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About The Sunday Oregonian. (Portland, Ore.) 1881-current | View This Issue
Stone implements Used by the Oregon Indians
They Have Been Found in Abundance Near Portland.
J Their Uses. & &
'Sll&Si jHttsavss ! r -- '
NINETY-NINE years ago Lewis and
Clark, In their descent,.o the Colum- J
bla River, found many different
tribes of Indians, each subsisting: upon
such game as .the country produced, -with
the addition of the run of salmon taken
at the falls and the rapids along: the river
each year- It was noticeable that stone
implements were more commonly found
below the Cascades than in the Upper
Columbia region. Both sides of the river
at the Upper and Lower Cascades, Sau
vlc's Island and the Willamette Falls were
noted places for their annual gatherings.
The different kinds of rock material used
in forming these stone implements would
indicate that tribes from many parts of
the Pacific Coast migrated to and from
these fisheries, and from the broken im
plements found strewn broadcast on the
surface, compared with those thrown up
by the plow, and found in crumbling
banks along the streams, it would seem
that there was a continuel strife and
war for the mastery at the fisheries. It
was very common in the early S0'3 to
find In a pioneer dooryard, brought In. and
thrown down, many fine stone implements,
to be carried off by any curio collector or
scientist that wanted them. Those that
were plowed up look more ancient than
the dark greasy ones on the surface, and
the buried ones, aro almost always per
fect. This was on account of the secre
tiveness and selfishness of the Indian. If
the mortar or pestle was too largo to be
carried on a Journey, or if he did not in
tend to return, he would break the pestle
and punch a hole In the bottom of the
mortar, rendering It useless, and leave it;
otherwise he would bury it for future
wants on return.
Below the Oregon City Falls on the
"Willamette, where the ' banks are being
gradually undermined and arc falling
away into the river's edge, may be found
even today arrow points and stone- work
ings from the ancient graveyard. Sau
vie's Island was another rendezvous or
place whero they held their big potlatchcs
and conventional dance?. The early p!o
neers found many places strewn with
pkulls and bones of the Indians, together
with largo quantities of stone implements.
Captain Clark on visiting the Multnomah
tribe, somewhere near the present site of
the town of Milwaukle, was Informed by
an old Indian, . who brought forward an
Indian woman whose face was covered
with smallpox pits, that some 50 years
before a disease had been contracted that
killed them off by the thousands, almost
depopulating .the tribe of Multnomah.
Hence It Is to be inferred that more In
dians died by pestilence than by warfare.
The location or tnls island at the Junc
tion of the two rivers, with its many lakes
filled with wapatoes, the greatest number
of water fowl and other game in abun
dance, made it an asylum of refuge for
all tribes and explorers. A very large
Indian god. carved out of basaltic ston
and -weighing very nearly a ton. was
found on Oak Island, and remained there
until 6ome 35 years ago. when an ig
norant tenant, not knowing or caring
about its value, needed some stone to
build a chimney and broke it to pieces,
thereby destroying one of the largest and
grandest pieces of stonework that Oregon
ever produced. The Indians worshiped
it. imploring it for rain or dry weather;
for food, or success in Journeying to tne
happy hunting grounds.
Each and every stone implement or
carving had its use. Mortars were for
grinding food, the stone gods for religious
worship, the round stone balls (shown In
the Illustration) for gambling. The atone
hammer was for breaking bark, as bark
Is always preferred by Indians as fire
wood. It blows up better and holds its
heat longer. The round rocks with holes
through the middle were arrow targets;
the flat rocks with holes near the edge
were net-sinkers. The instrument of tor
ture was used by tying- the captive or
bad doctor unable to cure his patient,' to
a tree and Jabbing out his eyes. The
round notch in the stone was to prevent
the disfigurement of the nose. The carv
ing of eagle heads, turtle heads, squirrel
heads, etc, were matters of fancy on
some work, for ornament or to te he he"
about. The large gambling ball weighs
93 pounds, and is perfectly spherical. The
owner, being a large powerful Indian of
his tribe, would be pitted against a sim
ilar Indian of another tribe. The wager
was made by each tribe putting up everything-
they had outside the clothes on
their backs, consisting of horses, blan
kets, skins, dogs, camp fixtures, etc.
Holes were made In the ground at the
proper distance, and the game was to roll
each by turn the stone balls for the
holes. The Indian scoring the greatest
number of balls in the holes won. the win
ning side carrying off everything in great
glee and eclat, while tho losers were sul
len, sour, broke and hungry.
Indian John, or John Casino, described
the game In his own way, as follows:
"Kan-Itch kla-bop copa lllahe let yock
wa. Nan-Itch kla-hop copa lllahe yah
wa. Hy-u Slwashes. hy-u cullin, hy-u
klns. hy-u Jetas lnati yock-wa. Hy-u
Slwashes, hy-u cultln, ny-u ekius. ny-u
ictas lnati yah-wa.
