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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Aug. 21, 1922)
THE. MORXIXG OREGOXIAX,' MONDAY, AUGUST. 21, 1922
Published by The Oregonian Pub. Co.,
135 Sixth Street, Portland, Oregon.
C A. JIORBBX, E. B. PIPER,
- Manager. Editor.
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A SUMMONS TO HALT OX THE WAY
In laying-, before congress the
facts of the coal and railroad
strikes and in making recommend
ations to deal with those facts
President Harding- centered atten
tlon without swerving- on the one
duty with which he is charged
protection of the rights and wel
fare of the people and mainte
nance of the authority of the gov
ernment as a means to that end
He was rigidly impartial in his
distribution of blame for the pres
ent crisis between employers and
workmen. He acknowledged the
right of employers and employes
.alike to adjust their relations, and
he, in the same breath, condemned
"warfare on unions of labor" and
striving of "labor extremists" for
"class domination," but he asserted
that these rights must be exercised
"within the law," and that "the
first obligation and the first alle
giance of every citizen high or
low, is to his government, and to
hold that government to be the just
and unchallenged sponsor for pub
lic welfare and the liberty, secur
ity and rights of all its citizens."
He expressed his resolution "to use
all the powers of government to
maintain transportation and sus
tain the right of men to work.
Those thoughts run through his
entire recital of the events of the
last few troubled months, and de
nial of those principles, at times
by one, at other times by the other
party, at yet other times by both
parties, explains tha failure of his
unremitting efforts to. end the
strikes by agreement between 'the
direct parties. When he made the
first overtures for settlement of the
coal strike "the dominant groups
among the operators were insistent
on having district agreements; the
dominant mineworkers were de
manding a nation-wide settlement."
When he brought operators and
miners into conference on July 1
"the conference did not develop
even a nope. w nen ar. naming
proposed arbitration and a com
mission of inquiry into the facts.
all agreed to the commission, but
the miners and a considerable mi
nority of the bituminous operators
rejected arbitration. When he
called on both parties to resume
production under government pro
tection of their lawful rights "little
or no production followed."
This was the truth, notwithstand
ing a mass of information direct
from the source "governors of
various states, district leaders, hun
dreds of wives of workmen" that
operators and miners were eager to
resume production. The reason
for this contradiction between de
sire and action is found in the
statement of district leaders that
"they the miners were not per
mitted" to return to their jobs.
This state of affairs led the presi
dent to declare the "simple but
significant truth" to be that "the
country is at the mercy of the Uni
We know by what means this
ominous condition has -been
brought about by the Herrin mas
sacre, by pitched battles in which
mobs of strikers have attacked
working mines, by raidB in which
workers have been driven out by
insult and contumely heaped on
"scabs," who are simply those who
exercise "the right of men to work,"
but wio for so doing are made so
cial outcasts, the maiming, even
killing, of whom is held not crime,
but .a meritorious ac by the ex
tremists who control many labor
Denial by the railroad strike of
the peoeple's right to transporta
tion and of "the right of men to
work" is an even more flagrant ex
hibition of contempt for both gen
eral 'and personal rights, for in that
case the government has estab
lished, an agency to determine just
terms of employment, the fairness
of which cannot be questioned by
unbiased minds, and there is no
overproduction, and under-employ-ment
such as complicates the coal
settlement. The president sweeps
aside all the fictions by which the
strike is justified when he de
scribes it as "a strike against a
wage decision made by the rail
road labor board," but he distrib
utes Warns impartially between ex
ecutives and strikers. He arraigns
the former for a. parallel offense"
when he says that "a number of
decisions of this board had been
Ignored by the carriers," but he re
jects the strikers' theory that three
wrongs make a right by saying that
"they had a remedy without seek
ing to paralyze interstate com
merce." After vain attempts at
mediation for settlement "out of
court" the president proposed re
turn to the method provided by law
when he, recommended that work
be resumed 'under the labor board's
decision and that the question of
seniority be referred to the board
for decision, but again each party
Insisted' on a settlement in its own
way of the latter question, while
the strikers phrased their accept
ance of the board's authority in
terms which made it a rejection.
The net result is that executives
and strikers assume the right to
seek an agreement in their own
way, as though the strike were a
private quarrel with which the pub
lic had no concern, and the strikers j
and their friends carry that as-f
sumption to the extreme by beat
ing, bombing and killing workers,
by inducing trainmen to abandon
trains in the desert, tosTnflict heavy
loss on fruitgrowers, to threaten
immeasurable loss to farmers
after harvest, and to confront many
states with the threat of a fuel
famine. Though i less successful
than the miners, they seek to have
the nation at their mercy. In so
doing they ignore tfie responsibil
ity which, the president says, rests
on organizations of employers and
workmen alike, and they attempt
to destroy that principle, "that all
men have . unquestioned rights to
lawful pursuits, to work and to
live and to choose .their own lawful
ways to happiness," which the pres
ident pronounces "fundamental to
all freedom." The consequence of
that denial- if put in practice, is
forcibly stated by Jvlr. Harding in
these words: "
If free men cannot toil according to
their own lawful choosing, all our consti
tutional guaranties born of democracy
are surrendered to mobocracy, and the
freedom of a hundred millions is surren
dered to the small minority which would
have no law.
