ' itJ? 4 WvA
A MISTAKE TO BE AVOIDED.
In this piece of ground there has
been done just the reverse of what
was needed to make a good garden
ing design. The bit of lawn In front
of the door should have remained
unbroken, while sweeping away from
it on both sides along the path should
have been shrubs, the tallest near
the entrance and thence getting
smaller. Forsythias, golden elder, or
similar high-growing ones would
make a fine show at the entrance.
Spiraeas . and other low-growing
shrubs, like barberry and Japanese
sumach or maple, would make a nat
ural, picturesque approach with these
tall shrubs to lead up to.
three weeks. In order to repeat the dose
If the pests persist.
The place to look for rose lice is en
leaves and very small and motionless.
Withering, drooping stalks mean cuN
worms at the base of the plant juBt un
der the surface, as a rule. ok about
half an inch deep. Kill the worm and dig
in "finely sifted coal ashes.- - -
Mulch sweet peas well now and water
them freely, drenching the row thoroughly
just before sunset, so that as little as
possible shall evaporate.
Bulbs of dahlias, cannas and gladioli
may be set out at any time now and dur
ing the next two weeks. These are the
last annuals to sow down.
By the beginning of next month it will
be time to bed out the tender annuals, like
tuberous begonias, 'geraniums, heliotrope
and fuchsias. So prepare for them now,
deciding where they are to go and what
varieties you desire.
. Golden glow and simflar tall-growing
plants should have stakes set for them
now before they. attain their fulli height.
Neglect 'In this particular is one of the
common sins of the amateur gardener,
wtio seems to have a mania for waiting
tilt a sudden storm has blown the
under fc side of the leaves and along
the tender stems just below the leaves or
I flower buds. Look sharply. The pests
1 are green, of the exact color of the
- - - J --.i ...V ..,
MAY 17, 1908.
II 11 II II II II II 11 lUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUi
greater part of his flower-garden flat.
Delay in staking is the cause of the un
kempt appearance of so many big bushes
of golden glow.
TRANSPLANTING WILD FLOWERS
Almost Any Plant Can Be Safely Re
moved From Wood, and Cultivated.
A TROLLEY! ride Into the country
(even the most barren country)
with a trowel and basket in these next
few weeks will result in enough finds
to make a little wild garden spot In
some corner. It Is not necessary to be
a botanist or to know the wild piants.
Dig out those that you like, either for
their foliage or their blossoms. Mark
the place they grow in, whether suady,
sunny, boggy or dry. Give them the
same conditions at home and they will
Wild plants may be moved even
while they are in blossom, providing
you ar. Immensely generous in dig
ging up the earth around them, and
plenty of their own favorite moM re
mains around the roots.
To make the spot in the home gar
den as nearly ilka their own native
home as possible, take up about 18
incheof soil from the bed where you
propose to establish them. Lay at the
bottom of thie a 2-inch deposit of clay
or spread broken shells and ashes to
On top of this spread the richest
soil you can .find. Mix it with rotten
leaves and anything of that nature.
Use very old manure If you eannot get
old leaf mold. Fill in enough of this
stuff to make the layer about 12 inches
deep. This will leave about 4 Inches
to fill in. Get the black, spongy, rot
ten leaf mold from the woods or buy
It from the florists, who always have
such mold on hand. To be perfect It
should be coal black, as if it had been
burned, and it should feel elastic and
yet crumble away readily under the
A few stones buried Just under this
surface and a few others scattered
i around on top will aid In imitating
TTt-U't W? 11-;"" ' , fl
WHAT CAN Be DONE WITH A
This picture shows what whs an
unsightly back fence in a backyard.
The floral glory that has trans
formed it into a place of beauty was
obtained at little expense by plant
ing only the commonest flowers.
Golden glow forms the tall bloom next
to the fence. The other plants are
"popples,, zinnias, foxgloves, petunias,
phlox, 'sweet alyssum and dusty
natural conditions and retaining moist
ure. If you are lucky enough to have a
soil that is naturally very rich and
black. It may not be necessary to dd
more than to add several inches of
leaf mold and put in plenty of stones.
Let falling leaves accumulate here
and there on such a 'bed throughout
During the next two weeks you will
find false Solomon's seal, hepatica,
forget-me-not, lupine, columbine, moc
casin flower, wild laurel and honey
suckle in blossom In the woods.
THE WONDERFUL GLADIOLI'S.
A Plant That Ha. Been Cultivated
With Extraordinary Result..
ARDLT a plant known has been
changed so wonderfully in all re
spects color, size, shape, markings and
Caesar Augustus' Last Resting Place
THE! amphitheater Corea after being
closed for 20 years has just been
opened for the Sunday popular con
certs, to which the music lovers of Rome
flock to hear classic music. This amphi
theater is one of the oldest relics of
ancient Rome and was the tomb of Au
gustus. Nineteen centuries ago the Em
peror Caesar Augustus gave orders for
the erection of a mausoleum for himself
and his family between the Via Flam
mtnia and the Campus Martius, close to
the banks of the ilver. It was his wish
that the tomb should rival that erected
to King Mausolus,' which was considered
one of the wonders of the world. Little
did 'he' think that a future generation
would protane his tomb and use it as a
concert hall. .