"Spose you comtux hy-as skookum
klosh-Slwash wake me-sah-chia yock-wa.
Sdost tou comtux lnati yah-wa hy-as
; skookum hy-as klosh wake roe-sah-chle.
"Hy-as skookum tlllicutn raamook okok
, stone ict kla-hop copa lllaae Hy-as akoo
j hum inatl Slwash maxnook okok Stone
' moxt, kla-hop copa illahe. lnati tlllicuma
hy-as yi yi. to he hee. Ict kla-hop tllll
cums hy-as sullox, hy-as poor, hy-as olo."
The Btonehead, reflecting the facial ex
pression of the baboon, with the eyes.
Hps and mouth of the monkey tribe, is
possibly evidence that our North Amer
ican Indians are descendants of Oriental
inhabitants, coming to this Continent at
a very early date In their canoes, by way
of the Aleutian Islands, and engraving In
memorial stone data of ancient origin.
At many places on Sauvle's Island and
along the river bank, clam beds may now
be found, covered in sand by the over
flows, and many ancient shell beds from
2 to 12 inches deep, containing arrow
points and other stone workings
It is interesting to know the Indian
process of manufacturing arrow points,
and why so many are found broken.
They procured obsidian rock or any kind
of rock material that they can spall or
break in sharp and fiat p'leces. selecting
such bits or pieces as -will require least
shaping. They have two sticks of bone,
usually made from deer legs, about clx
inches long, and placing the flat, flinty
piece of rock between the two bones, they
hold it firmly with one hand and with the
other grip the outer ends of the sticks,
and by prying" up and down they spall off
bits of stone, each time going round -and
I round until it assumes the required shape.
I Many times, however. It Is broken
I through the middle, and thrown away
while another takes its place. Thus the
perfect ones and the broken ones may be
Many of the islands In the Columbia and
Willamette Rivers contain ancient clam-
bakinc beds that are found rich with In
dian curios when uncovered. One of these
beds may be seen on the west side of
the Vancouver Railway, Just after it
crosses the first lagoon, it having been
exposed. It shows the piles of shells
from 2 to 12 inches thicK. ana was vi
dentlv a dace of camping and a burial
rround many long years before tho Lewis
and Ularii exploration to me urt-KVu coun
try. DR. DAV. RAFFETY.
NEW YEAR FOR THE SCOTCH SCHOOLBOY
Not Christmas, But the First Day of the Year Is the Time for Rejoicing.
Painless Spanking. -Father
(cutting the whip smartly
through the air) See. Tommy, how I
make the horse go faster without strik
ing him at all?
Tommy Papa, why don't you spank us
children that way?
The widower whose children watch him
closely is as ire as a bird compared with
the bachelor who Uvea with m nW maid
Irx X-tUVJ. siow-going pari ul stuuuuu,
which Is still known as Galloway,
Ntjw Year's Is considered the most
Important holiday of all the- yer. .
Before reading- of the manner in
which the Scottish schoolboy cele
brates it, the American youth woald
do well to look on his map and find
among- tho numerous towns and vil
lages situated on the bay and es
tuaries of the Solway Firth, oue which
is called Monniepool.
There is an obscure tradition con
nected with the name which was first
given- to the famous trout stream in
tho viclnltyof which Sir Walt-ar Scott
laid the scenes of his novel, 'Guy
Mannering-," and the caves" and ruined
castles which he mentioned in thi3
book may be seen today by .ho in
There is scarcely a hou3C in Mon-
niepool that was not built centuries
ago and that is not occupied by the de
scendents of tho original owner. These
anelent houses are constructed of
great blocks of stone, laid together
"dry." or without mortar. Tho roads
and fences may also be said to speak
of the solidity of the "Golvidlan" m'nd,
being- of the same lasting- material.
These roads, as 13 well known, are a
perpetual monument to one of Scot
land's sons McAdain whose name is
world-renowned, and who was born
and reared in -the Northern part of
Not in that country, as In ours, 13
Christmas looked upon as a time for
merrymaking and giving- of gifts, and
Santa Claus Is an unknown person
ality to the little ones of Galloway,
but the coming of "Nevday" Is the
talk of the whole community as Win
ter advances. Sometimes . it is two
weeks "this side" or prior to New
Year's that the school children begin
the round of homely pleasures which
mark the season.