Such is the inevitable conse
quence of the theory on which ac
tion has been based by those rail
road executives and those railroad
employes who have flouted the au
thority of the government, by those
coal operators and by the miners'
union leaders who rejected the
president's" proposals. That the
ory is that the right of each class
is superior to that of all the peo
ple, upon whom each depends for
maintenance of its rights, and that
each class may maintain its pre
tended rights by its own chosen
means, in defiance of the govern
ment, though the people perish and
those who uphold this destructive
theory perish with them. Most out
spoken in advancing this new the
ory are-the extreme spokesmen of
union labor, who openly place alle
giance of workmen to their class
above allegiance to their govern
ment, but no less dangerous are
those employers who, though more
politic and, therefore, less outspo
ken, act on the belief that govern
ment exists for their behoof, that
they need obey -only when it suits
them, and that the right to organ
ize does not extend to tVjeir em
ployes. The president's address is
summons to both elements to
stop and oonsider whither they are
traveling, it is a summons to con
gress to bar their further progress
in that direction, and to the peo
ple o inspire congress with the
courage necessary to wise action,
for the way the contending parties
have been traveling leads to an
LITERACY TEST FOR VOTERS.
Under the "new, statute giving
force to the constitutional amend
ment adopted at the last general
election prescribing a literacy test
for voters New York election offi
cials will have a new task imposed
on them. New voters may be re
quired to draw at randoa from a
box kept for that purpose a slip
on which is printed a passage of
fifty words from the state consti
tution, and read it in a manner in
telligible to the election inspector.
The voter also may be required, at
the option of the board, to write
ten of the words in English. An
alternative which is open to the
voter, provided the electionInspec
tor consents, is the presentation of
a certificate of literacy, issued by
the state department of education
under the direction of the state
board of regents. The latter is based
on an examination said to have
been devised with considerable ped
agogical skill, with a view to deter
mining the candidate's understand-
ng, within reasonable bounds, of
the American system of govern5
ment and of the general duties of
It goes almost without saying
that the latter is the better method
of the two. Examinations conducted
in the presence of election boards
are likely to be perfunctgry at best,
and, besides, the law does not re
quire more than that the selection
from .the constitution shall be read
by the candidate in such a manner
s that the examining officer shall
nderstand him. Nothing is said as
to the understanding by the can
didate of the matter he is reading.
In this respect the test seems as
great a . farce as that which used
be imposed by some courts on
candidates for citizenship. Not as
much as might be desired is accom
plished by the mere imposition of
the task of reading, parrot-fashion.
of what to the applicant, after all.
may be but a meaningless .jumble
Still, a beginning hasbeen made,
start on the road toward the uni
versal requirement that every voter
shall comprehend at least the fun
damentals of the American system.
One of these fundamentals, which
distinguishes ours from some oth
ers, is orderly progress, as distin
guished from the methods of the
anarchist and bomb-thrower, and it
includes mutual acceptance of ad-
erse verdicts and acquiescence in
the will of the majority. The pros
pective Yter who does not assent
to this principle ought to be re
jected, whether'or not he is illiter
AUSTRIA'S PITIFn, PLIGHT.
Bankruptcy and seemingly Im
pending dissolution of Austria are
due, in the first instance, to the
blindness of the peace conference
to the necessity of putting this
sadly shrunken state in a position
to stand alone, to the neglect of
the powers to recognize the fact
that, though the former Hapsburg
dominions had been politically di
vided, its long existence as a whole
made It an economic unit, the parts
of .which depended on one another
for the means of life. To start this
fragment of an empire in life with
huge, undefined debt in addition
to that of the war and of pre-war
days, with a government construct
ed for three or four times its popu
lation, with fragments of railroads,
cut off from its supply of fuel, raw
materials and essential products by
ostile neighbors, cut' off from the
sea also this was the greatest act
f folly of which men pretending to
be statesmen could be guilty.
The paltry excuse is made that
the several parts of the old empire
already had established their inde
pendence, and that great allies had
no right to limit their -sovereignty
by requiring that they continue
commercial intercourse as neigh
bors. This is self-determination
carried to the verge of insanity.
The allies wqn Independence for
those stats by destroying the mill
tary power of the Hapsburgs. That
fact gave them the right to insure
that the boon should not be abused.
to - the further disorganization of
The Austrian people must, how
ever, share the guilt. They have
shown no such capacity to cope
with and overcome misfortune as
characterizes a virile nation. They
nave been at the same time spena
thrifts and beggars, doing little to
help themselves. In contrast with
them the Czechs and Slovaks, after
three centuries of subjection, have
organized a state which has revived
industry, balanced its budget, stab
ilized its rmrrehcy and finally has
maae loans xo-tne nauiirupi neign
bor which formerly oppressed it.
Austria seems to need most a sort
of paternal, benevolent despot who
would teach it to live within its
diminished means, would make its
horde of petty officiate work, would
instil manly self-reliance in its peer
pie and would teach them how to
maintain a democratic government.-!
It needs a Leonard Wood.
A PARTY WITHOPT LEADERS OR
AX ISSITE. '
Desire to discredit the republican
party in the eyes of the people Is
not the sole motive of democrats
in calling attention to the troubles
of that party id governing the coun
try; a motive equally strong is de
sire to turn attention from the in
capacity of their own party to do as
well. That incapacity is shown by
the lack of leaders, organizers and
programme that is the subject of
comment in Franklin K. Lane's let
ters and in Mar Sullivan's corn-
I ment thereon.
