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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View Entire Issue (Sept. 3, 1905)
THE SUXDAV OKEGOMAX. PORTLAND, SEPTEMBER 3, 1905.
Pure Fictions Concerning Marcus Whitman
LAST OF PRINCIPAL WILLIAM L MARSHALL'S PAMPHLET
MADE UP FROM CONTEMPORARY RECORDS
(Copyright: all rights reserved.)
PRINCIPAL, MARSHAL, explodes the
Action that Marcus Whitman
brought the flrst wagon to Oregon
and explained the true relations o the
Hudson's Bay Company to the early set
tler In Oregon. Those articles that are
published in four Sunday issues o Tho
Oregonlan may be obtalnod from Mr.
Marshall in pamphlet form.
Ermatlngcr and the First Wagons
Through to the Columbia in 1840.
Ermatinger was continuously in com
mand of Fort Hall from 183S to late in
the Autumn of 1S41, and treated with ut
most klndneas all parties of Americans
on their way to Oregon.
How ho was regarded by the mission
aries appears from the following from
page 1S3 of Farnham's "Travels In the
Great Western Prairies, the Anahuac and
Rocky Mountains and In the Oregon Ter
ritory." Poughkoepsle, 1S4L New York
(two editions. 1S4S). London (two vols.,
Farnham spent September 23 to 30, 1S39,
at Whitman's Station, and under date
of September 27 wrote:
"In the afternoon of this date, the ar
rival of Mr. Ermetlngor" (should be mat
not met W. I. M.) "the senior clerk at
Fort Kail from Fort Walla Walla created
quite a sensation. His uniform kindness
to the missionaries has endeared ,him to
In August, 1840, J. Lc- Meok. Robert
Newell and Caleb Wllkins, throe Ameri
can trappers, weary of the dangers, hard
ships and poor rewards of that pursuit,
determined to go to the Willamette Val
ley and sottlc.
Newell owned two wagons and Wilkins
one. which had boon abandoned at Fort
Hall in 3S and 1S40 by parties migrating
to Oregon, precteely as Whitman's cart
had been at Fort Boise in 1836, "on ac
count of the fatigue of their animals."
Brmatinger bought one of NowoH's
wagons, and the four men, having out
fitted at Fort Hall, drove these three
wagons, in August and September, 1840,
through to Whitman's station, and to
Fort Walls. Walla the flrst wagons be
yond any question that ever were driven
through to the Columbia.
A full account of this is given in Trans.
Or. Plo. Assn., 1877 (pp. 22-24).
These three wagons had demonstrated
beyond any dispute that whenever a
company of SO or more resolute men, suit
ably equipped, should attempt the task,
they could drive a train of loaded wagons
through to the Columbia with very little
difficulty or delay on the journey.
If Whitman bad boen concerning himself
at all about the question of the wagon
road to the Columbia he certainly would
have promptly written of the arrival of
these wagons at his station: but there
Is not one word about the matter in any
'tetter of either Mr. or Mrs. Whitman,
or any other member of the mission.
The foolli quarrel between the Whit
mans and the Spaldlngs (which eventuated
in the destructive order of the board in
Februcry. 1542. for the discontinuance of
Smith's. Spalding's and Whitman's Sta
tion, and the recall to the States of
SpakHng and Gray to procure the rosols
slon of which order and got help for the
mission, was the sole cause of Whitman's
ride), was begun In the States in 1S36.
continued, and reconciled twice on that
18N Journey to Oregon, only to break out
afreeh and reach such a holght in 1S
that Whitman himself wrote, in his 14
pas letter of October 15. 1840, to Rev. D.
Greene, secretary (from which nothing
ha. yet been published), as follows:
(P. IS) "Mr. Gray has lately Informed
nr that letters have been sent by him
and others setting forth differences that
have exlstod in this mission.
"It was never my Intention to trouble
you with them, though I have thought
them of such a nature that Mrs. Whitman
and mytlf must leave the mission, and so
strong was this feeling that I should
have left previous to tho convening of the
mteston tn 1S3P had not the providence of
God arrested me In my deliberate deter
mination to do so by" taking away in so
sudden a manner our dear child by drown
ing." This quarrel was in its most virulent
stage from March. 1S40. to June. 1842. and
though Gray. Whitman. Mrs. Whitman,
Rev. A. B. Smith. Rev. C. Eells and Rev.