This opening of the holiday time
with them usually takes the form of a
surprise to their teacher. The unrest
which has been noticeable by him for
a number of days, finally culminates
in the absence of "several on a certain
afternoon. If the teacher is forgetful
of dates, he may be planning- a sound
thrashing- for the- truants on their re
turn. As tho afternoon wears on,, the
latch of the inner porch clicks and
tho door swings slowly and myster
iouslv ODen. admitting: a huge "bubbly
Jock", (gobbler), who struts into the
After the laughter which his en
trance provokes dies down a little, a
shower of parcels, great ana smaii
follow through the open door. Occa
sionally one or two are shoved in and
the teacher counts on something
breakable; perhaps a vaso for "Mis-,
thress" or a doll for the "wean," for
he understands, of course, that this is
all for his benefit, and that New Year's
day is near.
The bundles offend the gobbler, who
struts and gobbles and pulls at tho
strap which is held by an unseen
hand, whose owner keeps out of sight
In the entry, and whom the teacher
ignores, understanding, too, that thl3
is part of the game of surprise.
Sometimes one of the truant youths
appears in fantastic dress and makes
a presentation speech. In which the
"meester" and. his wife are extolledj
as worthy of iar better girts, ana it
there are any bairns, they also come
In for their share of praise, and the
presents for each one specified.
"An here's a pair o bonny bin
mittles for little Annie, the very color
of her een. Mithers been knitting
them these twa months agone.
If the lad reeling oft the presenta
tion sneech is not rigged up in soma
supposedly disguising character, he is
blushing and embarrassed and blun
ders over hl3 words; his schoolmates,
however, drink in his stuttered sen
tences with open-mouthed admiration
and a chuckle of satisfaction Is heard
even from the porch, where croucnes
the owner of the hand holding tho
The teacher responds heartily to tne
speech and warmly thanks his schol
ars for their substantial gifts, dwell
ing at length upon Che good points
of the "bubblyjock." which he remarks
is "the finest a man e're picked a wing
of. which is bringing the future into
the present with a vengeance, with
the turkey strutting, gobbling and
dragging the great, strong wings, al
luded to, in challenge to some in
At the end of his -speech, a Scottish
schoolmaster invariahly tells the tale
of "The Carter and the Cheese," and
finishes the oft-recurring ceremony by
announcing that school is dismissed
until after New Years-
As a rule, the children stand very
much in awe of their teacher, but tne
gifts and speeches have a magic effect
on their ordinary behavior, for in tne
battle of snowballs that Immediately
follows the close of school, the "mee
ster" and his numerous and willing
volunteers are set upon and pelted un
mercifully and. laden as they are with
the teacher's gifts, cannot punish their
The snorts Indulged in at that sea
son h-rthe young men of the country
are enqally harmless, comprising
coasting, skating and choosing follow
ers for a CTeat battle of snowballs In
which the leaders of the two opposing
sides fancy themselves, and are Ilk
ened by their adherents to the great
historical chieftains of tneir country.
Such games and pranks are indulged
in almost without cessation save when
they cat, sleep and pay "duty visits"
to old and feeble relatives in adja
Jacent towns, until New Year's eve,
which throughout tho length and
breadth of the land is known ,as "Hog
many." C. I. RAVN.
Plea for the "Dago.'f
New York: Times.
When the poor benighted "dago" gets his dag
ger and his gun.
And proceeds to "do" a member of bis race.
When with base alloy he tampers with your
Uncle Sammya "mon,"
And he "shoves the queer" with cunning and
When his rude, untutored spirit chafes beneath
the lawful yoke
Whato'cr his mind suggests he thinks he'lt do
Then a wild. Insistent clamor echoes from, ths
And it's "Back to 'sunny Italy with yout"
Wherever there Is work to do, on track or la
To build the road or rear the towering wall,
To get the labor finished, right on time, with
out a hltob.
Treat the "dago" to be kingpin of them, allt
Then It's " 'Dago,' get & move on get your
shovel and your pick: ,
He's the man that has to bear tho brunt of
And he'll go to work in sun or snow -without
a single kick.
Just to wrest his scanty living from the soil.
Oh, the "dago" Is a terror when he's cooped
up in a town.
For he kceDS the wires busy night and day;
Sure, he doesn't care a- snapper lor the" law's
And the "cop" In "Ginny-town" deserves
But you get tho "glnny" settled in a quiet
Far away from many others of .his dan.
Ton examine him -quite careful, without .mal
ice, face to face.
And you'll find him much like- any other
If you become & nun, dear,
A friar I will be;
In any cell you run. dear.
Pray look behind for me.
The rosea all turn pale, too;
The doves all take the veil, .too;
The blind will see the show;
"What! you become a nun. my dear
I'll not believe it no!
If you become a nun, dear.
The bishop Love will 'be.
The Cupids every one, dear,
"Will chant. "We. trust in thee!" .
The Incense will go sighing.
The candles fall a-dylng.
The water turn to wine.
-What? you go take the vows ray dear
Sou may but they'll be mine.