When the democratic party re
pels a man like Hoover, on whom it
had set its hopes, and is the subject
of caustic criticism from a man like
Lane, who remained faithful to it
till death, there is something rad
ically wrong with it. Perhaps that
something is the fact that its old
issues are obsolete and that in its
search for new ones as vote-getters
it has adopted what Lane calls
slushy sentimentalism, yet has not
"men who can concretize feeling
into policy." In listing men who
might be called to a conference on
the future of the party Lane began
with a highly respected former col
lege president whose age verges on
90 and followed with another. He
omitted another man of the same
kind who recently retired from the
presidency and all but one member
of the Wilson cabinet, and the ex
ception was the man who disagreed
fundamentally with Wilson on the
cardinal question of foreign policy
on which Wilson appealed to the
people. Several of the names that
he omitted stand for issues that are
dead Bryan forifree silver, anti
imperialism and, with Baker and
Daniels, for pacifism; McAdoo for
government ownership of railroads
and we cannot discover any out
standing new issue that thet men
whom he would include stand for.
Democracy stands in the public
eye as a party without leaders and
without an issue, and as the party
that miserably failed in the greatest
emergency and the greatest oppor
tunity that, any party since the civil
war has been called upon to meet.
It failed,- too, through claiming
all the ability, and through aggran
dizing to itself all the responsibil
ity and all the credit for possible
success in making war- and peace.
It failed through an excess of par
tisanship which nothing but suc
cess could have justified. Its one
present sign of wisdom is its effort
to turn public attention from that
CITIES THAT ARE NO MORE.
There is ever a quickening of the
thought-currents, a stimulus to
fancy, when the reader chances on
such stories as that of the ancient
city of Colombia, whose ruins have
been discovered by scientists a
city so long stilled, so long der
serted, that neither history ntr tra
dition has any record of the people
that once bartered in its markets
and dwelt in its homes. The mys
tery that intrigues us is one with
the . magic of Coleridge's dream
In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
v A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran.
Through caverns measureless to man,
Down to a sunless sea.
Tet in truth we- are not far dis
tant in time from an actual Indian
civilization, from Arzona and Mex
co southward,, that was flourishing
when Cortez and Pizarro came, and
that" was crumbled stone and heated
ash when they departed. So it is
that astonishment does, not prop
erly follow' the finding in Colombia
of ruins that testify to a high de
gree of culture, both artistic and
mechanical. The Aztecs in Mexico,
the Incas in Peru, alike were far
from being brute savages and
were, indeed, far happier and more
prosperous, and more enlightened
than most of the peasantry 'of
Europe in the time of the con
quistadors. Extirpation was the
policy that. Inspired by lust for
gold, all but exterminated these
peoples and debauched the re
mainder, leaving in their stead a
swarm of pitiful and benighted
A civilization even older than
that of the Incas had prevailed in
Peru, and declined without leaving
a clew to the identity of Its creators.
High in the Andes are the ruins of
a great city, ruins that were there
when the Spaniard came, and that
the Incas and their people were
equally puzzled to account for. The
exact location of the ancient; center
of a perished culture was the
Titicaca plateau, which today
would not produce crops sufficient
to feed the tens of thousands, per
haps millions, who once made their
home there. Singularly enough the
gigantic ruins of the town do not
suffice, it ,is said, to give an ade
quate conception of its original
vastitude for the reason that
much of it was built underground.
Its masonry is tremendous and
skillfully contrived, the craftsman
ship rivaling the best .of today.
The vanished artisans had carved
and moved great monoliths, some
to the weight of 170 tons. Of the
megalith ic relics Sir Clements Rob
ert Markham, in his book, "The
Incas of Peru," said?
This, then. Is the mystery. A vast city
containing palace, temple. Judgment Jiarl,
or whatever fancy may reconstruct
among the ruins, with statues, elaborate
ly carved stones and many triumphs of
the masonic art, was built in a region
where corn will not ripen, and which
could not possibly support a dense popu
lation. It is quite certain that, in the
time of the Incas, the people were abso
lutely Ignorant of the origin and history
of these edifices. They were to them,
as they are to us, mysterious ruins.
As for the Peruvians and the
Inca culture, so thoroughly and
1 terribly effaced by Spanish con-
I auest. the record is very clear. For
not. every Spaniard had the blood
thirst, and not every Spaniard re
garded these native South Ameri
cans the inevitable serfs of his race.
There were many who labored for
them, who strove to record their
history and preserve their culture.
and who wept when the monstrous
cruelty of a countryman caused the
murder of the last of the Incas.
The affection and " enterprise of
these kept the record. The color
of the Peruvians was light, several
shades lighter than that of their
modern descendants, "the forehead
high, the nose slightly aquiline, the
chin and mouth firm, the whole
face majestic, refined and intellec
tual." They had a reliable calen
dar, a legitimate and efficient gov
ernment, a system of accounting
and of record keeping, sjulled poets
and dramatists, and though a war
like people they knew and prac
ticed the arts and progress of peace.