E. Walker could find time between March,
1S4. and June. 1S42. to write more than
a hundred pases in letters to the Amer
ican board and to their friends and In
their diaries about this senseless quarrel,
no one of them found time to write one
word about these three wagons getting
through in 1S4&
The simple fact that not only were these
wagons outfitted at Fort Hall (where, ac
cording to the Whitman legend, there ex
isted intense and continued hostility to
any wagons going through to the Colum
bia), but that Fredorlc Ermatlngcr the
Hudson's Bay Company's trader in com
mand of Fort Hall continuously from
lOS to late In the Autumn of 1841 bought,
outntted and drove one of them through,
of itself reduces to senseless drivel all
the scores of pages which Gray, Spald
ing. Barrows. Nixon. M. Eells, Craighead,,
Mrs. lva Emery Dye, D. H. Montgomery
On his "Leading Facts (?) in American
History"). Penrose. Mowry and tho other
Whltmanites have written about the Hud
eon's Bay Company opposing the taking:
of wagons beyond Fort Halt
Jib "Whitmanitc Has Ever Been Hon
est Enough to State Ermatingcr's
Share in Driving Through the
First Wagons to the Columbia in
1840, Nor That They Were Out
fitted at Fort Hall.
No Whitmanlte in book or magazine
article has ever yet referred his readers
to the account of this In the 1S77
"Trans,". and though a few of
the later advlcatcs of the Whitman
legend have admitted that three wagons
went through In 1S40, yet, as the whole
Whitman Saved Oregon Story crumbles
to dust, if there was not constant oppo
sition at Fort Hall to wagons going
through to the Columbia, not a single
advocate of the legend who has admit
ted that wagons went through in 1840 has
been honest enough to give his readers
the least intimation that they were out
fitted at Fort Hall, nor that they had
been left there by their owners "on ac
count of tho fatigue of their animals,"
and not on account of any opposition of
the H. B. Co., and much less that Er
matinger had anything to do with them.
Hev. 31. Eells Ingenious Conceal
ment of All the Vital Facts About
the 1840 "Wagons.
For example: Rev. M Eells. in his
"Reply to Professor Bourne." In two ref
erences to thcaj wagons (about which ho
wap fully informed) thus Ingeniously
avoids mentioning Ermatlnger8 name, or
otherwise giving his readers any informa
tion of any value about them. S
(Reply, p. 111.)' "He" (I. e., Df. Whit
man) "knew that in J840 Dr. Robert New
til. Col. Joseph I Meek and two others
had taken three wagons to Walla Walla."
and (p. 116) "When four yeara later" (I.
e., than 1835) "Dr. Robert Newell and
Company took three wagons to Walla
Walla, the enemy was again overcome."
The "enemy" being the H. B. Co.!!!
Sirs. Dye's Ridiculous Fiction About
Mrs. Dye, in "McLoughlln and Old Ore-
m ., ,,,, v v,n, yytf vrrr,t !
gon. heads her chapter XXH, Enaat- ,
inger Guards trie Frontier.." and in bliss-
ful ignorance of the Tact that he was m
charge thore in 1S3S and 1839 and in equal
Ignorance of his share In driving these
first wagons through to the Columbia,
represents him as having been sent to
Fort Hall in 1840, to prevent wagons go
ing beyond Fort Hall, and to deceive the
missionaries and other Americans about
the practicability of a wagon road to the
If, in all the historical romances ever
written, there Is a chapter more directly
contrary to the facts than this chapter
XXII of Mrs. Dye's book. It Is doubtless
some one or all of the several other
chapters In the book, in which she draws
on her very vivid and exhaustless imag
ination for the statements she makes in
advocating the Whitman Saved Oregon
Contemporaneous evidence as conclusive
against each and every other part of the
"Whitman Saved Oregon Story and against
iuc Ciaiui liiui vr unman tiw J u"" 1 rp,- . ... ,
a great or an especially patriotic n Jfw British subjects and unques
n. th.t wn nrtrfnorwi is airaJnst thTPlonabl'. as all loyal British subjects
as that herein adduced is against the
claim that the H. B. Co.'s archives fur
nish proof that Whitman Saved Oregon,'
and against the seven other claims here
in disproved, Is for the first time to be
made accessible to the public in my "His
tory of the Acquisition of Oregon, and
the Long Suppressed Evidence About
Marcus Whitman," all that Is of real im
portance in that evidence, on every other
point needful to understanding the truth
about the matter, having been as care
fully suppressed by the Whltmanites as
has all the Important evidence herein
quoted; but the scope of and the space
available for this article wjll allow no
further quotations of It here.
The II. B. Co. and the American Set
tlement of Oregon.