It was built in 27 B.' C, 41 years before
Augustus' death, and consisted of a cir
cular basement of white marble about
290 feet in diameter, which supported a
cone of earth planted with cypresses and
evergreens. There were three retiring
stages, each pierced with . numerous
chambers destined to receive the remains
of every member of the Imperia Ifamily
and thousands of the slaves and freed
men. In the center of this mound the great
founder of the empire was buried, while
his bronxe statue towered above the
trees. The vaults were approached from
the south, while the entrance on either
side was flanked by huge monuments,
principally the obelisks which now stand
in the squares of the Qulrinal and Es
quiline. On the walls at either side were
copies in marble or bronse of the de
crees of the Senate In honor of the per
sonages burled within.
The gates of the mausoleum were
opened for the first time to receive the
ashes of young Marcellus. nephew of Au
gustus and first husband of his daughter
Julia, whose death was lamented by Vir
gil. A few years later Octavia, sister of
the Emperor and widow of Mark An
tony, was honored by a public- funeral
at" which an oration was delivered by
In 14 A. D. the Emperor died at,NoIa
and his body was burned here on a
funeral pyre to huge that lfs widow,
Livla, disheveled and ungirt. with bare
feet, surrouncted -by the Roman Senators,
had to watch it for five days and five
nights before it cooled sufficiently to al
low the collection of the ashes of the
Emperor. Just as the first spark ignited
the pyre an eagle was seen rising from
Its summit, and from 'this event it was
believed that the spirit of Augustus, en
tering Into the body of the eagle, bad
ascended to heaven.
In the years that followed many mem
bers of the imperia! family were en
tombed here his widow, who lived for IS
years after his death; Caligula, who was
murdered in 41 and was first buried in
the Hortl Lamiani; Claudius, who was
texture as the gladiolus. The most
effective, beds imaginable are those
with the finer varieties of these
flowers, especially if the bed Is round.
In some of the show gardens the beds
Of extravagantly expensive rare plants
do not make so striking a show as does,
a simple round bed with a bronze
leaved castor oil plant In the center and
gladioli and cannas grouped around 1U
When ready to set In the ground, re
move all loose husks, rinds, dead root
lets and stalks, leaving a perfectly
clean, smooth bulb. Set the bulbs 8
Inches deep in fine leaf-mold or in a
mixture of muck, loam and old manure.
While this is the best soil, the plants
will often do sb well In thoroughly
rich rarden loam.
If the bulbs are planted as deeply as
suggested, they will probably not need
staking later on, and 'this Is a point
worth striving for with plants of their
The gladiolus bed must be well
worked during the Summer and kept
mulched with fine dust of grass cut
tings, as the plants are thirsty. Give
them an abundance of water. Do not
let the flowers run to seed. The
gladiolus makes new bulbs each year
and If it adds to this work the work
of seed-production, the bulbs will suf
fer in quality.
The Chlldsl varieties are the finest.
Bulbs cost from 10 to 25 cents, ac
cording to the kind, there being more
than score of different sorts of this
variety. The plants can be raised from
seed, but will not flower the first year.
at Rome Now a Pleasure Resort,
murdered by Agrlppina; his son, Britan
nlcus, murdered by Nero, and finally
Nerva. From this time until 410 nothing
more is heard of the mausoleum.
It was ransacked by the Goths, but,
fortunatelyl. no harm was done to the
building. Later, during the troublesome
times when the Colonna fought for su
premacy with the Orslnl. the former used
the tomb ss a fortress, and It was nearly
destroyed by the furious population in
1167 when news of the defeat of a Roman
army led by the Colonnas against the
Count of Tusculum and his German allies
reached the city.
The people stormed the stronghold of
the powerful family and wrought havoc
but the ruin was restored In I'M by the
Colonnas and here it was that the body
of. the tribune Cola dl Rlenxi, after hav
ing hung for two days at San Marcello,
was brought and burned. When these
times of trouble passed the tomb was for
gotten. It was used as a shrine to Saint
Angelo dl Augustus until 1519, when arch
eological excavations were undertaken
and Baldassarre Peruzzi discovered and
copied some of the historical inscriptions
on the spot and made .drawings of the
Thirty years later the Soderinl family
turned the place Into a hanging garden,
filled it with works of statuary and used
It for games, bull-fights and fireworks.
Interest in the excavations languished and
In 1777, while new houses were being
built in the neighborhood the workmen
discovered the Ustrlnum, or sacred en
closure for the cremation of the mem
bers of the Imperial family, together with
many other historical, monuments. The
first objects brought to light wer. a
beautiful urn of alabaster and several in
scribed pedestals intended to indicate the
spot where each Prince had been cre
mated or where the ashes had been de
posited. The building from a garden was first a
bull-ring, then a circus, but it proved a
failure ' and the Corea family, who had
bought It from the Soderinte. were forced
to put it up at auction. It failed to find
a purchaser In desperation the Marchesa
Soderini appealed to Pope Pius VII., who
bought It in 1802 for 23.500 scudl. In 1870 It
passed to the 6tate.
Nine years later Count Telfener leased
It for 20 years and changed it into an'
open-air theater. Here the great Salvini
and Ristorl often acted In their early
youth before they had risen to fame.
Two years ago the mausoleum was
handed over to the municipal authorities,
who have adapted It as a concert hall.
covering it with a dome-like roof and
entirely renovating the interior at a cost
of about $40,000. The classic sculptured
marbles and mosaics of the interior hae
now been changed Into Louis XV. deco
rations in stucco.
The capacity of the new concert hall la
of 4000 persons, ...