It is said of them, with, authority,
that they had no vice save drunken
So lost in antiquity-was the origin
of the Peruvian culture that their
two chief domesticated animals, the
llama and the alpaca, from which
they obtained fleeces for their tex
tiles and flesh for their tables and
sacrificial feasts to the sun, had no
wild prototypes. Like our cattle,
these had been domesticated long
centuries before, surviving the orig
inal stock, and from this alone it
may be seen that the culture of the
Incas was comparable to that of
northern Africa before the ascend
ancy of the Caucasian race. Such
i. people, in brief, were the Peru
vian when Spain sought out their
erold. and blistered and burned
them at the stake, and corrupted
their daughters, and slew their
kings to the last prince.
It is generally believed, as an old
tale,, that the taint of human sac
rifice attached to this elder culture, j
and that, on the whole, the policy
of extirpation while cruel was to
some extent justified by" such mon
strous rites. But in the actual
record this does not appear, save
as an accusation without founda
tion, nor does the concept of the
Peruvian character, so accurately
preserved, justify the suspicion.
Thus while one Spanish historian.
Polo de Ondegardo, writing in 1554,
declared that he witnessed the sac
rifice of 200 boys in tribute to the
sun-god, another and a more" com
petent historian denied the charge.
This was Bias Valera, the mestizo
son of a conquistador and a Peru
vian court lady, who cited in an
cient law against human sacrifice
and who interpreted the symbolism
of the laws governing religious
trilstfte." It is true that the law
spoke of "huahuas," or children,
and of "yuyacs," or adults, with
sacrificial application,, yet these
terms were merely symbolized by
lambs and by full-grown llamas.
Doubtless the finest tribute, and
the most sincere, ever paid to the
Peruvian people was that oontained
in the preamble to the last will and
testament of Mancio Serra de
Leguisamo, the sole surviving offi
cer of the conquistadors, wno
penned his penitence in 1589. Ad
dressed to King Don Felipe, the
preamble pleaded for leniency and
justice toward the Peruvian people
recited their manifold merits, arid
begged both of its author's king
and of God forgiveness for the part
Mancio had borne in that bitter
rule. He wrote
They were so free from the committal
of. crimes or excesses, as well men as
women, that the Indian who had 100,000
pesos worth of gold and silver in his
house, left it open merely by placing
a stick across the door, as ' a sign that
its master was out. The Incas gov
erned them in such Avise that through
out them (their lands; there was not
a thief, nor a vicious man, nor an adult
eress, nor was a bad women .admitted
among them, nor were there immoral
people. , So that when they found we had
thieves amongst us, and men who sought
to make their daughters commit sin.
they despised u?. But now they have
come to such a pass, in offense of God,
owing to the bad example that we have
set them in all things, that these na
tives from' doing no evil, have changed
into people who now do no good or very
After these centuries it is not too
late to voice a trust that the last
of the conquistadors, his sins heavy
upon him but his heart filled with
penitence, found that forgiveness he
besought of heaven. "With this,"
he wrote, "I do what I can to dis
charge my conscience ... I
beseech your 'Majesty to have pity
on them, and God to have pity on
The charge that the "church is
too effeminate" is as old as time.
There probably is nothing in the
world, however, to prevent the
brethren from taking over some of
the burdens that they have been
glad enough to leave to" the sisters
in the past. .
The plan of "all the rides you
want for a dollar a week" is to be
tried on a California trolley line
to save it from suspension. Think
what a restaurant could do with
that kind of a meal ticket.
There is possibility the Russian
grain crop will be large enough to
feed the Russian people this win
ter. Still, the Russians will need
to provide a system of distribution
to make the crop effective.
Four more business agents in
Chicago have been found guilty of
grafting o stop labor troubles.
That makes forty. The old-time
walking delegate was a mere tyro.
It is safe to say that if commu
nication with Mars were established
tomorrow the first question some
people would want answered would
be whether it was dry or wet.
With Labor day in two weeks the
season is drawing to a close, and
the coming, fortnight will be stren
uous for those who would catch up
onf delayed recreation.
If there were to be a hundred
Miss -Portlands the number could
not do justice to Oregon beauty.
It Is just now being impressed
on -us that the vacation days are
the shortest days of the year.
Hollywood must have become
jealous at the publicity the McCor
micks were getting..
Miss Seattle has been chosen-
but wait for Miss Portland.
Note the feel of hop picking and
fair time in the air?
This is to be a sort of informal
Oregon peach week.
The Listening Post.
By DeWltt Harry.
LORD SHAW, who sits on the
bench iri the highest court in
Great Britain and who was a recent
visitor to Portland, had some inter
esting things to say about Scottish
juries. The British. judge was com
menting on' jury disagreements In
this country and said that this fail
ure of justice was unknown in Scot
land. While not wanting to be
placed in the light of criticising the
jury system as in vogue" in this
country. Lord Shaw said there were
unquestionably many ways to re
form this method of trial. He does
not favor doing away with juries
and a resort to the decision of three
judges, as has been advocated, for
in this method he sees the loss of a
great deal of personal liberty.
The Scotch jury system was orig
inated about a century ago and has
worked admirably under all condi
tions. Scottish juries are composed
of 15 members in criminal cases and
of 12 in civil trials, and in each
majority vote is sufficient even in
capital cases. In civil cases If the
fjury of 12 does not agree the judge
gives it. three hours and then a ma
jority verdict Is sufficient.