The chapter in that book on "The
Truth About the Relation of the Hud
son's Bay Company to the American Ex
ploration, Occupation and Settlement of
the Oregon Territory" must completely
revolutionize the commonly accepted ideas
on that subject which have been so as
plduoudy inculcated for the past forty
3'ears by the advocates of the Whitman
legend, since it will for the flrst time
make accessible to the public not what
was uttored and published "by the un
scrupulous politicians and reckless news
paper writers, (who, under the load of
Thomas H. Benton, constituted the "Ore
gon Jingoes" from ISIS to 1S46), no one of
whom had ever been within a thousand
miles of any Hudson's Bay Company's
post in the Oregon Territory, nor tho
vague and contradictory "recollections"
25 to DO years after the event of men like
Gray and Spalding, but all the contem
poraneous evidence obtainable (both pub
lished and hitherto unpunllshed) In let
ters, or diaries, or books, or magazine or
WHETHER she spends the season
in town or at some country
nlon Cummnr tn the SVOraKe
place. Summer to the average
woman moans tho relinquishing of
routine duties and a letting down
from the strenuous existence of the
remainder of the year. As a conse
quence, the ontij-e body Is in a state
of relaxation wlfen the bracing air of
Soptembor . calls the businoss or soci
ety girl baek t work or to prepara
tion for the Fall campaign.
Like the athlete., she Is out of train
ing, and before she oan devote all her
energies to the busy life ahead of her
she must get back into fighting trim.
To a man this means rogalning
strength and enduring power. To a
girl, it has the added meaning of re
storing boauty and symmetry of form
with which sun and wind and change
of diet may have wrought sad havoc.
Rightly to undertake this training
down process, a girl must make it her
first, and. If nocossary. her only
thought for the next few weeks.
Everything else must be subservient to
cortain necossary duties, and regular
habits, ospeelally if she is laying the
foundation for an entire Winter sea
son. The most essential factor in reviv
ing a relaxed condition of the body is
proper deep breathing. Some authori
ties go so far as to say that no other
method of training down is required.
Cortain It Is. howeor. that a girl must
make breathing her flrst considera
tion. One of the simplest and most
effectual exercises is to take IS long
breaths each morning before getting
out of bed. Remove the pillow from
under the hoad and strotch out per
fectly flat, laying tho hands over the
lower odge of the ribs. This brings
the Angers on the dtHphragm muscle,
which is the lever of the entire breath
ing apparatus. Inhale very slowly so
that each part of the lung; shall re
ceive Its duo portion of oxygen. In
exhaling, let the muscle of the dia
phragm sustain the breatn until it has
been forced out from every othorpart
of the body. There snould be plonty
of fresh air In the room when this ex
orcise Is taken, and a girl must never
fall to inhale at least 10 breaths eaoh
irorr.lrg If she w,h-?s to obtain i-e-sults.
It is the regularity At the ex
ercise that makes it beneficial, and it
starts the" system off right at the be
ginning of the day.
Diet is the noxt thing to bo consid
ered after breathing. Swoets and soft
drinks have done their worst to upsot
the digestion, and most girls have, dif
ficulty In breaking away from thom.
The desire for these unhealthy things
can be largely overcome by taking a
licorice powdor or gentle liver pills
three times a week, followed up the
next morning by an effervoscont laxa
tive water. A brisk walk Jn tho fresh
air directly after breakfast will clear
tho system, and in a oouplc of wocki
it will bo restored to a normal condi
tion and ready to assimilate good,
Girls with a tendency to weak heart
should have both the night dose and
morning laxative presoribed by a
physician. If the warm weather has
left them feeling rather weak, a sim
ple tonic should be prescribed also.
The girl who has gained too much
flesh must abstain entirely from
sweets of any kind, potatoes, cream
and mile. She must guard especially
against eating anything between
meals. Eleven o'clock lunches, five
o'clock tea or a bite from tha pantry
before she retlros should bo quite out
of tho question. These snatohes of
food at odd times are most wde:rlmental
to anyone who Is trying to get Into
sound working condition. This rule
holds good also for the thin girl, un
less she has a system of talcing nour
ishment every two or three hours.
During Summer's lethargy no part
newppaper articles, or in reports to the
National Government of all the Ameri
cans, fur traders, scientists, pleasure
travelers, government agents or explor
ers, missionaries or leaders of migrations,
who actually went to Oregon and came
in contact with the Hudson's Bay Corn-
fflce nd "if0 tnc,r
Posts there during all the years to the
flxlng of the toxm&ary in 1S4S.