I practiced before the Scottish
bar for 40' years," said this legal
leader, "and I never yet heard of a
case wherein juries were equally di
vided in civil cases. With us m
Scotland, if one obstinate man holds
out it doesn't count a straw. The
majority, is sufficient for justice
'Another thing with us in Great
Britain: No reference can be made
to what goes on inside the jury
booth during or after the trial. In
one case recently something v was
given out and there, was a frightful
uproar about it. Also our system of
selecting juries is much simpler.
The prospective jurymen are not
asked all sorts of questions about
their opinions or about the case.
There are only three general chal
lenges, and the jury is often se
lected in five minutes. The jurors
are not expected to have a mental
blank on matters that all the pub
lic knows about."
Lord Shaw made his way from
poverty to leadership in the British
bar. He was a friend and neighbor
of Andrew Carnegie in their native
Scotland. For many years he was
lord advocate of Scotland.
- . '
FROM A POET OF THE OLD
To the Exponents of the Ken, .
The words you UBe, to me, are' new and
Their weaving comes not easy to my
I blame you not at all for seeking
But when the old sods speak I under
stand. (And I can only use the tongue I know.
You, speaking yours, must know that
this is so).
i Il's hard to
find the things I
Not that you're wrong.
or play a use-
But simply that I cannot see your way
Being- born with a love of the old- gods
in my heart.
(And though, the loves I bear be low or
To all the things I love I must toe
It is . not that you fail or that success
Marks me for surer goal as time
Not that your gods than mine are more
or less s
Just thafl'vs different stars across
(And I, no matter where or how I fend,
Must follow my own stars unto the end).
JOSJSfH A.NUHKW UAliAHAD
"The Colorado canyon, she is
grand sight; Rocky mountains is
beautiful, but too big; Niagara falls,
she is powerful, but the Columbia
highway is wha.t you call scenery
a la carte."
Thus reads a unique letter of ap
preciafion received by Frank Ira
White of the chamber of commerce
from a young Japanese student he
sent Over the highway while the
student was on a visit to Portland
during a tour of the United States.
Mr. White put the tourist on a
highway touring car, but at Cascade
locks the visitor saw a steamer
Portiandrbound passing through the
locks and lost no time in paying off
his driver and getting aboard.
This is in two acts The first act
was played about two weeks ago in
the savings department of a Port
land bank. A yon-ng man bustled up
to the wicket and after announcing
his mission with a voluminous smile
and receiving the congratulations
of the teller opened an account as
trustee for Donald Blank.
The young man reappeared o.n
Saturday. He went to the same
teller and asked to have a slight
change made in the account he had
opened a short time -before. He
wanted it in the name of Dorothy
instead of Donald.
Mayor Hurd of Seaside is contem
plating the establishment of a curio
factory, to give employment to the
population during the winter
months. At the present time it is
necessary to Import most of the
sea-shells and novelties sold there.
For five 'months of the year the
residents of the little town are
busy selling to and caring fpr their
guests and for two more in making
repairs and getting- ready, which
leaves ihem five months of leisure,
time that could "be well employed.
CM ON CHARLES GET BUST
A YEN. v ' ,
The pomes that come (rora Charles
Olsen s pen
Are Jike blossoms sweet from - a
- woodland glen.
They lighten the burdens of the
And help you to sleep when you hit
. - the hay.
w . .
A parson in Klickitat county onoe
prefaced his sermon with: "My
friends, let us say a few words be
fore we begin."
This is about equal to the Blngen-on-the-Columbia
man who took a
short nap before he went to sleep.
Contrasting the lithe, snuggly
youngster cuddled close in the em
brace of the dance with the stout
gray-haired woman, jiggling about
on the floor, vainly trying to show
class to her convolutions, we nat
urally come to the conclusion that
one of them is getting a great kick
out of it but what pleasure or thrill
does the other have?
She sleeps beneath the daisies fair,
In peace she's resting now;
Oh, there's always something doing
.When a freight train meets a kow.
Those Who Come and Go.
Tales of Folks at the Hotels.
The popularity of the corset,
which waned 'fort a time among
American women, is'coming back to
normal, declared ,B.' F. Wellington
of San Francisco, wholesale dealer
in corsets, brassieres and other
women's furnishings, who is in
Portland on business. "Manufactur
ers and dealers, wholesale and retail-
didn't fear a minute that cor
sets were 'going out' for good; they
knew the tide would turn and
women would come back to them,"
he said. Mr. Wellington declares
that he can remember when a simi
lar corsetless fad swept the country
about 15 years ago, and women of
all builds insisted they were inde
pendent of suoh impedimenta. "Some
women can get along without them
all the time; some of them can part
of the time, but most of them, none
of the time," Mr. Wellington said
in resume. He did admit that the.
style of corsets has changed for
the better and that women who
used to wear a "21" Wave now taken
to buying a "28." This is due, he
said, to the new style corset, which
is built on long, straight lines, and
noes, not pinch in . at the hips,
"Women do not pride themselves on
being small about the waist, as
they once did," he said. "The fad
that called for a diminutive waist
encouraged lacing and was injuri
ous to the health of women. We
corset dealers are glad that women
have graaduated from that notion
Business In San Francisco is not
yet back to normal. Our overhead
is still enormous. Where we paid
$60 a month before the war to our
packers we are' paying $150." While
in Portland Mr. Wellington is at tly:
Tho selling value of diamonds has
increased about 25 per cent in the
last three months and dealers in
this jewel are hoping for a still
greater increase, said Herman A.