Ag aU at testimony (being twenty
I times as much as is herein quoted) is as
! favorable to the H. B. Co. as are these
j few extracts which prove beyond any
possibility of doubt that the company
rendered Whitman and all his associates
I aid that was indispensable in founding
j and maintaining their i several mission
I stations, and continued their kind offices
to and friendly relations with all these
I missionaries as long as the mis
sion existed, I cannot more fit
tingly close these few extracts from
tho letters and diaries of those mission
aries than by quoting the concluding
paragraphs of that chaptor. as follows:
Are we to understand from the evidence
adduced in this chapter that McLoughlln,
McKInlay. Douglas, Grant. Pambrun,
Ogden, Payette. McDonald, Lewes, Birnle.
Ermatinger and the other Chief Factors
and Chief Traders of tho Hudson's Bay
Company desired American missionaries
and settlers to occupy Oregon?
:ot at all.
ought to have done, they hoped and ex
pected that the British title would be
eBtalblshed to the region N. and W. of the
Columbia, which was all that was really
in dispute after 1824.
But they also unquestionably knew that
under the treaty of Joint Policy of ISIS,
renewed In 1827. American citizens had
exactly the same rights In Oregon that
British subjects had. and their Interests
were so vast In that territory that that
"enlightened selfishness" which ever
characterized the policy of the Hudson's
Bay Company would, of Itself, have
caused them to strictly observe the spirit
of that treaty, and treat Americans with
Justice. But, beyond this, several of
these men. notably McLcod, McKay,
McLoughlln. McKlnlay. Douglas. Ogdon,
Grant. McDonald. Pambrun and Lewes,
were men of great natural ability and
high character, fit to rank among
"Nature's noblemen." measured by any
reasonable standard, and their broad
humanity and natural nobility of char
acter manifested Itself in their whole
course, aa shown by the evidence herein
Thy also knew well what the advocates
of the Whitman Saved Oregon legend
have never yet learned (witness Mowry's
"Marcus Whitman," published in 1MI).
Rey. M. Eells' ."Reply to Prof. Bourne"
OS2), Rev. Joseph R. Clark's "Loavenlng
of the Nation" (1KB), and "Heroes of the
Cross in America," by D. C. Shetton
(1804), viz., that by the express terms of
the troatfcs of ISIS and 1827. as under
stood by both governments, no posts or
settlements that the subjects or citizens
of either nation might establish while
those treaties remained lo force could
settle, or In the least degree affect the
right of either nation to any part of the
The question is not what did the Hud-
Summer's Physical Mischief
" 1 1 - - 1 " " - - r - - - 11 7V ' - - mj. " "
of the body takes on flabby flesh so
readily as do the hips and abdomen.
Here are two splendid exercises for
the girl who is troubled in this way:
No. 1. Stand erect with heels and
toes together. Now lift the right log
straight up without bending the knee
until on a level with the right hand.
Touch the toe and finger together
while keeping the left leg absolutely
stiff and the left arm down by the
side. Reverse with the left foot and
hand meeting. This is a difficult ex
ercise, but if persisted In will reduce
superfluous flesh on hips and abdo
men, and strengthen the muscles'
around the lower part of tho body.
No. 2. Lie over on tho buck with
the hands at tho sides, arms stretohed
full length and palms down. Raise
the right foot as high in tho air as
you can. Swing it and with the toes
stretched to the fullest length outline
a sweeping circle, making it as largo
as you can possibly stretch your leg.
Without resting the leg, swing at
least 20 circles, and then stretch the
leg full length on the floor. Repeat
the exercise jwith the left leg. To
avoid stiffness, work up this exercise
son's Bay Company desire, for undoubt
edly they desired, and ought to have
desired, that Americans should not be
in Oregon at all, but that it should be a
part of the British dominions.
The question is, -What did the Hudson's
Bay Company do when that which they
did not desire happened, and Americans
came into the Oregon territory as fur
traders, missionaries, scientific explorers,
travelers, government expeditions, and
That is the question which I have
sought to answer In this chapter In the
only way In which historical questions
can be settled, i. e- by quoting the best
possible evidence, to wit. all the con
temporaneous testimony that I have been
able to discover of those Americans
themselves, with a little later evidence
from a few of them and from other
prominent Oregon pioneers, all of them
of the highest character, all of them
having no interest in the Hudson's Bay
Company, and all men whose American
Ism Is undoubted, and all of them men
who had exceptional facilities for know
ing what were the real facts in the case.
"Little Sermons" by
THERE is no perfect expression for
thought, only an attempt at ex
pression. This Is done by means
of .symbols appealing; to the senses. He
who conveys the highest emotions by
the fewest symbols is the greatest art
ist. Interest a person in useful work and
you are transforming1 Chaos into Cos
mos. To be stupid when incline'd and dull
when you wish! Is a boon that only
goes with high friendship.
It Is a humiliating fact that great
men are not capable of transmitting
their genius to their sons.
If there is any better way to help
the masses than by going quietly about
your work and setting a good example,
I have not yet seen It.
That man only Is great who utilizes
the blessings that God provides and
of these blessings no gift equals the
gontle. trusting companionship of a
It was a bad blunder of the Ancients
to account for genius by saying the'
man's father was a god, when the real
facts are that the great man Is under
obligations to his mothor for his men
tal and spiritual heritage.
There Ir no other aim in life for any
man or woman than this happiness.
Hven the suicide seeks happiness, his
act that slips the cable, of existence
being always an attempt to flee from
misery, which Ij the opposite pole from
that of happiness.
I fix my thought on the good that
is in every soul and make my appeal
to that. And the plan Is a wise one.
Judged by results. It secures for you
loynl helpers, worthy friends, aids di
gestion, gets the work done and tends
to sleeps o'nights.
UNDOING SUMMER'S MISCHIEFHIP EXERCISE FOR
gradually, making tho 20 circles at tho
ond of a week's time.
A less strenuous exercise for reduc
ing the abdomen; and one which often
will ward off an attack of appendi
citis, is to Ho stretched out perfectly
flat on the Jloor. Lift both feet
straight up without bending the
knees until they are at right angles
with tho body, and lower slowly to
the floor. Raise the feet only once at
first, and Increase tho elevations each
night until they number IX).
Supplementing any of these dally
exercises, a girl should pay attention
to the way In which she alts down. To
sit correctly, the body is placed far
back on the chair, so that the support
will be felt several inches below the small
of the back. The latter Is thus thrown
away from the chair support, and the
spine put Into a. straight and proper line.
If the Bmall of the back touches the
chair, the sitting posture Is Incorrect, and
muscles are being used which tend to
make the hips larger.
When the sholders are tha part of the
frame which has grown too stout, a pair
of dumb beils. "trill serve as the 'greatest
possible aid in reducing Uem. Stand
In Defense of the Work of Marcus Whitman
CYRUS H. WALKER TAKES ISSUE WITH MR. MARSHALL
THE FIRST CHILDREN BORN IN OREGON i &
S.BANY, Or.. Aug. 17. (To the Edi
tor.) I was much Interested in
reading in last Sunday's Oregonlan.
"Seven Pure Fictions Concerning Mar
cus Whitman." '
So far I have refrained from taking
any part in the "Whitman controver
sy," but I can keep silent no longer.
As many know. I was born at Whit
man's. December 7, 1S3S. He was the
first to look into my infant face, and
to tell my glad mother that her flrst
born, was a son.
As a youth I knew Dr. and Mrs.
Whitman Intimately, and, ramember
their faces almost as well as those of
my father and mother. I attended
school at Whitman's the Winter of
1845-45, with Andrew Rogers as teach
er. He was one of the victims of tho
Whitman massacre November 29, 1847.
I also knew A.. L. Lovejoy In Oregon
City in 1848-49. He was Dr. Whitman's
traveling companion going toward
Washington In the Winter of 1S42-43.
I cannot understand the animus that
promp'ts Proessor William L Marshall
or other Eastern writers in their ef
forts to detract from the fame of tho
hero and martyr, Marcus Whitman. It
seems to be more of a covert attack
upon the grand work accomplished for
Christianity In the Pacific Northwest than
to place right matters of history.
In the article above referred to. only
two of the seven fictions are given. I
am not In a position either to confirm
or dispute these two.
The first is that the "Spalding-Whitman
party took a quart of seed wheat
to Oregon In 1836. It would have been
quite natural lor them to take seed
wheat along with other seeds. At tho
same time I would hot claim, until 1
had further evidence that it was the
first seed wheat brought to the Pa
cific Coast, but may have been the first
that they planted.
The Hudson's Bay Company undoubt
edly hod grown wheat some years pre
vious to 1836. It Is very probable that
Dr. Whitman was furnished wheat for
seed in larger quantities by the Hud
son's Bay Company. Mr. Spalding's
statement a? quoted In the article 1
am criticising, that they took "no
seeds exrept a few garden seeds" Is
not proof positive that they may not
have taken at least a handful of such
an Important article of plant food as
wheat Is. Boiled wheat and horse meat
were the main articles of food my
father and mother and other mission
aries subsisted upon during the Win
ter of 1S3S-39.
The second "fiction" is as to the tak
ing possession of the western half of
the continent on July 4, 1336.
The writer calls it "purely mythloal"
because he cannot find any mention of
the matter In either Mrs. Whitman's
letter or Mrs. Spalding's diary, under
dates on that day or soon after. Also
Three Exercises for Reducing Surplus Flesh on the
Hips and Abdomen.