Rolshoven of the firm F. Rolshoven
& Co., jewelers and diamond dealers
of Detroit, who "with his wife was
registered yesterday at the Multno
mah hotel. Tho firm whch Mr.
Rolshoven represents was estab
lished by his father in 1855 and Mr.
Rolshoven has been in the business
about 25 years.' Mr. Rolshoven has
seen many fluctuations in the dia
mond business in the past few years
and declares that the blue-white
American-cut stone, which sold at
$100 a carat 25 years ago, now
brings from $600 to $700. "An Amer
ican-cut Diamond is now considered
the world over the finest specimen
of workmanship," said Mr. Rol
shoven. He explained this by the
fact that an .American . cutter . does
not spare the stone to turn out a
perfectly cut diamond, while Euro
ptan cutters consider that the
larger they leav the stone the more
valuable it is.
Ranchers and cattlemen of east
ern Oregon are very optimistic con
cerning the outcome of the year, in
the opinion of Tom Boylen Jr., of
Pendleton, who with his wife, Eu
Ffffinfi Rnvlpn and Ted TCav HrovA intn
Portland yesterday and put up at
the imperial. Mr. Boylen is an. ex
tensive wheat rancher of Pendleton
and both ha and his father are
known all over the state for their
extensive interest This year is a
fairly good one for the eastern part
of the state In pite of the lack of
rain, he said, some sections showing
less shortage than, others. The re
cent rains practically extinguished
the forest fires, which have been
fewer and less disastrous than or
dinarily arid cattle are- still able to
find good, green pasturage on the
higher ranges, Mr. Boylen- stated.
The party came to. Portland for a
pleasure trip and plans to remain
for several days.
"George T. Collins, state president
of the Elks, spent yesterday in
Portland conferring with the gen
eral committee of that fraternity.
He registered at the Multnomah.
Mr. Collins is also one of the direct
ors of the Crarer Lake National
Park company. Crater lake is be
coming more popular every year,
Mr. Collins stated, and southeastern
Oregon is rapidly becoming a mecca
for tourists. All of southern Oregon
is experiencing an increase in tour
ist visitors, which Mr. Collins con
siders due to the greater attraction
of Oregon's national park. "I be
lieve in Crater lake and the national
park," said Mr. Collins, "and I am
looking forward to greater things
when more people realize what it is
we have here."
Mrs. J. Q. A. Daniels and son,
J. Q. A. Daniels, Jr., of 4 62. Mont
gomery drive, Portland, have ar
rived in New York after spending
the summer in Eugene, say dis
patches received here by friends at
the Portland hotel. Mrs. Daniels
and her son were passengers on the
White Star liner Adriatic on their
return. Mrs. Daniels will remain
in the east to visit with friends
in Buffalo and Albion, New York
but her son will come west at once
to enter Oregon Medical college.
Mr. and Mrs. L.. C. Harrison and
family, from Cincinnati, who are
traveling through the United States
on a tour of the national parks,
have arrived in Portland and are
at the Multnomah hotel. Mr. Har
rison is a banker and financier of
Cincinnati. The group made a trip
up the Columbia river highway
yesterday ahd declared the roads to
be among the best they had encoun
tered during their travels. .. From
Portland the visitors will go to
Rainer National park.
Dr. William H. Dale, a Eugene
physician, is spending a few days
in Pqrtland and is at the Multno
mah. Dr. Dale is well-known
throughout Oregon and until recent
ly practiced at Harrisburg, where
he had charge of a hospital. The
Harrisburg hospital is recognized as
one of the best small town hospitals
in the state and many people from
larger places go there because of
the advantages It affords as a place
for recuperation, due to the absence
of noise and bustle.
The run of fish will have to In
crease to a large degree within a
short time if the Oregon pack is to
reach normal this year, agree F. D.
Small, of Tillamook, and F. Kleven
husen, of AltoonvWash. Both men
are registered at the Oregon and
conferred on matters of business
when they met here. Mr. Kleven
husen is' an extensive dealer in fish
at Altoona and Mr. Small is inter
ested in canning and packing fish
both at Tillamook and in San Fran
cisco. E. O. McCoy, of The Dalles, and
George Crosfield, of 1 Wasco, 1 both
business men of theVr respective
towns, were in Portland yesterday
and were registered at the Multno
mah hotel. They are enroute by
automobile for Seaside where Mr.
McCoy maintains a summer home.
Mr. McCoy is vice-president of the
First National Tbank of The Dalles
and MV. Crosfield is a dealer in gen
eral merchandise in Wasco.
Another fire chief is in Portland
in the person of J. C. Loucks, of
Indianapolis, Ind., who with his wife
is visiting here for a few days be
fore going home. Mr. and Mrs.
Loucks have just come up from
California where they attended the
convention of. fire chiefs in San
Burroughs Nature Club.
Copyright. Houghton-Mifflin Co.
Can You Answer These Questions f j
1. Why Is horseradish called by j
that name? ,
2. Why do birds eat gravel, and
why doesn't It hurt their insides?
3. Are there any wild horses "left
in this country?
Answers in tomorrow s nature
Ansiwers to Previous Questions.
1. Does it do any harm to col
lect birds' eggs?
Yes, decidedly so, if any appre
ciable number of eggs are taken, as
this reduces the bird population dan
gerously. An historic lessoh on this
danger is the conspicuous crop fail
ure of 1861, in France, where about
100,000,000 bird-eggs were estimated
as eaten yearly. A government com
mission declared the losses In crops
were a direct result of the activities
of insects that worked unchecked
by the normal preying of birds.
2. Is the apricot a cross between
a peach'and a plum? ,
Not botanically; but many persons
get this wrong idea because the fla
vorand character of the- apricot
seem to ' combine features of both
fruits. It belongs to the same fam
ily. Amygdalaceae, plume, peaches,
almonds and apricots being different
genera of one family. The Chinese
knew the cultivated apricot long, be
fore the Christian era.
3. I would like to know what a
worm is found recently when cut
t'ng sod. About two inches long,
half an inch diameter, white, with
light brown head, and some tufts of
hair on its back.
Evidently a "white grub," the lar
val stage of some beetle, which of
course we can hardly identify with-
UU. t BCUIieil. 1 UIB Hluu UCVCIUI8
in tho ground, sometimes requiring
two years oeiore coming out a per
fect beetle. As a grub it is harmful
to grass lands, feeding on roots. So
far as is known, no chemical treat
ment of the sftl will oust them and
at the same time do no damage to
the soil for vegetation.
TWO -VIEWS OF PROHIBITION
Trick Suspected lu "Wine and Beer"
Cry Warning Seen in "Iodine."
PORTLAND, Aug 20. (To the
Editor.) I have carefully studied
prohibition since we voted for it in
Iowa in 1882. . I have supported it
chiefly because it will take politics
out- of the grog-shops, where the
lowest element of society are bought
and sold like sawlogs. There are
many of us in Portland today who
remember how the political boss
would distribute the purchase money
on election day. v (
There 'are many men, yes. and
women, too, that do not like the
present prohibition law. They hold
the law is too rigid. Many believe
that mild drinks should be allowed,
such as contain only a few per .cent
alcohol. All these people demand
wine and beer.
Now it is my conviction that there
is a mighty black nigger in that
woodpile. They mean beer and
wine, and if they can't get both they
will take beer. Wine is linked up
with beer to fool the careless. This
propaganda comes mostly from
breweries. We don't want beer, we
do not need it, for it will open up
the same political situation where
breweries control too much politics.
But wine can be made by any farm
er, or person who has an acre of
ground. There would be no monop
oly of the wine business.
Let those who desire to restore
wine drop the beer. The wine
drinker needs no beer. It is only
an artful trick of the beer-merf to
agitate for wine and beer.
- , ERNEST BARTON.
PORTLAND, Aug."' 20. (To the,
Editor.) I have just finished read
ing your editorial on -"My Brother's
Barkeeper," in which you remark
that the most Extraordinary phe
nomenon of the vote in the Literary
Digest is the attitude of Oregon on
prohibition. I returned from the
east only a short time ago and it
therefore doesn't appear extraordi
nary to me. The part that does
seem extraordinary is that the
editor of The Oregonian is as far
out of touch with the people as our
present congress is.
In your editorial of the following
day, in reference to Iodine in whis
ky,, it seems to me that you answer
yourself of the previous" day. The
drinking of the vile stuff We have
been compelled, to partake of, for
lack of money to buy better, is not
making prohibitionists of us, but
making the drysisee the necessity
of moderating the law to allow
lighter beverages. This is the only
way to fight the large army of men
getting rich breaking the laws sell
ing iodined whisky, etc.
Something will have to be done,
and that quickly, or the constitution
and general health of the people
will absolutely ruin the coming gen
eration. For you will admit that
thinking men, business men and the
day laborer need a stimulant occa
sionally, and regardless of the law,
they all take it. but of Inferior
grades. W. J. BISHOP.
SIMPLE PLAN TO SAVE LIVES
Cedur Planks, Conveniently Placed,
Suggested by Recent Experience.
VANCOUVER, Wash., Aug. 19.
(To the Editor.) The Oregonian
tells .of two more lives lost in the
surf at -Seaside. Two years ago I
was at Newport, Or. A good swim
mer was carried out far beyond the
surf and, the tide having turned to
ebb, he was unable to return to
shore. Two men with a three-Inch
fir board, one foot wide and nine
feet long, went to the swimmer's
assistance after he had repeatedly
called for help. He was greatly
exhausted, having been in the water
nearly an hour. He had swallowed
much water, but was soon resusci
tated. One of the rescuers explained
why they could return, while the
swimmer without tne ooara couia
not. He said that the swimmer's
body down in the water was car
ried out by the undertow, while
with proper manipulation the force
of the ' waves striking the boara
would tend to force It shoreward.
Thus, even after the tide was on
the ebb, these men swimming with
the aid of the plank were able to
Bave a drowning man.
The writer believes that many
lives might be saved if the plan
were adopted by beach resorts of
having cedar boards with hand holes
sawed in them placed on posts
along the beach where they could
be easily reached, in emergency.
The fact that the waves bring a
board ashore even on a receding
tide would appear to make it a
more efficient rescue agent man
Temperature of Ice.