STOUT AND THIN.
erect, with chest high and arms thrown
straight out and back from the shoulders.
Swing forward toward each other with-
1 out bending the elbow until the hands
are directly in front of the body, and re
turn to outstretched position. Next raise
arms up over the head, using first right
and then left. Sharp, quick movements
are necessary In these exercises.
Another means of taking flesh from tho
shoulders is exercises with the head.
Letting the arms hang loosely by the
sides, turn tho head flrst one way and
then the other, as far around as it can
be stretched. The second movement 13 to
bend the head well over the chest, fol
lowed by a backward motion. To havo
the exercises affect the shoulder blades,
the back must be perfectly straight.
Half an hour before retiring Is the
best time to go through any or all of
these movements. They should be prac
ticed In a loose gymnasium suit or pa
jamas and each exerclss should have ten
trials. Caro is necessary to have fresh
air in the room, but not a suggestion
of a draught, for a girl will be in a drip
ping perspiration when she nas finished.
To aid in the reduction process, plunge
into a hot bath for five .minutes. Get
Into bed immediately and cover with a
Mr. Spalding's letter of July 8 makes
no mention of it.
What are tho natural probabilities?
Messrs. Whitman and Spaldlnz as pa
triotic American citizens, going to a
waste howling wilderness among
heathen tribes, would quite naturally
take an American flag with them, and
on the Fourth of -July when they knew
tha friends and fellow citizens at
home were singing the praises of lib
erty, would themselves be inspired to
patriotic fervor and standing on the
divide of. the Rockies give thanks . to
God beneath the folds of tho Stars and
Stripes, and claim the wild Western
land for him and for country
Mrs. Whitman and Mrs. Spalding had
too much thought of home and of kindred
whom they felt they were never to see
again on earth, thoughts of the mis
sion fields to which they were wearily
Journeying, and of hostile tribes they
must pass through, to spend much if
any thought upon sceaes that appealed
to pride of country only.
The same thoughts were in Rev. H.
H. Spalding's mind, no doubt, when he
wrote his letter of July 8, 1S36.
But these alleged "fictions" so vehemently-proclaimed,
are but as obscure
satellites that revolve around some grand
planet. In this case the central figure
or thought Is, "Did Marcu3 Whitman
"The Hudson's Bay Company's
Archives" is a high-sounding phrase, as
used by Mr. Marshall. Pray, why should
the Hudson's Bay Company make any
mention of a matter in which they were
worsted? It Is natural to bear chagrin
In silence. The "Whltmanites" may
have unvylsely claimed too much for the
doctor in some minor details. As to the
main fact of his wonderful ride in the
dead of Winter toward Washington, and
his object In going. I stand with the most
radical of them. I have often wished
I had talked this matter over more thor
oughly with my father and mother. My
mother was the last of pioneer mission
aries to pass from earth to heaven. To
my best recollection she always men
tioned that Whitman's visit East was
mainly for the purpose of saving Oregon
to the United States. Rev. Myron Bells
has collected facts and data that ought
to convince any reasonable mind that
Whitman's ride was more to serve his
country than 'to "save his mission," as Is
alleged. During the past years of con
troversy the opinions of a number of the
early pioneers of Oregon have boen given
as to what part Dr. Whitman had in in
ducing emigration to Oregon and of pilot
ing them through.
Among these was Hon. Jesse Applegate.
We would hardly expect a favorable an
swer from him. Judging from the follow
ing, taken from a letter in my possession
written at Clearwater to my father at
Ishlm-a-KanL March 8. 1S47:
"Sad news from the Applegate party.
A letter from Mr. Barlow, Jan. 2. informs
me that about one-quarter had arrived,
and they on foot, having lost everything
and endured sufferings not to be named.
The remainder were back 3W or 400 miles,
annoyed by Indians,- dying fast, and when
the cold set in, which was two weeks
after, must nearly or quite all perish.
It seems the route Is some 300 miles far
warm comforter, jfjf no means try to
complete any part Tf the toilet after the
bath, for all the poes ace oqeu and there
is danger of taking a. severe cold
Annoying as Is tne acquisition of ftesh
to the stout girl, ther'tbln girl. too. las
her troubles, caused by the some round of
Summer pleasures. She regains her nor
mal condition, however, by less strenuous
methods. Exercise No. 1, given above for
reducing the hips. Is also good for the
thin girl, but it should bo practiced not
more than Ave times each day, and then
slowly and deliberately. Hore Is another
exercise for developing the thighs: Lift
the leg out at the side as far as possible,
using first right and then left leg. and
allowing the movement-to come from the
Chest and arms can be developed by
bending over with arms outstretched.