WHEELER, Or., Aug.-19. (To the
Editor.) A claims that Ice cannot
eet below 3'2 degrees Fahrenheit.
B says that it can if the surround
ing temperature is below 32 de
grees, wnicn is rignir
s JUHN UAKittETT.
B is right.
More Truth Than Poetry.
lljr Jamei J. Montnsrue.
The Fable of the Katydid.
When robin, thrush and oriole
Were singing in the trets.
And music to delight the soul
Was borne on every breeze.
The katydid made not a sound. .
Though stirred by young ambi
tion. 4 Because he knew that all around
Was too much competition.
The song birds sang the summer
But still he sat there, dumb.
For in his canny heart h knew
His chance had not yet come.
He toiled, as every insect should.
Upon his own affairs.
For though his voice was pretty
It could not match with theirs.
But when the birds had stilled their
And to the South took wing
In order to conserve their throats
For still another spring.
He chirped a little roundelay
At first by dead of night
And presently, both night and day.
He sang with all his might.
And as his betters all had fled
To find another spring,
T"he folks that listened to him said-
"How nicely he can sing:"
you a wondering world would
With what you sing or say,
It's always best to wait until
The great are gone away!
They'll Learn Bettrr There.
Next time we have a plague of
pacifists we'll send them to Ireland.
It looks as if we'd soon be buy'ng
i - - - " v. v. w ..
I our coal, also, of the bootleggerB.
Hint for Tourlnts.
If you expect to do In Rome as do
the Romans, you'd better take a sti
letto along, with you.
In Other Days.
Fifty Yeara Ago.
Prom The Oregonian, August 2t, 1R72.
London. A dispatch from Dublin
states that there has been no cessa
tion in the rioting in Belfast. The
city is practically under martial
New York. Mace and O'Baldwin,
the prize fighters, left here last
night for some unknown place. .The
referees have not left yet. It is
thought that the .fight will come
off in a few days on the Canadian
side of Niagara falls.
The Mount Hood party which left
this city last Thursday returned
last , night. They were unable to
reach the summit on account of a
There are now confined in th
county jail 31 persons, 12 United
States and 19 state prisoners. At
no trme in the past has there been
Twenty-five Yeara Ago.
From The Oregonian, August 21. 1RST.
Clliicago. Wheat scored a sensa
tional advance in all the markets
of the world today, September sell
ing freely here at 96 cents.
St. Johns, N. F. A message from
Turnavick states that Lieutenant
Peary's expedition has touched
there and sailed on its way to
Greenland. All on board are re
R. F. Tappendorf, proprietor of the
Garfield hotel, faces a charge In
Justice McDevitt'a court. He Is
accused of dumping water on James
Sheridan, the small but pugnacious
The Madison bridge now has a
regular repair shop at Its east end,
where any break in the structure
can be repaired at once.
Piffle About Primary Law.
WARRENTON, Or., Aug. 19.(To
tho Editor.) Permit me to present
a strong (possibly rank) argument
in favor of the direct primary sys
tem in comparison with Its preiie
cefcsor. It will first be necessary
for me to admit the correctness of
tho statement made by the Polk
County Observer that "under the old
system there would have been no
such increase" of taxation. Does it
not then follow, "as the night the
day," that the thing nonexistent
then, dependent upon the Increase in
taxes, would be nonexistent now?
' In those "good old days" when the
beneficent bosses held undisputed
control, resulting on the nomination
of a Furnish and the election of a
Chamberlain, there was no great
state highway, and as that greatest
of all our assets has been one of the
principal causes of our increased
taxation Is it not on a parallel with
the Observer's logic to say that un
der the old pystem It never would
have been built?
Are. we "getting anywhere" by this
sort of piffle, and would it not be
better to drop it and try to unite on
such amendments to tho present law
as would seem just and possible
of attainment? E. H. FLAGJ.
Location of Colnnihlu.
PORTLAND. Aug. 20. (To the
Editor.) Please publish where Co
lombia Is where the buried city hss
been feujjd: If I ever knew I have
forgotten and find the younger peo
ple don't know. I have hunted tho
maps of Mexico and South America
and find it not. MRS. A. P.
Colombia Is in the extreme north
western corner of South America
and is the only South American
country bordering on both oceans.
It has an area of about 500,000
square miles, or a little more than
five times that of Oregon. It has
existed as a nation since 1819 and
will be . found on any worth while
map of South America.
Rainfall in September, 1020.
PORTLAND, Aug. 20. (To the
Editor.) Please Inform us through
your columns about the rainfall of
September, 1920. State date of first
rain of the month and number of
days during month that rain fell.
The first rainfall recorded by the
weather bureau in September, 1920
was a "trace" on the Sth of the
month; the first measurable amount
was '.20 of an Inch on the 9th. Rain
fall In measurable amount was re
corded for 14 days during the month.
Soldiers' Bonua in Texan.
HOOD RIVER. Or., Aug. 19. (To
the Editor.) Kindly advise me
whether the state of Texas Is allow
ing a soldiers' bonus, and if go, the
lines along which to proceed for
securing same, such as application
blanks, etc. The American Legion
and local newspapers here have no
information in their files regarding
that state. JAMEa' A. WADE.
Address Secretary of State, Aus
tin, Texas, and ask for "bonus appli
cation blanks if. they are available.