Straighten gradually to an erect position
while lifting imaginary weights: that is.
put the same tension Into the arms that
would be employed If a weight were being
lifted from the floor. Increase the Imag
inary weights each day. The shoulder ex
ercises given for the stout girt may be
used also, minus dumb-bells. Slow move
ment, however, is eaaentlal, breathing
deeply with each motion of the arm.
Many baths are a luxury not to be in
dulged in by the thin girl. Sponge off the
chest and under the arms each morning
with water as it runs from the cold-water
faucet. A hot bath before retiring once
or twice a week not more Is sufficient
for cleanliness. On the night of the bath
the girl should drink a glass of warm, not
boiling, milk Just before going to sleep.
And now for restoring the ravages of sun
and wind. The exercises given, especially
those for deep breathing, will greatly
Improve the general appearance of the
skin by increasing circulation. Super,
flclal blemishes, such as freckles, sun
burn, etc., require external treatment.
No better face bleach can be found than
cucumber?. These should be applied to
the skin In compresses. One woman,
whose face becomes a mass of freckles as
soon as tho sun shines vory hot. sleeps
with thin slices of cucumber bound tightly
on face and arms. After several weeks of
this treatment her skin Is as soft and
pink as a baby's.
When fresh cucumbers cannot be ob
tained, the following proscription will
prove invaluable: 10 grams oxide zinc; 10
grams talcum powder; 60 grams powdered
castlle soap; S grams lanoline; 10 grams
tincture benzoin; 92 grams water; 10
grams glycerine. At night before going
to bed wash the face In very hot water
and apply the pomade. Wash In hot
water in the morning.
Many faces lose their beauty because
tho cheeks become pudgy or bloated look
ing and seem to crowd out the eyes. A
Parisian remedy for this trouble Is to
wash tho fnce each day In a lotion made
from one gallon of hot water in which
has been dissolved enough of the best
scented soap to make a thick suds.. Add
a teaspoonful of borax and a handful of
bran. Lather the face, allowing the soap
to remain Ave minutes. Wash off in sev
eral waters with a few drops of tincture
of benzoin in the last water.
If a girl has been out in the hot sun
without a hat, the hair Is apt to have had
some of Its natural oil dried out. This
dryness of the scalp may be largely over
come by a thorough brushing with good
stiff bristles night and morning.
If the hair has to be curled in this dry
condition, it is best to use patent curlers-,
rather than tongs. Before putting on
the curlers wet the hair with the follow
ing lotion: three-fourths of a uram of
quince seed, one-fourth of a pint of hot
water, one-fourth of an ounce of cologne,
three drops each of oil of cloves and lav
ender. Mix oil and cologne, and soak the
seeds over night In hot water. Then
strain and add to the cologne.
The majority of girls fail to make
themselves strong and beautiful because
they give up after two or three trials. No
matter what remedy is given, it is useless
unless persisted in. And the girl who
would rid herseli! of tho undesirable con
sequences of the summer's happy months
before winter's gay season opens, must
follow out the simple aids given above
with rcliclous dll!senc-
ther than this, and through the most
dangerous Indians West of Rocky Moun
tains. The man who led off so many
hundreds of men. women and children to
be exposed In those desert regions, is
the man who could curse us when he
passed our mission simply because we
But I will make no further comment
until I read Mr. Marshall's pamphlet,
when I may again take up this matter,
unless It seems best to do so sooner. Be
fore closing I will say that the clalrn
that Is often made that I am the flrst"
white child born In Oregon is not true In
fact. The following Is the record:
Alice C. Whitman, daughter of Dr. and
Mrs. Whitman. Born March 14. 1S3T.
Drowned In the Walla Walla River Juno
Jason Lee White, son of Dr. and Mrs.
Elijah White. Born July 22, 1S37.
Drowned August 23. 183S, In the Columbia
at the Lower Cascades.
.TnaonVl Pllllra arr rf "VTV o nr? ATr
Alanson Beers. Born September 15, 1S37.
Died when about Z years of age.
Eliza Spalding, daughter of Rev. and
Mrs. H. H. Spalding. Born November 15,
1S37. Is a survivor' pf the Whitman mas
sacre. Was married to Andrew Warren
Lives, at Chejan. Wash.
Lee. son of Rev. and Mrs. Jasott
Lee, nee Annie M. Pitman. Born June 6,
1S33. Lived ten days.
Cyrus H. Walker, son of Rev. and Mrs.
Elkanah Walker. Born December 7, 1SSS.
Lives at Albany, Or.
J. H. D. Gray, son of Hon. William H.
and Mrs. Gray. Born March 20, 13S3.
Died at Astoria.
From this It will be seen that Alice C.
Whitman was the flrst white child bora
west of the Rocky Mountains.
Mrs. Eliza S. Warren Is the oldest living
white woman, and I the oldest living
white man born west of the Rockies.
I believe In giving the Methodist mis
sionaries, of whom were Rev. Jason Leo
and three associates, who came In 1S34,
just as much credit for their part of tho
noble, self-sacrificing work as Is accorded'
to the missionaries of the A B. C. F. M.
I would add, if possible, to the luster
of that halo of " glory that shines around
all these immortal names rather than
seek to dim one jewel that shines in their
crown of rejoicing.
CYRUS H. WALKER.
Fault of the Average
THE average man who buys cheap
shirts wonders why the sleeves aro
always In wrong.
"That's the fault with cheapness," said
Duncan C. Coale. of Newark, to a re
porter of the Baltimore News. "In mak
ing up big lots of cheap shirts the bodies,
bunds and sleeves are made In separate
batches. One machine, for Instance, will
do nothing but turn out sleeves. They
are cut and sewed Independent of every
thing else, and afterward put on the shirt
just as they happen to come out. And
that's the reason your button always
comes around to the inside instead of
whore it ought to be. A man who buys
such a shirt ought to take It right back
to the seller as soon as he discovers the
fact. I'll warrant you that nine out of
tan shirts of that class have tl!e sleeves
In shirts It doesn't pay to look for
dheapness'. You can't get quality for a
song; and.a few dollars more the dozen
will be ecoiwmy In. tire long run, 'for .
you've got the material and finish in the
flrst place, and In the second placo tho
goods will stand laundering better, and
wilt always have a nice, fresh appearance..
There Is a great run this season on 'very
flimsy goods in this respect following tho
woman's shirtwaist and In designs deli
cacy is the point aimed at by the makers
tf the best brands. A misfortune for the
wearer Is that the attached cuff Is very
much in vogue. I have to wear two shirts
a day In my ordinary course of business,
because with the utmost care the cuff will
get soiled, and you cannot change the cuff
without changing the whole shirt. In the
course of a year the laundry bill Is con
siderableInconvenience of the thing
"What Is the most expensive shirt I
have ever seen? Well, a couple of yeara
ago I saw a fancy shirt made for a fel
low In Wyoming that must have been
worth several hundred dollars. It was of
the finest leather, elaborately decorated,
and the buttons were IS gold pieces, while
over the left pocket was a medallion made
of a JK gold piece with a diamond yet In
the center. It was a fad of a wealthy
cattie-owner of that state, where showy
trappings are as highly prized as monkey
dlnners at Newport. I don know that he
ever wore It. but If he did. all right. It
was his Bhlrt, not mine."
Tending Bar a Busy
"No," said the urbane and well-educated
bartender, shaking his head em
phatically, "our duties are not less ex
acting than they were when I left col
lege 15 years ago. It Is true, of course,
that what we term faney drinks are
no longer the vogue; we seldom have
a call for them unless a party of young
agriculturists from the back of beyond
happen to be doing the town. It is
the Introduction of the highball which
seemed to come In with golf that has
added to our labors. It makes no end
of washing, as a housewife would put
The highball demands a short glass
In which the liquor is measured, a tall
glass into which It is poured, and
usually a siphon or another Jbottle of
Borne kind of mineral water. And If
three guests, for example, seat them
selves at a table, that table is covered
with barroom paraphernalia until It
looks like a crowded show window.
"Why 13 the highball popular? Oh.
there's a notion abroad that if alcohol
is drowned in club soda or apollinarls
it doesn't intoxicate and eat into the
llnirfg of the stomach. But in my opin
ion It's about as broad as it is long.
Considerably more fluid is swallowed,
and it has to be worked off somehow.
As I've explained, however, the busi
ness la just as busy a business as It
ever was, and I am often tempted to
quit it and take up a lighter and more
genteel occupation."--Providence Jour
nal. 3Iothcr Has Nothing to Do (?T
Htvr York Preas.
Nothing to do but bake.
Nothing to do but stew.
Nothing- to do but make
The children's gawni and eew
Nothlng to do but mend.
Nothlnjc to do but patch.
Nothing to do but bend f
Over the cookie batch.
Nothing to do but show, 4
Little feet how to walk.
Nothing to do-you know.
But teaching the babe to talk.
Nothing to do but smile-
And klsa the pain away,
Xothlng to do the while"
Utile ones are at play.
Nothing to do but be
Sweejest and best that's found.
Only, only free -
When the sandman conies' around.
HORACE: S HTM OUR KEXSB